- gonna = is/am going to (do something). Example: I’m gonna call him now.
- wanna = want to. Example: I wanna speak to you.
- gotta = has/have got to (or have got). Example: I gotta go!
- ain’t = isn’t/haven’t/hasn’t. Example: He ain’t finished yet.; I ain’t seen him today.
- ya = you. Example: Do ya now what I mean?
- lemme = let me. Example: Lemme see… tomorrow’s a good time.
- gimme = give me. Example: Gimme your pencil
- kinda = kind of. Example: The baby’s kinda cute.
- whadd’ya = what do you… . Example: Whadd’ya mean, you don’t want to watch the game?
- whatcha (1) = what are you… . Example: Whatcha gonna do?
- whatcha (2) = what have you… . Example: Whatcha got there?
- shoulda = should have. Example: You shoulda done it!
Linking verb adalah kata kerja penghubung yang menghubungkan subjek dengan pelengkap yang menerangkannya. Linking verb juga dikenal dengan istilah ‘copulas’ atau ‘copular verb.’ Linking verb menyatakan suatu keadaan, bukan suatu aksi. Oleh karena itu, linking verb biasanya diikuti oleh adjective, bukan adverb.
Linking verb terbagi dalam 2 kelompok, yaitu:
- Verbs that are always linking verbs.
- Verbs that can be both action and linking verbs.
Berikut ini adalah linking verb yang selalu berfungsi sebagai linking verb:
- segala bentuk be (am, is, are, was, etc.)
Sementara itu, linking verb yang dapat berfungsi sebagai action verb dan linking verb:
subject + linking verb + information about the subject.
- “I am happy.”
- “She looks nice.”
- “The soup smells good.”
Lalu, bagaimana kita bisa mengetahui kapan suatu verb pada kalimat tertentu berfungsi sebagai linking verb atau action verb? Jika kita bisa mengganti verb tersebut dengan “is, am, are” dan artinya masih terdengar masuk akal, maka ia adalah linking verb. Jika setelah diganti, arti dari kalimat tersebut tidak terdengar masuk akal, maka ia berfungsi sebagai action verb. Contoh:
- “My dog Oreo felt the wet grass beneath her paws.”
- Is Oreo the wet grass? No. “Felt” di sini berfungsi sebagai action verb.
- “The chicken mushroom pizza smells heavenly.”
- The pizza is heavenly? Yes, definitely! “Smell” berfungsi sebagai linking verb.
- #EngTips: ‘Stay tuned’ vs. ‘stay tune’
- #EngTrivia: Adjectival phrase
- #EngClass: Subject complement
- #EngClass: Understanding the basics of English grammar
- #EngClass: Complement
DYK? Apa perbedaan antara “How do you do?” dan “How are you?”?
“How do you do?” is not a question. It is another very formal way of saying “Hello.”. It is also very British.
We only really use “How do you do?” the first time we meet someone.
The correct responses of “How do you do?” are “Pleased to meet you.” or “How do you do.” or just “Hello.”
What about “How are you?”?
“How are you?” is a question, but the person asking it does not really want to know the truth about your condition.
A polite response of “How are you?” is “I’m fine, thanks. And you?”
We know that English is a wonderful language. However, there are some weird English words that come from many other languages.
Have you ever heard of ‘erinaceous’? It means like a hedgehog.
Another word is ‘floccinaucinihilipilification’. It means estimation that something is valueless.
How about ‘selcouth’? It means unfamiliar, rare, strange, wonderful. Example: The List Universe is such a selcouth website!
We all know that the day before yesterday is ‘kemarin lusa’ in Indonesian. There is also one word for this sentence in English. It is ‘nudiustertian’.
There’s also ‘mungo’. Mungo is a dumpster diver – one who extracts valuable things from trash.
And last but not least, you can call a weak or foolish person ‘pronk’.
Compiled by at @EnglishTips4U on August 20, 2011
What are determiners actually? Those are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what the noun refers to. There are several classes of determiners.
For today’s lesson, we will discuss definite and indefinite articles: ‘the’, ‘a’, and ‘an’.
