#EngClass The Use of Still, Yet, Already, Any More, Any Longer And No Longer

A. Still (Masih)
It is used to show a continuous action, and is used in affirmative sentence. The word “Still” usually goes in the mid-position of the sentence.
Examples:
– She still looks young.
– It’s 8 o’clock and Jimmy is still in bed.
– Do you still want to marry to her?

And is usually used with Present Continuous (Progressive).

Examples:
– I am still doing my homework.
– He is still washing his car.

B. Yet (Belum)
Yet is used to talk about something that is expected to happen, but did not happen till this moment. We use yet mainly in negative sentences and in questions.

The word “Yet” is used at the end of a sentence.

In negative sentences
Examples:
– He hasn’t come yet.
– I don’t want to go home yet.

In questions
Examples:
– Has he come yet?
– Have you read his book yet?

In the Perfect Tense sentence
– He hasn’t replied my SMS yet.


C. Already (Telah)
Already is used to show that something has happened earlier. It is used in the mid-position of the sentence and is usually used with Present Perfect.

Examples:
– I have already told her.
– She has already seen the film.

In American English, it is also possible to use already with the Simple Past.
Examples:
– I already did my homework.
– He already washed the car.

D. Any More / Any Longer (Sudah tidak lagi)
Any More is an adverb, It happened ‘in the past but not now’
We use Not…. Any more or Not… Any Longer. Any More/Any Longer go at the end of a sentence.

Examples:
– We don’t go to Cornwall on holiday any more (or any longer)
(We used to go in the past but not now.)
– Sara doesn’t work here any more (or any longer). She left last month.
( not ‘Sara doesn’t still work here’ )
– Ann doesn’t teach in this university any more/ any longer.

E. No Longer (Sudah tidak lagi/bukan lagi)
No Longer is used when something used to happen or be true in the past but does not happen or is not true now. It can use to say that situation has changed. No Longer go in the middle of sentences.

Examples:
– Ann no longer works here.
– We are no longer workers.
– It’s no longer a secret.

Reference:
Koltai, Anastasia. 2018. When to Use Still, Already, Yet, Just? Retrieved from https://www.myenglishteacher.eu/blog/still-already-yet-just/


Riyanto, Slamet, et al. A Handbook of English Grammar, An Effective Way to Master English. Pustaka Pelajar.

#EngClass: Irregular Plural Nouns (Revisit)

Hello, fellas. How is it going? In this session we will discuss irregular plurals. Most plural forms are made by adding an –s at the end of their singulars. Nevertheless, some plural nouns do not follow this rule.

1) Vowel change
man / men
woman / women
foot / feet
tooth / teeth
goose / geese
mouse / mice

2) Add –en
child / children
ox / oxen

3) Same as singular
deer / deer
fish / fish
people / people
salmon / salmon
sheep / sheep
trout / trout

4) -is / -es
analysis / analyses
axis / axes
crisis / crises
diagnosis / diagnoses
hypothesis / hypotheses
parenthesis / parentheses
synthesis / syntheses
thesis / theses

5) End in –a
bacterium / bacteria
curriculum / curricula
datum / data
phenomenon / phenomena
criterion / criteria

6) –us / -i
alumnus / alumni
bacillus / bacilli
cactus / cacti
fungus / fungi
nucleus / nuclei
radius / radii
stimulus / stimuli
syllabus / syllabi

Sources:
Grammarly, Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/plural-nouns/
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 7, 2019

#WOTD: Obtuse

Today we will learn about ‘obtuse’.

Do you know the meaning of the word ‘obtuse’?
‘Obtuse’ means annoyingly insensitive or slow to understand.

Someone who is obtuse has difficulty understanding things, slow on the uptake or makes no effort to understand them.

Examples of ‘obtuse’ in sentences:
“Perhaps I’m being obtuse, but I don’t understand what you’re so upset about.”
“You were too obtuse to take the hint.”
“She seemed a bit obtuse after being called by the manager.”

Some synonims of ‘obtuse’:

  • Dim.
  • Dense.
  • Dull.
  • Slow-witted.
  • Stupid.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 6, 2019.

