#EngTips: Numbers and Percentages in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. How is it going? Today we will talk about IELTS Writing Task 1. As we know, we must usually write an article based on data given in the test. Due to the fact that the data are expressed in numbers or percentages, it is essential that we know other ways of expressing them.

1) Fractions

Sometimes, data in IELTS Writing Task 1 are expressed in percentages. To avoid repetition, percentages can be replaced by fractions.

75%= three quarters

67%= two thirds

50%= a half

33%= a third

25%= a quarter

20%= a fifth

e.g.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only 20% was allocated on education.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only a fifth was allocated on education.

If the percentage is, for example 51% or 23%, we can use approximations (approximately, around, almost, about, nearly, just above/over, just below/under, a little/slightly more than or a little/slightly less than)

e.g.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to 31% in 2004.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to just below a third in 2004.

2) Comparisons using half, twice, three times etc. with as many/much…as

e.g.

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won 32 gold medals, while Japan won 16 gold medals

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won twice as many gold medals as Japan. 

3) double, treble, quadruple etc.

e.g.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it rose to 60 in 1998.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it trebled four years later.

4) twofold, threefold etc.

e.g.

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it increased to 45%

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it saw a threefold increase

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: Graph Review (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#WOTD: Roseate

Hi, Fellas!! Happy Eid al-Fitr for those who celebrate it. Happy holiday for those who in a vacation. How was your day anyway?

This evening I would like to talk about the word “roseate.” This word came from Latin, “roseus,” and it was adapted and known as an English word in 15th century. “Roseate” acts an adjective, which means pink or a color that resembles a rose.

  • Example
    • “I love the roseate cardigan.”

On the other hand, “roseate” also mean optimistic. In this matter, there are some words that are related to “roseate,” such as “confident,” “doubtless,” “assuring,” etc.

  • Example:
    • “Where’s my roseate Emma? I am sure you will pass the test.”

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, June 16, 2018

#EngKnowledge: Noah Webster

Fellas, do you know why Americans use honor instead of honour, color instead of colour and center instead of centre? The spelling stems from the work of one of the most influential figures in the development of American English, Noah Webster.

Noah Webster Jr. was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, on October 16, 1758. His father, Noah Webster Sr., was a descendant of John Webster, the Connecticut Governor. His mother, Mercy Steele Webster, was a descendant of William Bradford, the Plymouth County Governor.

Despite being well known for his work in the field of language, Webster studied at Yale Law School. His study began in 1774. Due to serving in the American Revolution, he was graduated four years later. Having been unable to find a work as a lawyer, he finally taught in a school in Goshen, New York.

While teaching, he was dissatisfied inasmuch as texts for children did not reflect the American culture. He said, “Let us then seize the present moment, and establish a national language, as well as a national government”. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. Webster argued that Americans should simplify their spelling by matching letters more closely with phonemes. He expected to standardize American English for Americans spelled, pronounced and used English words differently.

Webster’s most famous masterpiece, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was published in two volumes in 1828 and contained 70,000 entries. It took 18 years to complete the dictionary. In order to know the origin of words, he learned 26 languages, including Old English, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit. It sold more copies than any English book, except the Bible. Later, George and Charles Merriam purchased the right to publish the dictionary and it became what we know today as the Merriam-Webster dictionary.

Sources:
Wikipedia, Noah Webster, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_Webster
Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Noah Webster, https://www.britannica.com/print/article/638653
Elyse Graham, Noah Webster, American identity, and the simplified spelling movement, https://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2018/05/07/noah-webster-american-identity-simplified-spelling-movement/
Garden of Praise, Noah Webster, https://gardenofpraise.com/ibdnoahw.htm
The Atlantic, Noah Webster, Father of the American Dictionary, Was Unemployable, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/10/noah-webster-father-american-dictionary-was-unemployable/322508/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 21, 2018

#EngClass: Blending Words (2)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/

A blending word is a word that is made up of parts of other words that are combined to form a new word with a new meaning.
Usually ‘blending words’ are made by joining the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Blending words can also be called portmanteau words.

Here are some examples of blending words:

  1. Blog (web + log).

Meaning: a regularly updated website or web page, usually run by an individual or small group, containing a writer’s or group of writers’ own experiences, observations, opinions, etc.