Let’s start with the definite article: ‘the’. ‘The’ can be used in many ways.
- To refer to something which has already been mentioned. Example: I just bought an umbrella. — Then you forgot and ask your friend: Where is the umbrella?
- When both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about. Example: Where is the bathroom? | It’s on the first floor.
- In sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object. Example: My house is the one with a red door.
- To refer to objects we regard as unique. Example: the sun, the moon, the world.
- Before superlatives and ordinal numbers. Example: the first page, the last chapter.
- With adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people. Example: the Indonesian.
- With names of geographical areas and oceans. Example: the Caribbean, the Sahara.
- With decades or groups of years. Example: She grew up in the eighties.
How about the indefinite articles: ‘a/ an’?
You can use ‘a’ with nouns starting with a consonant and use ‘an’ with nouns starting with a vowel. Example: a boy, an apple, a surgery, an officer.
However, there are some exceptions.
- You use ‘an’ before an ‘h’ mute: an hour, an honour.
- And you use ‘a’ before ‘u’ and ‘eu’ when they sound like ‘you’: a European, a university, a unit.
You can use the indefinite article in many ways too.
- To refer to something for the first time. Example: I’ve finally got a great job.
- To refer to a particular member of a group or class. Example: Mary is a doctor. She’s such a beautiful girl.
Don’t forget that there are some exceptions in using the definite article. There is no article for following situation.
- Names of countries (if singular). Example: He’s just returned from Indonesia.
- Names of languages. Example: Chinese is a pretty difficult language.
- Names of meals. Example: Dinner is in the evening.
- People’s names (if singular). Example: Andrew is my uncle. We’re having lunch with’ the’ Morgans tomorrow.
- Titles and names. Example: President Obama is going to Jakarta. ‘The’ Pope.
- After the ‘s possessive case. Example: His sister’s bag.
- Professions. Example: He’ll probably go into medicine.
- Names of shops. Example: I’ll get the card at Century.
- Years. Example: Do you remember 1998?
- Uncountable nouns. Example: War is destructive.
- Names of individual mountains, lakes, and islands. Example: Have you visited Lake Toba?
- Most names of towns, streets, stations, and airports. Example: She lives in Florence.
- Some fixed expressions. Example: by car, by train, on holiday, at work, in bed, etc.
Compiled by at @EnglishTips4U on August 19, 2011
- ‘Rhythm’ is the longest English word without a vowel.
- The word ‘queue’ is the only word in English language that is still pronounced the same way when the last 4 letters are removed.
- There are only 4 English words in common use ending in ‘-dous.’ They are hazardous, horrendous, stupendous, and tremendous.
- ‘Underground’ is the only word in the English language that begins and ends with the letters ‘und.’
- Only two English words in current use end in ‘-gry.’ They are ‘angry’ and ‘hungry.’
- Of all the words in the English language, the word ‘set’ has the most definitions.
- There are more than 125 English dialects worldwide: Each dialect uses English in its own way, from pronunciation to construction.
- #EngTrivia: Interesting English facts
- #EngTrivia: Some interesting facts
- #EngTrivia: English fun facts (3)
- #EngTrivia: English fun facts (5)
- #EngTrivia: Same word, different meanings in UK and US
- nonprogressive verb adalah verb yang tidak bisa digunakan dalam bentuk progressive (bentuk -ing).
- progressive verb adalah verb yang bisa digunakan dalam progressive (bentuk -ing).
Mengapa demikian? Karena nonprogressive menyatakan “existing state“ (keadaan yang ada) sementara progressive menyatakan “activity“ (kegiatan).
- “I love you.” (love = a state)
- “She is watching a movie.” (watching = an activity)
Ingat, yang dimaksud dengan “state” adalah kondisi yang ada dan tidak menjelaskan aktivitas yang sedang berlangsung.
Berikut ini adalah 5 kategori nonprogressive verbs yang umum digunakan:
- mental state (keadaan mental):
- “know,” “realize,” “understand,” “believe,” “think,” “feel,” “suppose,” “imagine,” “doubt,” “recognize,” “remember,” “forget,” “want,” “need,” “prefer,” “mean,” etc.