#EngVocab :Phrasal Verbs with “Call”

call
Hello, Fellas! Good evening and happy Monday! How’s your week so far?
This evening I am going to share phrasal verbs with “call”

1.“Call away”
Meaning : To ask someone to go somewhere else
E.g. “i am afraid razi was called away from the meeting to deal with a medical emergency, but he should be back soon”
#EngVocab

2.“Call for”
Meaning : Publicly demand that something be done
E.g. “Adit got the new job! This news calls for a celebration!”
#EngVocab

3.“Call around”
Meaning : to go to someone’s house to visit them
E.g. “Let’s call around to see your cousin later.”
#EngVocab

4.“Call back”
Meaning : To return a telephone call
E.g. “They said I could call back later today to collect the T-shirt.”
#EngVocab

5.“Call out”
Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “I called out her name, but she couldn’t hear me..”
#EngVocab

6.“Call by”
Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “ I think it my might be nice to call by Aunt Jenny’s house on our way to Jakarta.”
#EngVocab

7.“Call down”                                                                                                                                         Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “Laura is a perfectionist women and always calls me down for such minor errors!”
#EngVocab

 
Alright, fellas, those are phrasal vervs with call.
Thank you for being with me, fellas! Today is a wrap!
Enjoy fellas! #EngProverb

 

Compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 7 Jan, 2019.

#EngTrivia: January’s trivia

Hey, Fellas! How do you do? How is your first week in this new year? This evening I am going to share some fun facts about January, as an opening month of the year.

  1. Do you know that January was named after a Roman God, Janus? Janus is pictured as a person who has two heads. It is said that he is an animistic spirit of doorway and archway. Scholar believe that Janus is a symbol all new beginnings. And maybe, this is why his name had been using as the name of the first month of the year.
  2. In America January is regarded as a National Soup Month. Unfortunately, I still can’t find the history behind this event. The source I read also showed that this event is  unofficial in America. Perhaps, Americans initiated this event due to winter season in the country.
  3. In Russia, Christmas will be celebrated on 7th January this year. The reason why Russian celebrate their Christmas differently is Russians are mostly Orthodox Christians. And Orthodox church use Julian calendar, which was made by Julius Caesar in 45 BC.
  4. January is also an important month for Haitians because Haiti Independence Day was proclaimed on 1 January 1804.
  5. If you were born in January, then you are lucky enough to have garnets as your birthstone. It is a red colored gemstone and it shapes like pomegranate.
  6. January is also well known as a National Blood Donor in America. This event was firstly initiated in 1970 by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of USA.

Anyway, that’s all I can share in this session. If you know anything else that is related to January, you are free to share it.

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, January 4, 2014

#EngKnowledge: The History of Scientific English

In this era, world science is probably still dominated by the use of English. It can be seen from a large number of research papers written in English to reach a global audience. However, English had not been the lingua franca for European intellectuals prior to the 1600s. They, including Isaac Newton, published their works in Latin.

There were several reasons to write science in Latin. The first one was about its audience. Latin was deemed more suitable for international scholars. On the other hand, English was only able to reach a more local audience.

Scholars also continued writing in Latin due to a concern for secrecy. To put preliminary ideas into the public domain could jeopardize them. This concern about intellectual property rights showed the humanist idea of the individual, rational scientist inventing and discovering through private intellectual work, as well as the nexus of science and commercial exploitation.

The third factor which hindered the use of English in science was its linguistic inadequacy. English did not have sufficient necessary technical vocabulary. Likewise, its grammar was unable to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations.

Ultimately, several members of the Royal Society were interested in language and involved in various linguistic projects. They encouraged science to be published in English and a suitable writing style to be developed. Many of the society’s members also wrote their monographs in English, one of whom was Robert Hooke after conducting his experiments with microscopes in Micrographia (January 1665). Two months after the publication of Micrographia, Philosophical Transactions, world’s longest-running scientific journal, was introduced.

The development of scientific English thus saw a formative period in the seventeenth century. Nevertheless, German was the most prominent European language of science in the 1700s. By the end of the 18th century 401 German scientific journals had been inaugurated as opposed to 96 in France and 50 in England. The substantial lexical growth of scientific English occurred in the 1800s as the industrial revolution required new technical vocabulary. Furthermore, new, specialized, professional societies were formed to encourage and publish in the new areas of study.

Sources:
Cambridge IELTS 5
The Secret History of the Scientific Journal, https://arts.st-andrews.ac.uk/philosophicaltransactions/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 24, 2018

#EngTips: OTHER WAYS TO SAY “After That”

after that

Hey ho, fellas! How’s your day?
how do you learn your English so far?
So here I am to give you some tips to impruv your speaking.
Well in this section I am going to give you some tips other ways to say
” After that”
What is another word for after that??
Here is a list of word that you can use instead.