  1. Brunch (breakfast + lunch).
    Meaning: a late morning meal eaten at a time between breakfast and lunch, replacing the two meals with one instead.

  2. Cyborg (cybernetic + organism).
    Meaning: a fictional or hypothetical human being with physical abilities that are beyond a normal human because mechanical elements have been built into the body.

  3. Frenemy (friend + enemy).
    Meaning: a person who is a friend even though there is an underlying dislike or rivalry in the relationship.

  4. Glamping (glamorous + camping).
    Meaning: luxury camping or glamprous camping, involving accommodation and facilities more luxurious than traditional camping.

  5. Humongous (huge + monstrous).
    Meaning: very big, both of these words mean large so putting the two words together indicates that something is extremely big.

  6. Internet (international + network).
    Meaning: the global communication network that allows computers around the world to connect and share information.

  7. Mocktail (mock + cocktail).
    Meaning: a cocktail that has no alcohol in it, consisting of a mixture of fruit juices or other soft drinks.

  8. Spanglish (Spanish + English).
    Meaning: a mix of words and idioms from both Spanish and English, often used by people who know both languages well.

  9. Spork (spoon + fork).
    Meaning: an eating utensil that is shaped like both a spoon and fork, often has a rounded spoon shape with short prongs at the end like a fork.

  10. Staycation (stay + vacation).
    Meaning: a budget-friendly alternative to a vacation in which people stay at home during their time off from work.

  11. Affluenza (affluence + influenza).
    Meaning: the guilt or lack of motivation experienced by people who have made or inherited large amounts of money.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, June 17, 2018.

#EngGrammar: Other Forms of the Passive

Hi fellas, how is life today? This article is still related to other articles about the passive. Perhaps, you already know that the most common form of the passive is be + past participle. However, there are other forms of the passive.

1) Reporting with Passive Verbs
With reporting verbs and verbs of thinking or feeling we can use
it + passive verb + that
e.g. It is said that filmmaking is a lucrative industry.
subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
e.g. Filmmaking is said to be a lucrative industry.

2) need + -ing
need + -ing is sometimes used as an alternative to the passive to without stating who does it.
e.g. Some houses need reconstructing after an earthquake occurred.

3) have/get + object + past participle
The past participle is used after have/get and the object to give a passive meaning.
e.g. I had my watch repaired.
       I got my watch repaired.
In the two examples above, I caused my watch to repaired by someone.

Sources:
•Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers
• Fiona Aish and Jo Tomlinson, Collins English for Exams: Grammar for IELTS
• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, June 8, 2018

#EngClass: Conditional Sentences (REVISIT)

man riding bicycle on city street
Photo by Snapwire on Pexels.com

Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’

Example:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”

“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.

There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.

Zero Conditional Sentences
Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)

E.g.:
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).

 

First Conditional Sentences
First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).

E.g.:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).

 

Second Conditional Sentences
Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).

E.g.:
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).

 

Third Conditional Sentences
Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:

If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).

E.g.:
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).

 

Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily).
A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).

Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF).
A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.

Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista).
A: Bisa. Bentuk  kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’

Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300).
A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 4 June, 2018.


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#ENGGRAMMAR: ADVISABILITY

Fellas, what do we need when we do not know what to do or how to act in a particular situation? It is an advice. Today, we are going to learn the use of modals of advice.

1) Should

e.g.: You should come early.

Negative form: should not

e.g.: You should not work until midnight.

2) Ought to

Ought to is often pronounced “otta” in informal speaking. It is usually not used in the negative and questions.

e.g.: We ought to wait for the rain to stop.

3) Had better

Had better is usually stronger than should and ought to and implies a warning about possible bad consequences.

Notes on the use of had better:

• It has a present or future meaning.

• It is followed by the simple form of a verb.

• It is more common in speaking than writing.

e.g.: You had better consume less sugar.

Negative form: had better not

e.g.: You had better not eat spicy food.

Source:

• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar

• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 31, 2018

#EngVocab: Phrasal verbs related to work

Hi, Fellas happy Friday night! How’s your work this week anyway? This evening I would like to share some phrasal verbs related to work.

