#WOTD: Valorous

Hello, Fellas! How are you today? Isn’t today a lovely day since it’s weekend! Anyway, how’s your week so far? Mine is great because I finally got something I need in order to pursue my desired plan, or maybe you can say it my future.

Well, back to Englishtips4u session, this evening we are going to talk about a word called ‘valorous.’ Is there someone familiar with this word?

According to Merriam-webster dictionary, ‘valorous’ is an adjective with “brave” as a meaning. It is said that ‘valorous’ was originally derived from French ‘valeureux,’ but there is another statement that this word came from Latin ‘valorosus.’ In addition, there are some synonyms of ‘valorous,’ such as:

  • ‘bold,’
  • ‘dauntless,’
  • ‘valiant’ and
  • ‘courageous.’

Here are some example of the usage of ‘valorous’ in a sentence:

  • “I think someone who have courage to criticise our government is such valorous person.”
  • “He tackled the thief who was going to attack me with a knife. What a valorous act!”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, November 16, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun Clauses with ‘If’ or ‘Whether’

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn noun clauses beginning with if or whether. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a noun clause is a clause used as a subject or an object of a sentence.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

When a noun clause begins with if or whether, it means that the clause is changed from a yes/no question. There is no difference in meaning between noun clauses using if and whether. However, whether is more formal and if is more common in speaking.

Examples:

1. Yes/No Question: Will he go?
Noun Clause:
a) They know whether he will go.
b) They know if he will go.

2. Yes/No Question: Does she understand the lesson?
Noun Clause:
a) We wonder whether she understands the lesson.
b) We wonder if she understands the lesson.

The expression or not may be added in noun clauses.

Examples:

1. We wonder whether or not she understands the lesson.
2. We wonder whether she understands the lesson or not.
3. We wonder if she understands the lesson or not.
4. Whether she understands the lesson or not is unimportant to us.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 14, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Omitting If

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to discuss another form of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence typically comprises of a conditional clause (an if-clause) as well as a result clause. However, the sentence can also be made without using if.

(More on conditional sentences: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/06/04/engclass-conditional-sentences-revisit/)

To omit if in a conditional sentence, make sure that the if-clause contains should, were, or had (past perfect). After if is omitted, the subject and verb of the if-clause are inverted.

Examples:

  1. If you should need my help, please tell me.
    Should you need my help, please tell me.
  2. If I were you, I would buy the book.
    Were I you, I would buy the book.
  3. If they had prepared themselves better, they would have passed the test.
    Had they prepared themselves better, they would have passed the test.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 7, 2018

#EngTrivia: Commonly misspelled and missused vocabulary (2)

Hi, Fellas! Good evening and happy Friday! How’s your week so far? Well, in this evening I would to continue our session about  some vocabulary that are usually confusing due to similar letter arrangement. For you who missed the topic two weeks ago, you can read the article by following this link 

“Stationery” vs. “stationary”

Before I start explaining them, is there anyone know the difference of those words?

“Stationary means stability there is no change. While stationery means writing paper and everything related with write process.” – @al3ajalabead

“Stationery” is known as a noun, which means something that is used for writing, such as papers, pens, pencils, etc. Meanwhile, “stationary” is an adjective to refer something that is not moving. There are some similar words of “stationary” to make it clear, such as

  • “immobile,”
  • “static,” and
  • “motionless.”

Example:

  • “I am going to stationery shop to get some pencils.”
  • “Wall is a simple example of stationary material.”

“Principle” vs. “principal.”

“Principle” acts as a noun that means basic/fundamental belief or concept. On the other hand, “principal” can be either a noun or an adjective. As a noun, “principal” means an important person in an organisation, but as an adjective, this word means the most important.

EaEmple:

  • “I have a principle to not intervene my personal life with work.”
  • “Mr. Heidi is our school principal.”

“Affect” vs. “effect.”

“Affect” is a verb that means to give an impact to someone or something, while “effect” is the impact itself (noun).