- emotional state (keadaan emosional):
- “love,” “like,” “appreciate,” “hate,” “dislike,” “fear,” “envy,” “mind,” “care,” etc.
- possession (kepemilikan):
- “possess,” “have,” “own,” “belong.”
- sense perceptions (persepsi indera):
- “taste,” “smell,” “hear,” “feel,” see.
- other existing states (jenis keadaan yang lain):
- “seem,” “look,” “appear,” “cost,” “owe,” “weigh,” “be,” “exist,” “consist of,” “contain,” “include.”
Selain nonprogressive verbs yang sudah pasti tadi, ada beberapa verb yang bisa digunakan sebagai nonprogressive maupun progressive, tetapi dengan arti yang berbeda. Contoh dari beberapa verb itu adalah:
- “think,” “have,” “taste,” “smell,” “feel,” “see,” “look,” “appear,” “weigh,” “be.”
Mari kita lihat perbedaannya dalam contoh:
- “I think grammar is easy.” (think = a state = nonprogressive)
- “I’m thinking about this lesson.” (thinking = an activity = progressive)
- It’s the beginning of eternity; the end of time and space; the beginning of every end; and the end of every place. What is it?
- Which letter is not me?
- The person who makes it, sells it. The person who buys it never uses it. The person who uses it doesn’t know they are. What is it?
- The more you have of it, the less you see. What is it?
- What kind of pet always stays on the floor?
- It is greater than God and more evil than the devil. The poor have it, the rich need it and if you eat it you’ll die. What is it?
- What letter of the alphabet has got lots of water?
- Forward I’m heavy, but backwards I’m not. What am I?
- What four letters frighten a thief?
- What is the word that everybody always says wrong?
- U (you)
- C (sea)
- O I C U (Oh I see you!)
Compiled by @EnglishTips4U on August 13, 2011
- “You never have to change anything you got up in the middle of the night to write.” ~ Saul Bellow
- “The scariest moment is always just before you start.” ~ Stephen King
- “Ideas are like rabbits. You get a couple and learn how to handle them, and pretty soon you have a dozen.” ~ John Steinbeck
- “Writing is a way of talking without being interrupted.” ~ Jules Renard
- “Fiction is the truth inside the lie.” ~ Truman Capote
Compiled by at @EnglishTips4U on August 13, 2011
The differences between British and American English are somehow interesting. A word can have different meanings. Here are some of the words that we found pretty funny.
- Bogey. Meaning:
- In UK: dried nasal mucus.
- In US: an unidentified aircraft, often assumed to be that of an enemy.
- Entrée. Meaning:
- In UK: starter of a meal.
- In US: main course of a meal.
- Fall. Meaning:
- In UK: to become pregnant.
- In US: autumn.
- First floor (of a building). Meaning:
- In UK: the floor above ground level.
- In US: the floor at ground level (sometimes).
- Intern. Meaning:
- In UK: replacement.
- In US: one temporarily employed for practical training.
- Redcap. Meaning:
- In UK: a military police officer.
- In US: a baggage porter (as at a train station).
- Through (time). Meaning:
- In UK: for a period of time, during.
- In US: up to, until.
- Mate. Meaning:
- In UK: friend.
- In US: spouse or partner.
Compiled and written by at @EnglishTips4U on Friday, August 12, 2011
- #EngTrivia: Grammar differences between British and American English
- #EngTips: Ejaan American English (AmE) vs Ejaan British English (BrE)
- #EngTrivia: British vs American English vocabulary
- #EngClass: British vs American English in Harry Potter books
- #EngClass: British English (2) – AmE vs BrE History + More Differences
In English, the active voice is more common than the passive voice, although the passive voice is acceptable and even preferred at times.
Here are the considerations on when we can use the passive voice in English:
- The passive voice is preferred when the actor is unknown or unimportant. e.g. “That building was built in 1894.” From this example we can see that people who built the building are unimportant and not mentioned. That is why the passive voice is preferred.