  1. “Carry out.” Meaning: doing a particular work, such as research, teaching, etc.
    • Example:
      • “The presentation will be carried out by Martin.”
  2. “Take over.” Meaning: to take a control of something.
    • Example:
      • “The X company is going to take over our project in East Borneo.”
  3. “Lay off.” Meaning: to end someone’s employment; to fire someone.
    • Example:
      • “Due to decreasing financial performance, the company would consider to lay some workers off.”
  4. “Knuckle down.” Meaning: to start working hard.
    • Example:
      • “Since I finally got a manager position, I am going to knuckle it down.”
  5. “Hand in.” Meaning: giving someone an authority.
    • Example:
      • “Since Mr. Jacob has an emergency, he handed his works in to me for a while.”
  6. “Back up.” Meaning: giving a support or help.
    • Example
      • “Hey Liz, Ms. Catherine suddenly ask for my presence, would you mind if you back me up in the front desk for a while?
  7. “Sign up.” Meaning: accepting to do something or to join an organisation. On the other hand, it also mean to officially register someone on (something), such as project, etc.
    • Example:
      • “Sometimes I hate my boss because he usually sign me up on a project without my consent.”
  8. “Team up.” Meaning: to join a group or someone.
    • Example:
      • “Marketing and Sales Division generally teamed up in a company.”
  9. “Slack off.” Meaning: to work less hard/necessary.
    • Example:
      • “My job is monotonous and it leads me to slack it off.”
  10. “Sell off.” Meaning: to sell the products quickly and with a low price. I think we can say it as a (garage) sale, too.
    • Example:
      • “On the end of the year most fashion company will sell off their items.”

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, June 1, 2018

#EngQuote: Peace

Fellas, this week we see something unique happening in Indonesia. Tomorrow, Buddhist will celebrate Vesak. On Wednesday, our Hindu-Balinese fellas will celebrate a 10-day festival called Galungan. It just so happens that this year, both celebrations are held in the middle of the holy month, Ramadan.

The synergy would only be possible by tirelessly promoting the values of peace and tolerance. With peace, we can live our life and conduct our affairs at ease. With tolerance, we need not be afraid of being a part of certain beliefs. Therefore, I’d like to share quotes related to peace by famous public figures and leaders of the world, to remind us once again that peace is something we have to continuously work on.

affection blur buddha buddhism
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

“If the human race wishes to have a prolonged and indefinite period of material prosperity, they have only got to behave in a peaceful and helpful way toward one another.” – Winston Churchill.

“Those who love peace must learn to organize as effectively as those who love war.” – Martin Luther King, Jr.

“Peace cannot be kept by force; it can only be achieved by understanding.” – Albert Einstein.

“If you want to make peace with your enemy, you have to work with your enemy. Then he becomes your partner.” – Nelson Mandela.

“It isn’t enough to talk about peace. One must believe in it. And it isn’t enough to believe in it. One must work at it.” – Eleanor Roosevelt.

“Whoever values peace of mind and the health of the soul will live the best of all possible lives.” – Marcus Aurelius.

“Peace begins with a smile.” – Mother Teresa.

“If you cannot find peace within yourself, you will never find it anywhere else.” – Marvin Gaye.

“Peace does not mean an absence of conflicts; differences will always be there. Peace means solving these differences through peaceful means; through dialogue, education, knowledge; and through humane ways.” – Dalai Lama XIV.

“Peace comes from within. Do not seek it without.” – Gautama Buddha.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 28 May, 2018.


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#EngTips: Paraphrasing

Hi, Fellas. How is it going? Today’s discussion is about one important element of writing. It is paraphrasing. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “paraphrase” means “to say (something that someone else has said or written) using different words”. It is essential that we understand paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism and prepare for IELTS test.

There are several methods of paraphrasing. Here they are:

Using Synonyms

This is probably the most commonly used method. Words can be replaced by their synonyms with no change in meaning. Remember, you do not need to change all words in a sentence.

e.g.:

  • Parents should teach their children to cooperate.
  • Parents should educate their kids to collaborate.

Changing Active Voice into Passive Voice, or Vice Versa

This method cannot be used for all kinds of sentences because only transitive sentences (sentences containing objects) can be changed into passive voice.

e.g.:

  • Deforestation causes global warming. (active voice)
  • Global warming is caused by deforestation. (passive voice)

Nominalization

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, nominalization is “the process of making a noun from a verb or adjective”.

e.g.:

  • The price of oil rises. [rise (verb)]
  • There is a rise in the price of oil. [rise (noun)]

Incorporating Data

This is a method of paraphrasing related to numbers.

e.g.:

  • From 1990 to 2000, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.
  • In ten years, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.
  • In a decade, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.