Example:

  • “Deforestation affects the increase of global temperature.”
  • “Extinction of some species is one of the effects of global warming.”

source:

  • Merriam Webster

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, November 2, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Verbs + Gerunds/Infinitives

Hello, fellas. How is your first day in November? Let’s start this session with a question. Which one is correct: Lionel Messi began playing football since his childhood or Lionel Messi began to play football since his childhood?

Today we are going to discuss verbs and their objects, especially gerunds and infinitives. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, some verbs can come before gerunds or infinitives. However, the meaning can be similar or different.

1) No difference in meaning
begin, like, hate, start, love, can’t stand, continue, prefer, and can’t bear

Examples:
She began writing a book.
She began to write a book.

The two sentences carry no difference in their meaning. A gerund is usually used if the main verb is progressive, e.g.: She was beginning to write a book.

Note:
prefer + gerund: I prefer watching a movie to reading a book.
prefer + infinitives: I prefer to watch a movie than (to) read a book.

2) A difference in meaning
remember, forget, regret, and try

remember + gerund: remember or recall something that took place in the past
e.g.: He remembers going to the beach.

remember + infinitive: remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task
e.g.: He remembers to open the window.

forget + gerund: forget something that took place in the past
e.g.: They forget playing football together.

forget + infinitive: forget to perform responsibility, duty, or task
e.g.: They forget to pay the bills.

regret + gerund: regret something that took place in the past
e.g.: We regret watching the movie.

regret + infinitive: regret to say, to tell or inform someone of some bad news
e.g.: We regret to tell him about his failure.

try + gerund: experiment with a new or different approach to see if it works
e.g.: I try accessing the computer file.

try + infinitive: make an effort
e.g.: I try to understand trigonometry.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 31, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time (2)

Hello, fellas. On August 2, 2018, we learned how to reduce adverb clauses of time. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time: (1) omit the subject and be (if any); or (2) if there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form. However, there are still other ways of the reduction.

(More on reduced adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

If a sentence begins with an –ing form, it may be due to the reduction of an adverb clause of time using while, expressing the idea of “during the same time”.

Examples:

While I was walking to school, I witnessed a car accident.

Walking to school, I witnessed a car accident.

An adverb clause of time beginning with when can also be shortened to upon/on + -ing.

Examples:

When I finish my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

Upon finishing my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

On finishing my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, October 26, 2018

#EngVocab: Phrasal Verbs Related to Work (2)

Do you know phrasal verbs related to work?
Today we will learn more about phrasal verbs related to work.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/01/engvocab-phrasal-verbs-related-to-work/

Let’s start.

  • Call off.

Meaning: to decide that a planned event will not happen.
Example: “My boss decided to call off the meeting.”

  • Run by.

Meaning: tell someone about an idea or plan so that they can give you their opinion.
Example: “It would be better to run by the idea with your manager first.”

  • Fill in for.

Meaning: to do somebody’s job for a short time while they are not there.
Example: Can you fill in for me for a few minutes?”

  • Drum up.

Meaning: to get support or business through hard work and effort.
Example: “He was trying to drum up the project.”

  • Take on.

Meaning: to agree to be responsible for something.
Example: “Don’t take on more than you can handle.”

  • Burn out.

Meaning: to become very phisically and emotionally tired by working too hard over a period of time.
Example: “Stop doing this high pressure job. You could burn out young.”

  • Draw up.

Meaning: prepare something in writing, especially an official document.
Example: “Both companies agree to draw up the contract.”

  • Knock off (informal).

Meaning: to leave work at the end of the day or stop working for a short break.
Example: “Do you want to knock off early today?”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 7, 2018.

#EngTrivia: Commonly missused and misspelled vocabulary

Hi, Fellas! Good evening and happy Friday! How’s your week so far? I hope you experienced something great! Well, in this evening I would share some vocabulary that are usually confusing because most of them have almost similar letter arrangement or typography if I’m not mistaken.

“A lot” vs. “alot.”

Before I start explaining them, is there anyone know the the meaning of each of them and how we should use it?

