How to Use Either and Neither (1)

The English words either and neither can cause some problems for native and non-native speakers of English. Sometimes you can use either one and sometimes you have to choose either one or the other, but neither one is very difficult. While ‘either’ has a positive connotation, ‘neither’ holds a negative significance. You will always find them paired up this way: either/or and neither/nor.

Either… Or

Either... or is used to offer a choice between two possibilities:

  • Either Mike or Lisa will be there.
  • Either you leave me alone or I will call the police.

Either can also be followed by some or all of the following: one + of + group of two:

  • Either one of us could do it.
  • Either one of you should know.

Neither… Nor

Neither… nor is equivalent to not… either… or.

  • Neither Mike nor Lisa will be there.
  • He speaks neither English nor French.
  • We brought neither coffee nor tea.

Neither can also be followed by some or all of the following: one + of + group of two:

  • Neither one of us has any money.
  • Neither one of them is ready.

The Bottom Line

Either means one and goes with or, neither means none and goes with nor. “Not either” equals neither.

Reference:

Lawless, Laura K. 2019. Either and Neither. Retrieved from:  https://www.lawlessenglish.com/english-mistakes/either-and-neither/

Compiled and written by @nurulhasanahmoslem for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, May 18, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Predicate Adjectives

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn predicate adjectives.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, adjectives are words describing nouns. They are usually placed right before nouns. An adjective can also follow a linking verb such as be, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, appear, seem, and become.

(More on linking verbs: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/08/23/engclass-linking-verb/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2012/03/12/engclass-linking-verbs/)

However, several adjectives only occur after linking verbs and they cannot come directly before nouns they describe. A predicate adjective should be changed into its corresponding form to use in front of a noun.

Here are predicate adjectives and their corresponding forms:

alike= like similar

alive= live living

alone= lone

afraid= frightened

asleep= sleeping

Examples:

1) The two brothers look alike.

2) We completed our projects in a similar manner.

3) The girl is afraid of heights.

4) The frightened child cried for his mother.

Sources:
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for The TOEFL Test
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, May 8, 2019

#EngVocab: Other Ways to Say ‘Difficult’

Today we will learn about other ways to say ‘difficult’.
Do you know some synonyms of ‘difficult’?

Let’s start.

  • Arduous: hard to accomplish or achieve; needing a lot of effort and energy.

E.g. “She took the arduous task and devote her heart and soul to it.”

  • Toilsome: involving hard or difficult work, or great effort.

E.g. “Housework after a long journey is toilsome.”

  • Strenuous: something that takes a lot of effort, work or energy to do.

E.g. “The doctor advised my brother to avoid strenuous exercise.”

  • Operose: involving or displaying much industry or effort.

E.g. “The expanding process of my company is too slow and operose.”

  • Grueling: extremely tiring and demanding.

E.g. “The freshmen were put through a week of grueling endurance tests.”

  • Laboriuos: requiring considerable effort and time (especislly of a task, process, or journey).

E.g. “Collecting the experiment materials is a long and laborious task.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 28, 2019.

#IOTW: Idioms related to work

Hi, Fellass… how are you doing this week?

Honestly, I’m a little bit unwell around these two months because I mostly worked overtime. Some of you might used to this work pattern while I’m not. Well, speaking of working, today I’m going to share some idioms related to work.

  1. “Ramp up” Meaning: increasing something.

Example:

  • “The manager push us to ramp the revenue up.”
  1. “On the back burner.” Meaning: something is less important at the moment.

Example:

  • “You can finish your task for today, this problem is on the back burner.”
  1. “Put (something) off.” Meaning: to delay something.

Example:

  • “Please put your current activity off. We have an urgent meeting.”
  1. “People person.” Meaning: someone with a great social skill.

Example:

  • “You need to be a people person if you are working as a marketing.”
  1. “Have a lot on your plate.” Meaning: you have a lot of work/resposibilities at the moment.

Example:

  • “I see you will have a lot on your plate next quarter.”
  1. “Selling like hotcakes.” Meaning: something is bought by customer in a brief moment.