Adding Information

To paraphrase using this approach, it is better for you to add information which has already become general knowledge.

e.g.:

  • Many Indonesian scholars study in London, Paris, and Berlin.
  • Many Indonesian scholars study in European cities.

Joining Sentences Using Conjunction

Conjunction is a part of speech connecting words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, for instance: and, but, because, although, etc.

e.g.:

  • Students learn English. They want to pursue their education abroad.
  • Students learn English because they want to pursue their education abroad.

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 24, 2018

#EngKnowledge: Duke and Duchess of Sussex Royal Wedding Trivia

Meghan-Harry engagement.jpg
Official engagement picture of Duke and Duchess of Sussex by photographer Alexi Lubomirski (Harper’s Bazaar).

Saturday, 19 May 2018, saw the wedding of Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle, who were designed the Duke and Duchess of Sussex shortly before the ceremony started. Here are the facts of the 2018 Royal Wedding:

  1. Although there was no set protocol, a royal wedding of the British royal family has always happened on a weekday. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex opted for a weekend wedding to allow as many people as possible to celebrate the occasion.
  2. Having come from a biracial background, the Duchess of Sussex has been considered by many to make the British monarchy more accessible and diverse.
  3. The Duchess has also been involved in numerous charitable works, including issues on equality and women’s health.
  4. Photographer Alexi Lubomirski, who captured the Duke and Duchess’ official engagement pictures, was selected to cover the wedding.
  5. American Bishop Michael Curry captured the world’s attention with a long and powerful address. The Chicago-born bishop spoke passionately about the power of love, quoting Dr Martin Luther King Jr.
  6. The Duke and Duchess’ wedding song, Ben E King’s classic ‘Stand by Me,’ was performed during the ceremony by Karen Gibson and the Kingdom Choir.
  7. Also performing was Sheku Kanneh-Mason. The 19-year-old cellist, who was dubbed BBC’s Young Musician of the Year in 2016, performed 3 songs.
  8. Clare Waight Keller from Givenchy was the designer of the Duchess’ wedding dress. The dress was also complemented by a veil which had flowers from 53 Commonwealth nations embroidered on it.
  9. The Duchess paid tribute to the late Princess Diana by including forget-me-not, Princess Diana’s favourite flower, in her wedding bouquet. The bouquet also contained flowers hand-picked by the Duke from Kensington Palace.
  10. The Duchess of Sussex has followed tradition of placing her wedding bouquet on the tomb of the unknown warrior at Westminster Abbey. The tradition was started by Queen Mother (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) the day after her wedding to future King George VI.

Those are #RoyalWedding trivia that I can share with you, fellas.

Source: The Sun, ABC Australia, CBC Canada, BBC, The Telegraph, and Harper’s Bazaar.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 21 May, 2018.


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#GrammarTrivia: Possessives with Gerunds

adolescent blur child close up
“I love you singing” or “I love your singing?” Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

 

We all have that one friend who sings beautifully, albeit never considering singing as a professional career. What should we say to compliment him/her? Do we say, “I love you singing,” or do we say, “I love your singing?” Which one is correct, fellas?

@ghaniginanjar: The second one. I love your singing.

@KushalRJoshi: Second one?

@endang_yl: I love your singing.

@XxKit_kat: The 2nd one ‘I love your singing’ = ‘I love the sound of your voice when you sing’.

 

On one fine afternoon, you and a friend are out for a walk. You pass a bus stop where a woman seems to be crying. Do you say to your friend, “Did you see that woman crying?” or do you say, “Did you see that woman’s crying?”

@Goyoomin: Did you see that woman crying?

 

So, what is the difference between these two situations? Why do we use the possessive form ‘your singing’ in the first example, but then we use ‘see that woman crying’ in the second example?

Let’s go back to what gerund is. Gerund is a verb that has transformed into and functions as a noun. Therefore, the way we use gerund should always be in line with the way we use a noun, including combining it with a possessive form.