“Not so good at explaining, but here’s my shot. “A lot” is for a particular ‘bunch’ of items. Eg: There’s a lot of books for A there, a lot of pencils for B here.” – @educareer_jp 

It is generally known that “a lot” can act as a pronoun or an adverb, which means many/pleunty.  Meanwhile, “allot” is verb, which means to distribute or to assign. There are some words that are related to “allot,” they are “allocate,” “administer,” “hand out,” etc.

Example:

  • “We have a lot of problem to deal with.”
  • “You are alloted 20 minutes to present your research findings.”

“Awhile” vs. “a while.”

Both “a while” and “awhile” means “a short period of time.” However, each of them have a different role in a sentence. “Awhile” acts as an adverb that explain something happens in a short time. On the other hand, “a while” is a noun phrase.

Example:

  • “I think I’m going to stay here awhile.”
  • “Pasta will be ready in a while.”

“Desert” vs. “dessert.”

“Desert” means to abandon/to leave something (verb), while “dessert” is food that usually served after meal and generally it’s sweet (noun).

Example:

  • “This town is very quiet it’s looked like deserted place.”
  • “I want cheese cake as my dessert.”

source:

  • Merriam Webster
  • Grammarly

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, October 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressing Necessity using ‘Have Got To’

Hello, fellas. In English, necessity can be expressed using must, have to, and have got to. For the use of must and have to has ever been discussed, this session is going to focus on that of have got to.

(More on the use of must and have to: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/09/grammartrivia-the-use-of-must-and-have-to/)

Even though have got to also carries the meaning of necessity, it is more typical to use have got to in spoken and informal English.

Examples:

1) I have got to take the IELTS test.

2) She has got to study hard.

In speech, have got to is usually pronounced gotta and have is omitted.

Example:

We gotta go to the bank.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 17, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressing Cause and Effect with “Such…That” and “So…That”

Hello, fellas. Our session today is about other ways of expressing cause and effect relationship. Usually it is introduced by prepositions, like because of and due to, or conjunctions, such as because.

(More on cause and effect: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/10/engclass-because-for-since-as-because-of-due-to/)

However, we can use the following constructions to show cause and effect.

1) Such…that
Such…that is used with a modified noun. The pattern is:
such + adjective + noun + that
Examples:
1. It was such a sunny day that we went to the beach.
2. She wrote such interesting books that everyone wanted to read them.

2) So…that
An adjective or adverb is enclosed by so…that. The pattern is:
so + adjective/adverb + that
Examples:
1. The day was so sunny that we went to beach.
2. Luka Modric performed so well that he was named as the best player.

So…that can also be used with expressions of quantity: many, few, much, and little.
Examples:
1. They had so little water that we could not take a bath.
2. She wrote so many books that she was awarded a prize.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Michael A. Pyle and Mary Ellen Muñoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, October 11, 2018

#EngVocab: British vs. American vocabulary (2)

Hi, Fellas! Good evening. How are you today? In this session I would like to continue the topic of some differences on British and American vocabulary. 

  1. BrE: ‘flashlight’ vs. AmE; ‘torch.’
    • Example,
      • “Do you have a torch?”
      • “Do you have a flashlight?”
  2. BrE: ‘underground. vs. AmE: ‘subway.’
    • Example:
      • “Do you know which underground I should take to go to city’s library?”
      • “Do you know which subway I should take to go to city’s library?”
  3. BrE: ‘post’ vs. AmE: ‘mail.’
    • Example:
      • “You got a post from your mother.”
      • “You got a mail from your mother.”
  4. BrE: ‘trainers’ vs. AmE: ‘sneakers.’
    • Example:
      • “Where did you put my trainers?”
      • “Where did you put my sneakers?”
  5. BrE: ‘windscreen.’ vs. AmE: ‘windshield.’ 
    • Example:
      • “I think the windscreens are broken.”
      • “I think the windshields are broken.”
  6. BrE: ‘rubber’ vs. AmE: ‘eraser.’
    • Example:
      • “May I borrow your rubber?”
      • “May I borrow your eraser?”
  7. BrE: ‘courgette’ vs. AmE: ‘zucchini.’
    • Example:
      • “I think I’ll have baked courgette as side dish.”
      • “I think I’ll have baked zucchini as side dish.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, October 5, 2018

#EngVocab: ‘The Same’, ‘Similar’, ‘Like’, and ‘Alike’

Hello, fellas. Our session today is about some vocabularies with similar meaning – the same, similar, like, and alike – and how to use them in a sentence.