Example:

  • “This book was popular. It was selling like hotcakes.”
  1. “Learning curve.” Meaning: the time that is needed to learn about the system.

Example:

  • “I found that this company has a difficult learning curve. I don’t quite understand until now.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, May 10, 2019

#IOTW: Idioms related to Bullying

Hey ho, fellas! How’s your day? I think today was a cold day.
What is definition of bullying fellas?

Bullying is something that 1 in 2 people under 25 will experience in their lifetime.

Here are a few things you should know that will help you identify it, and hopefully understand it a little better.

 

Picture1

1.Big Bully
Meaning  :Someone who is overly critical, domineering, or authoritative, or who is physically or psychologically abusive.

E.g “do not take what se says too much to heart, she is just a big bully.Agnes’s been a big bully since she got promotion.”

2.Bully pulpit
Meaning : A public position that allows a person to speak with authority and share their views with a large audience.

E.g “ James used his position of class president as a bully pulpit to raise awareness about cyberbullying.”

3.Bullyragging

Meaning :To bother or badger someone.

E.g “Would you quit bullyragging me? I didn’t do anything wrong, I swear!.”

4.Bully rag
Meaning :To haras someone

  1. g “ hey jessica do not bully me just because you are upset”.

5.Bully for somebody

Meaning : used to show that you do not think that what somebody has said or done is very impressive

E.g “riko’s just won a free holiday in Spain.’ ‘Oh, bully for him! She’s so rich anyway, she can afford to go away whenever he wants to.’

Alright, fellas, those are some idioms and let’s know

No one is born a bully – true story. Bullying is a learnt behaviour and not an innate characteristic of anyone.

Thank you for being with me, fellas! Today is a wrap!

Enjoy fellas! #IOTW

 

 

compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 2 May, 2019.

 

#GrammarTrivia: Verbs of Perception

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the use of verbs of perception. Verbs of perception express the experience of one of the physical senses. They are also called perception verbs or perceptual verbs.

Several of them are followed by the simple form of a verb (the infinitive form without to) or the -ing form (the present participle).

They are:
see
notice
watch
look at
observe
hear
listen to
feel
smell

The two forms often carry little difference in meaning, except that the –ing form frequently gives the notion of while.

Examples:
1) He saw his friend ride a bicycle.
2) He saw his friend riding a bicycle. (He saw his friend while he was riding a bicycle)

Sometimes, the use of –ing form means that an activity is already in progress when it is perceived.

Examples:
1) When she walked into her boarding house, she heard her roommate crying. (The crying was in progress when she first heard it)
2) When she walked into her boarding house, she heard her roommate cry. (She heard the crying from beginning to end)

Sources:
ThoughtCo., Verb of Perception, https://www.thoughtco.com/verb-of-perception-1692486
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 28, 2019

#EngTalk : Job Interview (2)

Fellas, are you a fresh graduate from a college or a university or do you want to take a professional work as early as after finishing high school? You must have been aware of job interviews.

Job Interview with Interviewers
https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/top-best-job-interviewing-books/

Job interviews are amongst the first steps that must be taken before you start corporate life. Multinational companies specifically conduct the interviews in English. Could you share some stories of your first job interviews? Mention us.

@arditaher

“My first job interview was fun! Other candidates graduated from Perth and Californian campus, but the company picked me from Kalibata campus”.

@prabhuconnects

I went for job interview for bpo job. Interviewer asked me to speak 5 minutes English. I spoke 30 seconds in proper English. It was Amazing experinced until I missed my bus“.

You must also have been aware that nowadays job interviews are not done face to face only. Companies can conduct the interviews through video calls or Skype.

But if you must meet the company’s HRD person or the user, dressing politely and making a good first impression will make you go a long way.

If you are applying for a job in creative industry, never forget to prepare your portfolio and creative experiences. They could help convincing the company to hire you.

A job in creative industry might vary from being a copywriter, a web content writer, a photographer, an illustrator, to a graphic designer.