If we see a sentence like the one in the first example, “I love your singing,” it’s very likely that the thing we love is ‘the singing that belong to you.’ ‘Singing‘ here is something owned by ‘you,’ or in other words, ‘your singing.’

What about the second example? Does it make sense if I modify the sentence into, “Did you see that crying woman?” Does the sentence still have the same meaning?

Crying‘ in the second example is not a gerund. It is in fact an adjective, modifying ‘that woman.’ Therefore, we do not need to use a possessive form like we did with the first example.

Two tips to determine whether a verb -ing should come with a possessive form or not:

  1. Check the object of our action. In the first example, is it the ‘you’ that you love or is it the ‘singing that belongs to you?’
  2. Try switching the sentence’s structure. Modifying the first sentence into ‘I love singing you’ does not quite make the same sense as modifying the second sentence into ‘Did you see that crying woman?’

 

Exercise:

  1. Do you mind (me/my) asking questions?
  2. No, not at all. I appreciate (you/your) coming to me.
  3. I heard about the (project/project’s) being cancelled.
  4. In fact, we anticipate the possibility of (it/its) succeeding.

 

Answer:

  1. “Do you mind my asking questions?”
    Checklist:
    – What will the other person mind about?
    The action ‘asking questions’ that belongs to the speaker. ‘Asking questions’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “Do you mind asking me questions?” or “Do you mind asking my questions?” which does not have the same meaning as the primary sentence.
  2. “No, not at all. I appreciate your coming to me.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker appreciate?
    The action ‘coming to me’ that belongs to the interlocutor. ‘Coming to me’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I appreciate coming you to me,” which does not have any clear meaning.
  3. “I heard about the project being almost cancelled.”
    Checklist:
    – What did the speaker hear about?
    The project is being almost cancelled. ‘Being almost cancelled’ here is an adjective.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I heard about the almost-cancelled project,” which has the exact same meaning as the primary sentence.
  4. “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of its succeeding.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker anticipate?
    The success of the project. ‘Succeeding’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of succeeding it,” which creates double meanings. It can mean that the project is being successful or it can mean that the project is being followed by another project. The phrase ‘its succeeding’ will remove the ambiguity.

 

Special shout-out to one of our fellas who sent us a question about how to use possessives with gerunds during our LINE chat session. If you would like a one-one-one consultation as well, add us on LINE .

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 16 May, 2018.


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#EngVocab: Medical Conditions (2)

Today we will learn about some other words that are used to describe medical conditions.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/05/06/engvocab-medical-conditions/

Let’s start:

  1. Virulent: a disease or poison that is extremely severe or harmful in its effect.
    E.g. “The epidemic was caused by a particularly virulent germ.”
  2. Strangulated: an organ or other part inside the body has become tightly pressed, blocking the flow of blood or air through it.
    E.g. “He was suffering from a strangulated hernia.”
  3. Suspected: the doctors are not sure yet about the real medical conditions.
    E.g. “He has a suspected broken leg.”
  4. Sytemic: the disease is affecting the entire body.
    E.g. “My uncle has a systemic vascular disease.”
  5. Terminal: an incurable disease that will cause someone to die.
    E.g. “My grandpa has terminal lung cancer.”
  6. Refractory: the disease doesn’t respond to the treatment.
    E.g. “The dog has refractory parasite dermatitis.”
  7. Self-induced: a medical condition that you cause yourself.
    E.g. “The anorexics do self-induced vomiting.”
  8. Sporadic: a disease that occurs occasionally, rarely, without regularity.
    E.g. “They found a sporadic human infection with swine influenza.”
  9. Perforated: a hole in part of your body caused by an accident or disease.
    E.g. “A broken ribs perforated into his lung.”
  10. Psychosomatic: the disease is related to the mind-body interrelationship.
    E.g. “Children are just as susceptible to psychosomatic conditions as adults.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 13, 2018.

#BusEng #EngKnowledge: Old-School Career Rules for Millennials

pexels-photo-313690.jpeg
Picture from Pexels/Wordpress

People who were born from 1981 to 1997 are often being referred to as millennial generation or simply ‘millennials.’ This age group is also the one who prides itself as 90s kids, as the people who belong to it spent their childhood and teenage era in the 90s.