The same and similar are adjectives. However, same is always preceded by the.

Examples:

1) Jane and Mary have the same personalities.

2) Jane and Mary have similar personalities.

3) Their personalities are the same.

4) Their personalities are similar.

The other difference between the same and similar lies in the prepositions following them. As comes after the same, while to follows similar.

Examples:

1) Your smartphone is the same as mine.

2) Your smartphone is similar to mine.

There may be a noun between the same and as.

Example:

Jane is the same age as Mary.

There is a slight difference between like and alike. Like precedes a noun, but alike never comes before a noun.

Examples:

1) The house looks like a palace.

2) The two sisters are alike.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, September 28, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: ‘You’, ‘One’, and ‘They’ as Impersonal Pronouns

Hello, fellas. How is it going in the end of September? Our session today is about impersonal pronouns.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a pronoun refers to a noun. The noun it replaces is called the antecedent. Based on their antecedents, pronouns are divided into two categories: singular pronouns and plural pronouns. A singular pronoun refers to a singular noun. On the other hand, the antecedent of a plural pronoun is a plural noun.

Sometimes, pronouns are used to refer to no antecedent. They are called impersonal pronouns. There are three impersonal pronouns: you, one, and they. You and one carry the same meaning as they refer to “any person, people in general”. However, you is less formal than one and more common in everyday English.

Examples:

1) You should pay to attention to the announcement. (informal)

2) One should pay to attention to the announcement. (formal)

As an impersonal pronoun, they means “some people or somebody” in spoken English. However, the antecedent is implied or not stated.

Example:

Why did Ann lose her job?

They fired her.

On the sentence above, they refers to the people for whom Ann worked.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, September 29, 2018

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Big’

Do you know other words to say ‘big’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘big’.

Let’s start.

  • Colossal: extraordinarily great in size, extent, or degree.

E.g. “The owner was asking for a colossal amount of money for the house.”

  • Burly: large and strong; heavily built (of a person).

E.g. “A burly figure came towards him from across the road.”

  • Tremendous: very great in amount, scale, or intensity.

E.g. “We went to a tremendous party.”

  • Massive: large and heavy or solid.

E.g. “Eight massive stone pillars supported the roof.”

  • Strapping: healthy, big, and strong (especially of young person).

E.g. “My aunt remembered my brother as a strapping youth with a big appetite.”

  • Hefty: large in amount, size, force, etc.

E.g. “The film contains a hefty dose of comedy.”

  • Ample: more than enough; plentiful.

E.g. “You will have ample opportunity to ask questions after the presentation.”

  • Immense: marked by greatness especially in size or degree.

E.g. “The immense pressure causes the rock to fracture.”

  • Humongous: very huge (informal American slang).

E.g. “They have a humongous dog.”

  • Vast: very spacious or large; of great extent.

E.g. “Vast areas of land have become desert.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, September 9, 2018.

#EngVocab: British vs American vocabulary

Hi, Fellas! Good evening. How are your days? In this session I would like to share some differences on British and American vocabulary. #