To support, Add or Continue your sentence.

“Besides”
Example:
“Besides, i could not see what i wrote on my typewriter.”

“In addition”
Example:
“He asked if he might record the meeting in addition to take notes.”

“Finally”
Example:
“We are at the point, finally, we go to the break .”

“Furthermore”
Example:
“The team was having a great season and furthermore, all the players were getting along.”

“In the same way”
Example:
“In the same way it is possible to give exercise for the student at the same time.”

“Equally important”
Example:
“An equally important part of my mission is to reach and achieve our goals.

 
It’s a wrap for now. Thank you for joining me. I hope it has been useful for you and…. Have a nice weekend, Fellas!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

#EngVocab: Substitutes of “Little”

Do you know other words to say ‘little’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘little’.

Let’s start.

  • Petite: small and thin in an attractive way (of a woman).

E.g. “My aunt is petite, pretty, and very ambitious.

  • Pygmy: the smallest of a group (of animals or plants).

E.g. “No pygmy owls were present when we went to the bird sanctuary.”

  • Minuscule: very tiny.

E.g. “The film was shot in a minuscule amount of time.”

  • Skimpy: very small in size or amount.

E.g. They provided only skimpy details of the event.”

  • Wee: small; little (informal).

E.g. “I’ll have a wee drop of cream in my coffee.”

  • Puny: Small, tiny and weak.

E.g. “They laughed at my puny efforts.”

  • Diminutive: extremely or unusually small.

E.g. “She was a diminutive figure beside her big friend.”

  • Teeny: very small (informal).

E.g. “My cousin gave just a teeny slice of cake for me.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 16, 2018.

#EngTips: Complex Sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn the use of complex sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1.

In terms of IELTS Writing and Speaking, a band score is equally awarded for each of areas, one of which is grammatical range and accuracy. We need to use complex sentences if we aim to score Band 5 or above for grammar. A complex sentence can be made by joining two simple sentences using an –ing form. A comma is put before the –ing clause.

This kind of complex sentences can also be used to add more information about a trend or describe trends that hit a low, reach a peak or stabilise.

Examples:

  1. The number of households rose in Canada. It reached 11.8 million in 2004. (The number of households rose in Canada, reaching 11.8 million in 2004.)
  2. Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s. They showed a 20% improvement over the previous decade. (Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s, showing a 20% improvement over the previous decade.)

Sources:
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Anneli Williams, Collins English for Exams: Writing for IELTS

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 10, 2018

#EngKnowledge: The origin of Thanksgiving

Hi, Fellas, happy weekend! How are you doing during this week? Have you sensed holiday atmosphere in the air? Speaking of holiday, in this season I would like to share some information about the origin of thanksgiving

When you hear the word “thanksgiving,” what does suddenly come to your mind? Is it turkey? Or autumn? Family gathering? Do you know when was Thanksgiving celebrated for the first time? And where was it?

It is said that the first Thanksgiving was celebrated in North America, 1621. The tradition itself had been brought by English Pilgrims that came to Massachusetts. Some history stated it was acknowledged when The Pilgrims shared meals with the native, Wampanoag Indians, as a celebration of good harvest.

However, a historian named Michael Gannon stated that the culture had been existed around fifty years before. On September 1565, there were some colonists in St. Augustine, Florida, shared the Thanksgiving banquet to the natives.  Despite of the original start of Thanksgiving, an information from History.com stated that for more than two centuries since 1621, Thanksgiving was  celebrated in a different time by the colonist and Americans.  And in some moments, Thanksgiving was celebrated for different purpose, too. As Illustrations, during American Revolution, Thanksgiving even celebrated more than one day a year.

After that, in 1789, George Washington hold Thanksgiving to celebrate America’s independence and to express gratitude of successful American ratification. Finally,  in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed that Thanksgiving should be celebrated each year on final Thursday of November as a national event in America. However, the celebration was revised on the fourth Thursday of November by Franklin Roosevelt due to induce retail sale during Great Depression during 1930s. Ultimately, I think that nowadays’ Thanksgiving day is celebrated according to Roosevelt basis.
source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, November 30, 2018

#EngClass: Blending Words (5)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.