- The passive voice is often used when discussing history. e.g. “The war was fought over gold.”
- Remember to use the active voice when the actor is more important than the action. e.g. “The children ate spaghetti for dinner.”
- Avoid using active and passive in the same sentence if possible. e.g. “The flowers were planted and the trees were trimmed.”
- Use one verb instead of two when possible. e.g. “Lia enjoys good food and music.” (Not: Lia enjoys good food and music is also enjoyed by her.)
Maybe some of the following examples can help us to understand more about the use of the passive voice:
- AWKWARD: Workers built the pyramids about 5.000 years ago.
- BETTER: The pyramids were built about 5.000 years ago.
- AWKWARD: The house was bought by my parents in 1970.
- BETTER: My parents bought the house in 1970.
- AWKWARD: If you studied more, your test could be easily passed.
- BETTER: If you studied more, you could easily pass your test.
- AWKWARD: The light was turned on by me as I entered my bedroom.
- BETTER: I turned on the light as I entered my bedroom.
- AWKWARD: Bob plays the piano and the guitar is played by him also.
- BETTER: Bob plays piano and the guitar.
- “A loaded wagon makes no noise.” – Really wealthy people don’t talk about money.
- “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” – Working too hard and not taking the time to have fun is bad for you.
- “Hunger is a good sauce.” – All food tastes good when you are hungry.
- “However long the night, the dawn will break.” – Bad things don’t last forever.
- “An idle brain is the devil’s workshop.” – One who has nothing to do will be tempted to do many mischievous acts.
- “Faint heart never won fair lady.” – To succeed in life one must have the courage to pursue what he wants.
- “Strike while the iron is hot.” – Seize a good opportunity as quickly as possible.
- “Absence makes the heart grow fonder.” – One usually desires another more when he/she is far away.
- “Laugh and the world laughs with you.” – When someone is in a happy and cheerful mood, people like being with him.
- “He who hesitates is lost.” – If you delay your decision too long, you may miss a good opportunity.
- “A chicken and egg question.” – A mysterious question which can’t be answered.
- “Diligence is the mother of good fortune.” – Working hard will bring you riches and success.
- “Every man has his faults.” – No one is perfect.
- “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” – A small preventive treatment wards off serious problems.
- “An onion a day keeps everyone away.” – A humoristic version of “an apple a day…”. LOL :D
- “Haste makes waste.” – Things that are done in a hurry are usually done sloppily and may contain careless mistakes.
- “Old habits die hard.” – It is difficult to change a long-time habit.
- “Laughter is the shortest distance between two people.” – Laughter is the best way to break the ice between strangers/enemies.
- “What goes around, comes around.” – How you treat people is how you will eventually be treated.
A sentence is the major unit of grammar for language, especially in written form. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period or full-stop [.] or sometimes with a question mark [?] or a exclamation mark [!].
Still remember what a clause is, right? Simple sentence consists of one clause; and more than one clause in a complex sentence. There are four sentence types, they are:
- a statement
- “I like you.”
- “She didn’t know you’re here.”
- “We are happy it’s Ramadan again.”
- a question
- “Are you OK?”
- “Can you hear me?”
- “Did you call me when I was doing my homework?”
- an imperative
- “Open the door.”
- “Stop writing.”
- “Don’t cheat during the test.”
- “Eat a lot of vegetables.”
- an exclamation
- “What a great idea!”
- “Wow, that was awesome!”
- “How lucky you are!”
- #EngQuiz: Sentence error analysis
- #EngTips and #EngQuiz: Writing (2) – Sentences
- #EngClass: Conditional sentences
- #EngClass: Compound sentences
- #EngClass: sentences
Rules of the game:
- Choose the word that is NOT synonymous to the other words.
- Type the number of question as you answer.
- 1) like 2) cherish 3) enjoy 4) fancy 5) popular
- The ANSWER: 5) popular; not synonymous with 1) 2) 3) 4).