  1. BrE: ‘flat’ vs. AmE: ‘apartment.’
    • Example:
      • “I love your new flat.”
      • “I love your new apartment.”
  2. BrE: ‘ground floor’ vs. AmE: ‘first floor.’ 
    • Example:
      • “We will meet at Starbuck on the ground floor.”
      • “We will meet at Starbuck on the first floor.”
  3. BrE: ‘mobile phone’ vs. AmE: ‘cell phone.’
    • Example:
      • “I lost my mobile phone.”
      • “I lost my cell phone.”
  4. BrE: ‘chemist’s’ vs. AmE: ‘drugstore’ or ‘pharmacy.’
    • Example:
      • “I work at the chemist’s in Fifth Avenue.”
      • “I work at the drugstore in Fifth Avenue.”
  5. BrE: ‘timetable’ vs. AmE: ‘schedule.’
    • Example:
      • “Our class timetable is packed for the next two days.”
      • “Our class schedule is packed for the next two days.”
  6. BrE: ‘nappy’ vs. AmE: ‘diaper.’
    • Example:
      • “We need extra nappies for the baby.”
      • “We need extra diapers for the baby.”
  7. BrE: ‘loo,’ vs. AmE: ‘restroom/bathroom.’
    • example:
      • “I need to use the loo.”
      • “I need to use the restroom.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, September 21, 2018

 

#GrammarTrivia: Am/Is/Are Being + Adjective

Hello, fellas. Can you guess the differences between these two sentences: Tom is funny and Tom is being funny? One difference lies in the tense used in them. The first sentence uses simple present tense, while the second is written in present progressive tense. Due to the different tenses, the meaning they carry is not similar either.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the use of simple present tense shows that an event or a situation exists in the past, present, and future. On the other hand, present progressive tense means that an event or a situation started in the past, is in progress when it is being said, and will probably end in the future.

(More on simple present tense and present progressive tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/09/engclass-simple-present-tense-positive/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/16/engclass-present-progressive-tense-positive/)

Present progressive tense may also be used with an adjective. The pattern is am/is/are being + adjective. It expresses someone’s temporary and uncharacteristic behaviour. However, only some adjectives can be used with such pattern: bad (ill-behaved), careful, cruel, fair, foolish, funny, generous, good (well-behaved), illogical, impolite, irresponsible, kind, lazy, logical, loud, nice, noisy, patient, pleasant, polite, quiet, responsible, rude, serious, silly, unfair, unkind, and unpleasant.

Based on the explanation above, in the first sentence Tom is known to be a funny person on a daily basis. On the contrary, as described by the second sentence, funny is not his characteristic.

Other examples:

1) Bill is generous.
This sentence means that generosity is Bill’s characteristic behaviour.

2) Bill is being generous.
In this example, Bill is said not to be generous in his daily life.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, September 20, 2018

#WOTD: Wanderlust

Hi, Fellas! Good evening. How’s your days? I hope you experienced something great! In this session I would like to talk about ‘wanderlust.’ Have you heard about it?

“I’ve heard about it. But i never know what it means,” – @angelccxo 

“Wanderlust = a desire to travel,” – @Aldo_Bandan 

I saw ‘wanderlust’ as a novel title in Wattpad beforehand. This word sounds nice, doesn’t it? ‘Wanderlust’ is a noun that has a meaning as a strong feeling to wander/travel.  Merriam-Webster Dictionary states that this word was form from a German, “wandern,” and “lust.”

Unfortunately, there is no any related word or synonym of “wanderlust” right now. #WOTD Finally, here are some example on using ‘wanderlust’ in a sentence:

  • “Wanderlust has led her to Paris.”
  • ‘I sometimes get annoyed by Ana because of her uncontrollable wanderlust.’

source:

Merriam Webster Dictionary

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, September 14, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Using ‘Since’ and ‘For’ in Present Perfect Tense

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn about time signals frequently used in present perfect tense. They are since and for.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, present perfect tense mainly consists of have/has + past participle. It shows that an event occurred or never occurred before now. The time when the event took place is not important.

(More on present perfect tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/13/engclass-present-perfect-tense-vs-simple-past-tense/)

However, present perfect tense carries different meaning when since or for is used. Present perfect tense with since or for means that something happened in the past and continues to the present.

There is a difference between since and for. Since is followed by a particular time, while for precedes a duration of time.

Examples:

1) Indonesia has existed since 1945.

2) The students have played football for an hour.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Indonesia's first and only Twitter-based English learning portal