Now, most millennials have grown up to the productive age when they start working as professionals. Fast-thinking, self-assured, and a high adaptability to technology are often considered as millennial workers’ strengths.

Sadly, millennials often get labelled as disloyal, quickly jumping from one job to the next, having high expectation, and having a great deal of entitlement. Millennials also tend to get bored easily. If they feel they are stuck, they will find a way to be unstuck, which makes them seem difficult to deal with. These traits make millennials easily misunderstood by their coworkers and employers who are from older generation.

So, how can millennials solve this? I’d like to share several old-school career rules that millennials can apply to their professional life.

  1. Communication matters.
    Even when we’re working in the same workplace, people come from varied backgrounds. This means that we need to explain ourselves from time to time. So, there shouldn’t be ‘I thought you already knew’ or ‘Nobody told me that.’
  2. Be on time.
    By being on time (or early, if possible) we show people that we respect their schedule and we take them seriously. Besides, a delay often leads to other delays. If we don’t finish a task in a timely manner, it is very likely that the other tasks are delayed. In a fast-paced working environment, things can easily get out of hand.
  3. Eyes on the details.
    Be it on the way we dress, the way we write our emails with proper and acceptable manners in business relationship, or the way we refrain ourselves from checking our phones during important meetings, pay attention to small details. Again, we want to show our partners that working with them is important to us.
  4. Never underestimate any tasks.
    “I didn’t spend 5 years in the university only to work on Excel spreadsheets,” was my thought on the first day of my first job. Do you also have a similar experience, fellas? Well, no matter how much we dislike trivial assignments, they are actually necessary to learn the workflow at the workplace. If we can handle trivia, we can always ask for more responsibilities to our supervisor.
  5. Give time for a change to happen.
    Oftentimes, we as millennials want to see some changes to immediately happen once we utter the ideas. A new coworker to share our workloads with, a promotion, a more challenging position, or anything similar. What we should realize is that our supervisor or employer makes a decision that concerns many other people. Therefore, they might take some time before making up their mind.

 

That’s all I can share, fellas. Let us as millennials be a good example for our generation, while also being an agent of change to the workforce.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 7 May, 2018.


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#EngVocab: Medical Conditions

Today we will learn about some words that are used to describe medical conditions.
Medical conditions usually have some symptoms and signs.
Some words related to medical conditions:

  1. Acute: an illness that is short in duration, rapidly progressive, and in need of urgent care.
    E.g. “He’s suffering from an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract.”
  2. Advance: the disease is already ahead in development because it has already had some time to spread.
    E.g. “You may have an advanced cancer.”
  3. Asymptomatic: the disease show no physical signs of a medical problem.
    E.g. “It is commonly asymptomatic in anaemic patients.”
  4. Autoimmune: antibodies attack normal cells or substances that naturally present in the body.
    E.g. “The patient had been diagnosed with unclassified autoimmune disease.”
  5. Chronic: an illness that is characterized by long duration or frequent recurrence.
    E.g. “He was suffering from chronic bronchitis.”
  6. Congenital: a disease or physical abnormality present at birth.
    E.g. “He has a congenital heart defect.”
  7. Contagious: a disease that can spread from one person to another by direct or indirect contact.
    E.g. “The infection is highly contagious, so don’t let anyone else use your towel.”
  8. Degenerative: a disease that gradually gets worse, resulting in loss of function in the organs or tissues.
    E.g. “Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease due to the wear and tear of joint cartilage.”
  9. Epidemic: a widespread occurence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
    E.g. “Doctors are struggling to contain the epidemic.”
  10. Generalized: an infection that has entered the bloodstream, affecting most of the body.
    E.g. “She experienced an increase in generalized aches and pains.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 29, 2018.

#EngQuote: Quote from Indonesian National Heroes

Happy National Education Day, fellas! Let us all take a moment to be thankful for the quality of education that has brought us to where we are today.

Many Indonesian in the past did not quite have the privilege and access for good education like what we enjoy today, but that did not stop them to become intellectuals. Some even contributed to bring the end to the occupation in Indonesia. Therefore, I’d like to make today’s session a tribute to our national heroes by sharing their famous quotes that are related to education.

P.S.: I translated some of them from the original ones which are in Bahasa Indonesia, so feel free to correct the translation if it’s wrong.