- a) corrupt b) degrade c) demoralize d) deprave e) disgrace
- a) beneficial b) useful c) advantageous d) resourceful e) valuable
- a) kind b) nice c) good d) refined e) pleasant
- a) choose b) prefer c) rather d) select e) pick
- a) fellowship b) mentor-ship c) brotherhood d) companionship e) comradeship
- a) want b) fond c) desire d) wish e) crave
- a) type b) behavior c) fashion d) manner e) way
- a) posses b) have c) lose d) hold e) own
- a) likely b) possible c) potential d) workable e) imaginary
- 10) a) merry b) enjoyable c) happy d) cheerful e) joyful
- e) disgrace
- d) resourceful
- a) kind
- c) rather
- b) mentor-ship
- b) fond
- a) type
- c) lose
- e) imaginary
- b) enjoyable
Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U August 4, 2011
DYK? A clause is the main structure of which a sentence is built.
A sentence contains of at least one main clause. It may also contain subordinate clause.
- A clause with 2 elements: “Annie (subject) cried (verb).”
- A clause with 3 elements: “I (subject) like (verb) pizza (object).”
A simple sentence is a sentence that has only one main clause. Example: “I like pizza.”
A complex sentence is made by joining clauses together by either subordination or coordination or both. Example: “I like pizza (main clause), but she doesn’t like it (subordinate clause).”
The simplest way to differentiate a sentence with a clause is through punctuation. A sentence always ends with (.) (?) (!).
Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U August 3, 2011
Adverb dalam Bahasa Indonesia disebut sebagai kata keterangan atau tambahan. Salah satu contoh adverb adalah kata “slowly” dalam kalimat “I walk slowly.”
Secara garis besar ada 2 fungsi utama adverb, yaitu:
Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah clause (klausa)
Informasi yang dimaksud adalah keterangan mengenai waktu atau tempat dari suatu tindakan. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai adverbial.
- “I walk slowly.”
- Adverb “slowly” menambahkan informasi pada klausa “I walk.“
Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah kata lain
Keterangan pada sebuah kata yang dimaksud adalah adjective (kata sifat) atau pun adverb lain. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai modifier.
- “Extremely slowly.”
- Adverb “extremely” menambahkan informasi pada adverb “slowly.“
Berdasarkan artinya, terdapat beberapa jenis adverb. Berikut ini adalah 5 jenis adverb yang paling umum digunakan beserta contohnya:
- Adverb of manner. Artinya: keterangan menunjukkan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan, seperti well, badly, how, quickly, slowly, hard, fast, etc.
- “He plays the piano well.”
- Adverb of place. Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan suatu tempat, misalnya up, there, here, above, upstairs, anywhere, somewhere, etc.
- “The book can be anywhere.”
- Adverb of time. Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan waktu, seperti then, now, soon, recently, afterwards, today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc
- “She will finish her homework soon.”
- Adverb of degree. Artinya: kata keterangan untuk menunjukkan tingkatan atau intensitas, seperti very, so, too, really, quite, much, extremely, etc.
- “I really love you.”
- Adverb of frequency. Artinya: keterangan yang menujukkan frekuensi atau seberapa sering sesuatu dilakukan, misalnya never, always, often, sometimes, generally, etc.
- “I always play football twice a week.”
Adverb dapat ditempatkan di depan, tengah, atau belakang dalam sebuah kalimat. Berikut ini adalah aturan peletakan dari masing-masing posisi adverb dalam sebuah kalimat:
- Untuk posisi di depan, letakkan adverb sebelum S (Subject) kalimat.
- “Usually I play football twice a week.”
- Untuk posisi di tengah, adverb dapat digunakan sesudah auxiliary yang pertama (be) atau sebelum verb (kata kerja).
- “She is never late.”
- Untuk posisi di belakang, adverb diletakkan pada akhir clause.
- “He plays the piano well.”
- #EngTrivia: Adverb vs. Adjective
- #EngClass: Adverbs of certainty
- #EngVocab: Adverbs of time
- #EngTrivia: Adverbial Phrase
- #EngClass: Adverbial clause
Kali ini kita akan membahas participial adjective. Apakah itu? Kalian pasti pernah mendengar kata “boring” dan “bored” kan?