As for formal sector, prepare your most updated CV that mentions your relevant past experiences. Formal sector jobs refer to an administrative staff, a financial staff, a customer service, a teller, a manager, and so on.

After the interview is over, make sure you have given the company your contactable phone number and email address.

That’s all for today, fellas. Good luck for your next job interview!

Compiled and Written by: @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, April 24, 2019

#WOTD: Hoodwink

Hi, Fellas! How are you doing? How are your days so far? This evening we meet again in word of the day session. This time I am going to share ‘hoodwink’ as the topic. Have you ever heard about this word?

Hoodwink is the combination of ‘hood’ and ‘wink,’ which means to trick or deceiving someone. According to the meaning,it is obvious that ‘hoodwink’ acts as an verb if we use it in a sentence. There are some words that are related to ‘hoodwink,’ such as ‘delute’ ‘fake out,’ and ‘hoax.’

Lastly,here are some example of ‘hoodwink’ in a sentence
1. “Don’t be hoodwinked by some news without verification.’
2. “They hoodwinked George by telling him lies.’

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, April 12, 2019

#EngGrammar: Modifiers

#EngGrammar: Modifiers

What is modifier in English grammar? A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that function as adjectives or adverbs to provide additional information about another word or word group.

Modifiers can play the roles of adjectives or adverbs. Modifiers in English include adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives, possessive, determiners, prepositional phrases, degree modifiers, and intensifiers.

There are two kinds of modifiers, they are premodifiers and postmodifiers. Modifiers that appear before the head are called premodifiers. Modifiers that appear after the head are called postmodifiers.

Modifiers As Adjectives

When a modifier is an adjective, it modifies a noun or a pronoun. In the examples below, the modifiers are shaded, and the words being modified are bold.

For example:

  • Johnson caught a small mackerel.

In that sentence, the adjective small modifies the noun mackerel.

  • Johnson caught another one.

In that sentence, the adjective another modifies the pronoun one.

Modifiers As Adverbs

When a modifier is an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

For example:

  • Michael accidentally caught a small whelp.

In that sentence, the adverb accidentally modifies the verb caught.

  • Michael caught an incredibly small mackerel.

In that sentence, the adverb incredibly modifies the adjective small.

  • Michael supposedly accidentally caught a small whelp.

In that sentence, the adverb supposedly modifies the adverb accidentally.

A Modifier Can Be a Phrase or a Clause

We shouldn’t forget that phrases and clauses can play the roles of adjectives and adverbs too.

For example:

  • George caught a mackerel smaller than a watch.

This is an adjective phrase modifying the noun mackerel.

  • George caught a mackerel of tiny proportions.

This is a prepositional phrase functioning as an adjective. It modifies the noun mackerel.

  • George caught a mackerel which was smaller than a watch.

This is an adjective clause modifying mackerel.

  • When alone, George tried to catch mackerel.

This is an adverbial phrase of time that modifies the verb tried.

  • When we left him alone, George set up his rod to catch mackerel.

This is an adverbial clause of time that modifies the verb set up.

Source:

Simaibang, Baginda. 2018. English Grammar for Foreign Learners. Palembang: CV Citra Books Indonesia

Compiled and written by @nurulhasanahmoslem at @EnglishTips4U on April 20, 2019

#EngTips: Overview (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss the overview in IELTS Writing Task 1.

An overview is not a conclusion. A conclusion is a final judgement or opinion. On the other hand, an overview simply describes the main points. It summarizes the information depicted in the graph.

An overview can be put either right after the introduction or in the last paragraph. It does not matter where you place it as long as it is written in your report. However, it is recommended that the overview be put at the beginning because if you run out of time and do not write an overview at all, you will be unable to get a band 6 or higher for your task achievement.

To write an overview, you need to look at the most noticeable feature – what changes occurred from the beginning to the end. You do not need to state numbers because they are included in the specific details. Features like ‘overall change’, ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’, are mentioned without specific figures.