You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
You can review the second lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/17/engclass-blending-words-2/
You can review the third lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/07/01/engclass-blending-words-3/
You can review the fourth lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/08/15/engclass-blending-words-4/

Here are some examples of blending words:

  • Cinedigm (cinema + paradigm).

Meaning: a new paradigm in cinema.
E.g. “The musical poetry become a cinedigm in recent years.”

  • Cosplay (costume + play).

Meaning: dressing up and pretending to be a fictional character.
E.g. “The most popular cosplay theme is anime character.”

  • Docudrama (documentary + drama).

Meaning: a dramatized television movie based on real events.
E.g. “They are making a docudrama about the controversial court case.”

  • Knowledge base (knowledge + database).

Meaning: a database used for knowledge sharing and management.
E.g. “Building a knowledge base system becomes one of the key point in the study.”

  • Imagineering (imagination + engineering).

Meaning: the implementation of creative ideas in practical form.
E.g. “This imagineering can probably attract the attention of the crowd.”

  • Ginormous (gigantic + enormous).

Meaning: extremely large.
E.g. “Our orders came in two ginormous boxes.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 2, 2018.

#EngProverb: Proverbs related to love

Picture1

Hey ho, fellas! How’s your day? I think today was a cold day.
Do you know what love is? Everyone would answer that question differently.
Some People think it is care, affection, and understanding.
Tonight, I’m going to share some proverbs related to love to you. Here they are…

1.“Love is blind”
Meaning : when you love someone and you may don’t see about their pyhsical and faults.
E.g. “Have you seen Bella’s new girlfriend? Love is blind I must say.”

2.“Love at the first sight “
Meaning : once people met, they felt in love each other.
E.g. “Julio and Siska met at party.It was love at first sight.”

3.“Pop the question”
Meaning : people propose to marriage someone.
E.g. “ Roy popped me the question after we have been together for two years.

4.“ Kiss and make up”
Meaning : people forgive each other and be friends again.
E.g. ”Ozi and Raline always have an argument twice a week, but then they eternally kiss and make up.”

5.“Go steady “
Meaning : having a romantic a relationship with someone.
E.g. ”Jonny wants to go steady with Lusi, but I think she is not interested.”

6.“Break up”
Meaning : people become separated after being relationship or engagement.
E.g. “Richard broke up with his partner of two years when he found out that she was dating another man.

7.“Ask out “
Meaning : the man invite someone to go out, escpecially make a date.
E.g. “My friend asked us out for dinner to celebrate the success of his new job.”

 

Alright, fellas, those are some proverbs related to love.
Thank you for being with me, fellas! Today is a wrap!
Enjoy fellas!

 

Compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 06 December, 2018.

 

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Beautiful’ (2)

Today we will learn more about other ways to say ‘beautiful’.
You can review the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/11/18/engvocab-substitutes-of-beautiful/

Let’s start.

  • Marvelous: causing great wonder; extraordinary.

E.g. “It was a marvelous performance.”

  • Angelic: exceptionally beautiful, innocent, or kind.

E.g. “She had an angelic smile.”

  • Slick: smooth and glossy (of skin or hair).

E.g. “His hair was dark brown and perfectly slick.”

  • Striking: noticeable, outstanding, attracting notice or attention.

E.g. “His eyes are his most striking feature.”

  • Swell: great or excellent; wealthy; elegant person (slang).

E.g. “You look swell in that dress!”

  • Enchanting: delightfully charming or attractive.

E.g. “The birds in the aviary at the zoo were enchanting.”

  • Flawless: without any blemished or imperfections; perfect.

E.g. “She had flawless olive skin and huge eyes with clear and bright pupil.”

  • Refined: elegant and cultured in appearance, manner, or taste.

E.g. “He has refined taste and manners.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 18, 2018.

#EngTips: OTHER WAYS TO SAY “I THINK”

Slide14

Good Evening, Fellas! How was your day?
Today we are going to give you some tips about other ways to say ‘i think’.
There are many different ways of saying thought in English. Let’s find out!

  1. In my opinion
    E.g. “In my opinion the issue should be finished in this way.”

  2. The way I see it
    E.g. ”The way I see it is just technical issue.”

  3. As far as I can see
    E.g. “As far I can see my friends are innocent.”

  4. .I consider
    E.g. “I consider a lot of information should be kept very secret.”