“Learning without thinking is useless, but thinking without learning is very dangerous!” – Soekarno, first President of Indonesia.

Soekarno
Dr. Ir. H. Soekarno

 

“I’d volunteer to go to prison, as long as there are books, because with books I am free.” – Mohammad Hatta, first Vice-President of Indonesia.

Hatta
Drs. H. Mohammad Hatta

 

“Only with education will we build our nation.” – Dewi Sartika, founder of the first school for women.

Dewi Sartika
Raden Dewi Sartika

 

“The purposes of education are to sharpen our wits, strengthen our will, and soften our senses.” – Tan Malaka, politician and activist.

Tan Malaka.jpg
Tan Malaka

 

“Advancing in civilization requires advancing in both intelligence and character growth.” – Kartini, women’s rights activist.

Kartini.jpg
Raden Adjeng Kartini

 

“Make a teacher out of everyone and a school out of every place.” – Ki Hajar Dewantara, first Minister of National Education of Indonesia and the national hero whose birthday we celebrate as National Education Day.

Ki Hajar Dewantara.jpg
Ki Hajar Dewantara

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 2 May, 2018.


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#EngTrivia: Confusing words (3)

Hi, Fellas! How’s your day? This evening I would like to discuss some words that might be confusing.

“Possibility” vs “chance”

I am sure you ever heard “possibility” and “chance.” These two words are similar, but they don’t have an exact meaning.

“Possibility” is something that might happen and it usually lead by past event.

Example:

  • “It’s cloudy, I think there’s a possibility of raining today.”

Meanwhile, “chance” is an event that unpredictably happens without any cause.

Example:

  • “I am afraid we don’t have a chance to get the scholarship.”

“Possibility is a thing possible; that which may take place or come into being. Chance is doing something that has a significant risk of failure; luck.” – @JuvKehkash27

“Priceless” vs “worthless”

Next, we will talk about “priceless” and “worthless.” Is there anyone could explain the difference between these words?

“priceless is costly because of quality while worthless is valueless..” – @AsyariAzhar

At a glance, “priceless” and “worthless” may be same, which is (something) has no value. However, “priceless” and “worthless” completely have opposite meanings.

“Priceless” is usually used to describe a thing that has a very high value it can’t be calculate or something that cannot be set with any price.

Example:

  • “The time we spend with our family is priceless.”

On the other hand, “worthless” explains something that has no value at all (useless).

Example:

  • “Sometimes talking to narrow minded people is worthless. It will not lead you anywhere.”

“Tolarable” vs “tolerant”

The last is “tolerable” and “tolerant.” Anyone want to help me explaining the meaning of each of them?

“Tolerable is capable to being endured whereas tolerant is accepting pains calmly.” – @AsyariAzhar 

“Tolerable” refers the object we talk about, whether it is acceptable to us or not, while “tolerant” is our capacity to accept something.

For example,

  • “I actually have a seafood allergy, but fish is tolerable.”
  • “My sister is not tolerant to sunlight. Her skin will easily get burnt.”

 

Source:

  • Merriam-webster dictionary
  • Cambridge Dictionary
  • Oxford Dictionary

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, April 26, 2018

#EngProverb: Proverbs about Books

books-bookstore-book-reading-159711.jpeg
Picture from Pexels/Wordpress

Today, 23 April, is celebrated internationally as World Book and Copyright Day. What is your favourite book?

I am going to share proverbs from various places that are related to the importance of reading a book.

  1. “A book is like a garden carried in the pocket.” – Arabian Proverb.
  2. “See to it that you have many books and many friends — but be sure they are good ones.” – Spanish Proverb.
  3. “Reading books removes sorrows from the heart.” – Moroccan Proverb.
  4. “A good book praises itself.” – German Proverb.
  5. “Unread books make hollow minds.” – Chinese Proverb.
  6. “Beware of a man of one book.” – English Proverb.
  7. “Whoever writes a book should be ready to accept criticism.” – Iraqi Proverb.
  8. “A donkey that carries a lot of books is not necessarily learned.” – Danish Proverb.
  9. “A book is a good friend when it lays bare the errors of the past.” – Indian Proverb.
  10. “Don’t judge a book by its cover.” – English Proverb.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 23 April, 2018.


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