Example:

CO2

Overview:

Overall, it is clear that the UK produced the most emissions per capita of the 4 nations over the period although the levels fell slightly. The amount of CO2 emitted per person dropped more markedly in Sweden while levels rose in Italy and Portugal.

Sources:

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)
Global Manpower, GUIDELINE IELTS WRITING TASK 1
IELTS buddy, IELTS Made Easy: Step-by-step guide to writing a Task 1
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Bayside, IELTS Academic Writing Task 1: band 9 sample, https://www.baysidecollege.com.au/task-1-sample/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, April 12, 2019

#Engvocab: Election

Hello fellas, how are you today? Fellas, on April 17, 2019, we in Indonesia hold a general election to determine the future members of House of Representative and the future president and vice president. Therefore, today, we are going to discuss vocabularies related to election.

An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. There are several vocabularies that we often hear or read in regards to election terms. Here they are:

1. Campaign
Means the things a candidate does to get elected (shaking hands, giving oration, etc.).
E.g.: “He took a campaign tour of West Java last week.”

2. Debate
Means to argue for or against something.
E.g.: “The topic of tonight’s presidential debate is national defense and security.”

3. Candidate
Means the person who is running in an election.
E.g.: “The Indonesia presidential election in 2019 has two pair of candidates.”

4. Politics
Means the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area.
E.g.: “I told her I was going into politics.”

5. Voter
Means the individual who is voting in an election.
E.g.: “Now the voters will decide.”

6. Ballot paper
Means a piece of paper or a small ball used in a secret voting.
E.g.: “Each person will get a ballot which should be kept confidential.”

7. Supporter
Means the individual who supports a candidate during an election.
E.g.: “All supporters in this campaign are so excited to meet the candidate.”

8. Political party
Means a group of people with similar political goals and opinions whose main purpose is to get candidates elected to public office.
E.g.: “Most of political parties in this election are optimistic about their candidates being elected.”

9. Democracy
Means a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

E.g.: “Indonesia is one of the countries that adapts democracy as its system of government.”

10. Government
Means the governing body of a nation, state, or community.
E.g.: “The first MRT in our city was planned by the previous government.”

Thank you and see you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, April 10, 2019

#ENGCLASS: How to Plan a Lesson


         The term “lesson” is popularly considered to be a unified set of activities that cover a period of classroom time, usually ranging from forty to ninety minutes. These classroom time units are administratively significant for teachers because they represent “steps” along a curriculum before which and after which you have a hiatus (of a day or more) in which to evaluate and prepare for the next lesson.

Format of a Lesson Plan

While variations are plenty, seasoned teachers generally agree on what the essential elements of a lesson plan should be

  • Goal (s)

We should be able to identify an overall purpose or goal that we will attempt to accomplish by the end of the class period. In the sample lesson plan, “understanding telephone conversation” generally identifies the lesson topic.

  • Objectives

It is very important to state explicitly what you want students to gain from the lesson. Explicit statements here help you to

  1. Be sure that you indeed know what it is you want to accomplish,
  2. Preserve the unity of your lesson,
  3. Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much, and
  4. Evaluate students’ success at the end of, or after, the lesson.

Objectives are most clearly captured in terms of stating what students will do. However, many language objectives are not overtly observable. Try to avoid vague, unverifiable statements like these:

  • Students will learn about the passive voice.
  • Students will practice some listening exercies.
  • Students will do the passage some listening pasty.
  • Materials and Equipment

It may seems a trivial matter to list materials needed, but good planing includes knowing what you need to take with you or to arrange to have in classroom.

  • Procedures

At this point, lessons clearly have tremendous variation.

We have to  think in terms of making sure your plan is included.

Evaluation     

Next, how can you determine whether your objective have been accomplished?