  5. I believe
    E.g, “I believe that they slept because of exhaustion.”

  6. To my way of thinking
    E.g. “To my way of thinking we are doing very well.”

  7. I would say
    E.g. “I would say that the girl is very humble.” #EngTips

It’s a wrap for now. Thank you for joining me. Give it try and let me know how it works for you.
Enjoy fellas! #EngTips

Compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 22 November, 2018.

#GrammarTrivia: Inverted Subjects and Verbs with Negative Expressions or Comparisons

In the session titled #GrammarTrivia: Omitting If, we have learned the inversions of subjects and verbs in conditional sentences. When a conditional sentence contains should, were, or had, the subject and verb of the if-clause are inverted. Inversion is also possible in sentences with negative expressions or comparisons.

(More on Omitting If: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/11/10/grammartrivia-omitting-if/)

1) Inversion with Negative Expressions

A negative expression, when it precedes a subject and verb, causes them to be inverted. It is to emphasize the negative element of the sentence.
List of negative expressions:
– no
– rarely
– not
– hardly
– never
– only
– neither
– rarely
– nor
– scarcely
– seldom

Examples:
1. Never were they so enthusiastic.
2. Hardly does she attend the class.

2) Inversion with Comparisons

Inverting the subject and verb of a sentence which contains a comparison is optional and rather formal.

Examples:
1. China is larger than Japan.
2. China is larger than Japan is.
3. China is larger than is Japan.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, November 19, 2018

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Beautiful’

Do you know other words to say ‘beautiful’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘beautiful’.

Let’s start.

  • Exquisite: very beautiful and delicate.

E.g. “Her wedding dress was absolutely exquisite.”

  • Splendid: excellent; very impressive.

E.g. “The fireworks looked very splendid in the dark sky.”

  • Astonishing: causing a feeling of great surprise or wonder; very surprising.

E.g. “The old man had an astonishing performance.”

  • Magnificent: very good; deserving to be admired.

E.g. “The scenery has a magnificent view.”

  • Breathtaking: inspiring or exciting.

E.g. “The house has breathtaking views from every room.”

  • Divine: extremely good, pleasant, or enjoyable.

E.g. “Their new place is quite divine.”

  • Ravishing: unusually attractive, pleasing, or striking.

E.g. “She looked absolutely ravishing in that dress.”

  • Delightful: giving great pleasure; highly pleasing.

E.g. “It has been a delightful evening.”

  • Dazzling: briliantly or showily bright, colorful, or impressive.

E.g. “The actor gave a dazzling smile in the movie premiere.”

  • Fetching: pleasant or attractive.

E.g. “You look very fetching in that hat.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 4, 2018.

#WOTD: Valorous

Hello, Fellas! How are you today? Isn’t today a lovely day since it’s weekend! Anyway, how’s your week so far? Mine is great because I finally got something I need in order to pursue my desired plan, or maybe you can say it my future.

Well, back to Englishtips4u session, this evening we are going to talk about a word called ‘valorous.’ Is there someone familiar with this word?

According to Merriam-webster dictionary, ‘valorous’ is an adjective with “brave” as a meaning. It is said that ‘valorous’ was originally derived from French ‘valeureux,’ but there is another statement that this word came from Latin ‘valorosus.’ In addition, there are some synonyms of ‘valorous,’ such as:

  • ‘bold,’
  • ‘dauntless,’
  • ‘valiant’ and
  • ‘courageous.’

Here are some example of the usage of ‘valorous’ in a sentence:

  • “I think someone who have courage to criticise our government is such valorous person.”
  • “He tackled the thief who was going to attack me with a knife. What a valorous act!”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, November 16, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun Clauses with ‘If’ or ‘Whether’

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn noun clauses beginning with if or whether. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a noun clause is a clause used as a subject or an object of a sentence.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

When a noun clause begins with if or whether, it means that the clause is changed from a yes/no question. There is no difference in meaning between noun clauses using if and whether. However, whether is more formal and if is more common in speaking.

Examples:

1. Yes/No Question: Will he go?
Noun Clause:
a) They know whether he will go.
b) They know if he will go.

2. Yes/No Question: Does she understand the lesson?
Noun Clause:
a) We wonder whether she understands the lesson.
b) We wonder if she understands the lesson.

The expression or not may be added in noun clauses.

Examples:

1. We wonder whether or not she understands the lesson.
2. We wonder whether she understands the lesson or not.
3. We wonder if she understands the lesson or not.
4. Whether she understands the lesson or not is unimportant to us.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 14, 2018

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