Participial adjective adalah kata sifat yang diambil dari the past participle (-ed) dan the present participle (-ing).
Seringkali terdapat salah penggunaan antara the past participle dan the present participle dalam sebuah kalimat, seperti:
- “I’m interested in English.” | “I’m
- “English is interesting.” | “English is
Kata yang dibentuk dari the past participle (interested) menjelaskan apa yang dirasakan seseorang.
- “Saya tertarik dengan Bahasa Inggris.” -> “I’m interested in English.”
“interested” menjelaskan bagaimana perasaan saya terhadap Bahasa Inggris.
Kata yang terbentuk dari the present participle (interesting) menjelaskan penyebab dari perasaan tertarik pada ‘saya.’ Dalam contoh di atas, penyebabnya adalah ‘bahasa Inggris’ dan kata ‘interesting’ menjelaskan bahwa suatu hal (bahasa Inggris) itu menarik.
Untuk membuat kalimat dengan menggunakan participal adjective dapat aturan penulisan sebagai berikut:
S + be + adjective
- “I was surprised.”
- “The news was surprising.”
- #EngClass: Participial adjective
- #EngGame: Adjectives to describe a person
- #EngTrivia: Adverb vs. Adjective
- #EngVocab: Adjectives that describe personalities
- #EngClass: Order of Adjectives OSASCOMP
Do you like or have dogs? Apparently there are some English idioms that use the word ‘dog.’ Check them out and their meanings!
- Dog eat dog (in business, politics). Arti: situasi dengan persaingan yang kejam; orang bisa saling mencelakai untuk menang.
- “It’s a dog eat dog world.”
- A dog in the manger. Arti: seseorang yang menghentikan orang lain menikmati sesuatu yang tidak bisa dia gunakan atau tidak ia sukai.
- “Such a dog in the manger.”
- A dog’s breakfast/dinner. Artinya: kekacauan; sesuatu yang dikerjakan dengan buruk.
- “You have made a dog’s dinner out of this work.”
- A dog’s life. Artinya: hidup yang tidak bahagia; penuh dengan masalah dan perlakuan tidak adil.
- “I feel so depressed. It’s like living a dog’s life.”
- Let sleeping dogs lie. Artinya: jangan mencari kesulitan atau masalah.
- “Leave him alone. Let sleeping dogs lie.”
- Every dog has his/its day. Arti: tiap orang pasti pernah merasakan sukses dalam hidupnya.
- “I enjoy my life. I guess every dog has his day.”
- Rain cats and dogs. Arti: hujan yang sangat lebat.
- “I can barely go out the whole day. It’s been raining cats and dogs.”
- Give a dog a bad name. Arti: adalah sangat sulit untuk menghilangkan reputasi buruk.
- “Mind what you say. You already gave a dog a bad name.”
- Not have a dog’s chance. Arti: sama sekali tidak mempunyai kesempatan.
- “That’s too bad. We haven’t got a dog’s chance to win the game.”
- The tail wagging the dog. Arti: situasi dimana hal kecil pada suatu hal mengontrol hal besar di dalamnya.
- “It’s like the tail wagging the dog.”
- Can’t teach an old dog new tricks. Arti: kita tidak bisa sepenuhnya berhasil mengajak orang yang sudah tua mengubah ide atau cara kerjanya.
- “My uncle doesn’t understand how to use a computer, although I taught him multiple times. I guess, I can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”
- Go to the dogs. Arti: jatuh ke dalam keadaan yang buruk atau terpuruk.
- “The company has gone to the dogs since last year.”
- Treat somebody like a dog. Arti: memperlakukan seseorang tanpa rasa hormat sedikit pun.
- “He treats his workers like a dog.”
- #IOTW: Idioms with ‘Hand’
- #IOTW: Idioms with ‘Come’
- #IOTW: Idioms with ‘Heart’
- #IOTW: Idioms with ‘Penny’
- #IOTW: Idioms with ‘Peace’