  • Extra-Class Work

Sometimes misnamed “homework” (students don’t neccessarily to extra = class work only at home), something. Whether you are teaching in an EFL or ESL  situation, you can almost always find applications or extentions of classroom

Source:

Douglas, H. Brown. 2001. Teaching by Principles and Interactive Approach to Language pedagogy

Compiled and written by @nurulhasanahmoslem for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 6, 2019

#EngProverb: Words to describe people

Hey ho, fellas! How’s your day? I think today was a cold day.
Tonight, I’m going to share some proverbs related to describe people. Here they are…

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1.Adaptable
Meaning :capable of fitting a particular situation or use
E.g. “When Riska’s parents divorced, she proved herself to be adaptable. It wasn’t easy, but she learned how to cope with this big change”
#EngProverb

2.Considerate
Meaning : showing concern for the rights and feelings of others
E.g. “A considerate person looks out for other people. They often allow someone else to have the last piece of cake or they hold the door open for another person..”
#EngProverb

3.Courageous
Meaning :able to face and deal with danger or fear without flinching
E.g. “A courageous person is brave. They are the type of person to run into a burning building. They are also likely to get involved to stop a bullying situation.”
#EngProverb

4.Ambitious
Meaning :having a strong desire for success or achievement
E.g. “Raka is one of Ambitious people try to get ahead in life–they look for opportunities to better their life”
#EngProverb

5.Adventurous
Meaning : willing to undertake new and daring enterprises
E.g. “They love to try something new–sometimes an act that others would find scary. Adventurous people love to travel and try new foods at a restaurant.”
#EngProverb

6.Rational
Meaning :having its source in or being guided by the intellect
E.g. “They make rational decisions based on their logical reasoning about a situation. They don’t base decisions on emotions.”
#EngProverb

Alright, fellas, those are some proverbs related to describe people.
So, How would you describe yourself?
Thank you for being with me, fellas! Today is a wrap!

compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 04 April 2019

#EngTips: 3 Sentence Structures to Describe Trends (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss one of key elements in IELTS Writing Task 1. It is a variety of sentence structures to describe trends.

To achieve a high score, you should learn to write sentences using different patterns. However, students tend to use only one of those. Consequently, their answer sounds ‘mechanical’. By varying how your sentences are structured, you can show your wide range of grammar.

It is essential that you get word forms right. Verbs can change into nouns and adverbs change into adjectives depending on the structure you choose.

The patterns are:

1) Noun + verb + adverb
Example: The consumption of oil rose steadily in 2008.

2) There + be + adjective + noun + in + noun
Example: There was a steady rise in the consumption of oil in 2008.

3) Time + saw/experienced/witnessed + adjective + noun + in + noun
Example: 2008 saw a steady rise in the consumption of oil.

Source:
IELTS buddy, IELTS Made Easy: Step-by-step guide to writing a Task 1

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 31, 2019

#EngVocab: Other Ways to Say ‘Afraid’

Today we will learn about other ways to say ‘afraid’
Do you know other words to say it?

Let’s start.

  • Aghast: struck with overwhelming shock; filled with sudden fright or horror.

E.g. “The police stood aghast at the terrible sight.”

  • Petrified: extremely frightened that one is unable to move.

E.g. “The idea of talking in public petrified him.”

  • Frantic: wild or distraught with fear, anxiety, or extreme emotion.

E.g. “He was quite frantic by the time we got home.”

  • Timorous: full of fear.

E.g. “The victim talked with a timorous voice.”

  • Edgy: tense, nervous, or irritable.

E.g. “I am feeling edgy about the exam tomorrow.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 31, 2019.

#WOTD: Morose

Today we will learn about the word ‘morose’.
#WOTD

Do you know the meaning of ‘morose’?
#WOTD

‘Morose’ is an adjective.
‘Morose’ is pronounced as /məˈrōs/.
#WOTD

‘Morose’ means sullen and ill-tempered.
#WOTD

Some synonyms of ‘morose’:
1. Dour.
2. Surly.
3. Somber.
4. Unhappy.
5. Fed up.
#WOTD

Examples of ‘morose’ in sentences:
“Why are you so morose these days?”
#WOTD

Examples of ‘morose’ in sentences:
“He was silent and morose since the tragedy happened.”
#WOTD

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 17, 2019.

#ENGVOCAB: VOCABULARIES RELATED TO INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA

Hello fellas, how are you? how often do you surf the internet and social media? I am sure that most of you like spending time to check social media and surfing the internet. Today, we are discussing some words and phrases related to internet and social media. Here they are.


http://lime20.com/internet.php

1. To unplug
It means to disconnect and to relax by disengaging ourselves from activities that use internet connection.

E.g.: “Sometimes you need to learn to unplug and just enjoy the peace and quiet at home.”

2. Hot-spot
It refers to a place in public area where there is a computer system with an access point or an internet connection.

E.g.: “The airport was bright and spacious, with large shopping area and Wi-Fi hot-spot lounge.”

3. To multitask
To multitask means to do many things at the same time. 

E.g.: “An interpreter needs a quick, agile mind to multitask, because she or he needs to simultaneously listen to a concept or idea in one language, understand and process it, and translate it to another language.”

4. Down-time
It refers to the time when a computer is not working properly and cannot be used. This could also mean the time somebody needs to relax and recuperate after a hard work.

E.g.: “Once we are done with all the renovation, I am ready for some major down-time.”

5. Pulled to the internet
It means working hard using the internet or being dependent to the internet.

E.g.: “I wish I could do that but I am so pulled to the internet. I manage my own business and I can hardly spend a day without sending emails or checking my website.”

6. To pull the plug
When you pull the plug of something, it means that it no longer has a power source and will switch off.

E.g.: “I am considering just pulling the plug on the whole thing. I have been so busy with my work and I have not had time to be creative or even relax.”

7. Be on the same wavelength
It refers to the same things that have the same origins but can also be used for casual acquaintances. It has the same meaning as being in tune with somebody.

E.g.: “What makes the problem worse is that Howard and Tina are not on the same wavelength about how to deal with it.”

8. No filter
It is usually used to refer to a picture, which is of original quality and has not been edited or modified. The term is also used to refer to an uncensored conversation, usually between friends.

E.g.: “Miranda is my best friend. Sometimes when we are chatting, we can talk with no filter and we laugh at each other.”

9. On fleek
Something is on fleek if it looks perfect and on point.

E.g.: “Did you see what Jason was wearing today? His look is on fleek!”

10. To win the internet
The phrase is usually used as a reaction given by someone who either really likes or really dislikes your post.

E.g.: “This picture wins the internet today. Everything else is dummy.”

That’s all for today, fellas. Hopefully today’s session is useful for you. See you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, March 27, 2019

#EngClass: Infinitive And Gerund

Infinitive is prefaced with the word “to”
For examples:
– To think
– To act
– To walk
– To talk
– To write
– To listen

Both infinitives and gerunds can act as the subject of the sentence:
– To think is something that comes naturally (infinitive)
– Thinking is something that comes naturally (gerund)


You can use infinitive or gerund as the object of a verb:
– I like to fish (Infinitive)
– I like fishing (Gerund)

Only gerund can be the object of a preposition. An infinitive cannot:
We are thinking about walking in the woods

Gerund is a noun formed from a verb. A gerund always contain the ending “-ing.”
Functions of Gerund:
1) Gerund as Subject
For examples:
– Reading novel is my hobby
– Being a good doctor is my ambition

2) Gerund which is used with these verb as follows:
– Deny
– Avoid
– Suggest
– Consider
– Admit
– Enjoy
– Miss
– Consider


For examples:
– He always denies helping me
– Why do you always avoid meeting her?

3) Gerund which is used after preposition, it can stand before verb, adjective, or noun.
For examples:
– You should give up smoking
– I am thinking of going to Bali with you

4) Gerund can be used for complement
For example:
– Their favourite activity is playing music

5) Gerund can be used to explain noun modifiers
For example:
– You can wait for me in the waiting room

6) Gerund can be used in this form of sentence “It………ing.”
For examples:
– It is nice talking with you
– It is no use trying to meet her

Reference:

Tumijo and Riyanto Slamet (2010) Metode Terbaik Melejitkan Skor TOEFL, Penerbit Pustaka Widyatama: Yogyakarta.

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