#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Reason

After discussing reduced relative clauses and reduced adverb clauses of time, today we are going to learn the reduction of adverb clauses of reason.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

Adverb clauses of reason are also called adverb clauses of cause and effect. They are introduced by conjunctions, such as because, now that, since, due to the fact that, and owing to the fact that. Like the other kinds of adverb clauses, they function as the dependent clause in a sentence.

(More on adverb clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

The reduction of an adverb clause of reason to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. Omit the conjunction, so that it is not included in the adverbial phrase, and change the verb to its –ing form.

Example:

Because she lives far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.
Living far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.

Having + past participle means because.

Example:

Because I have read the novel, I want to give it to you.
Having read the novel, I want to give it to you.

It is also possible to change be in an adverb clause of reason to being.

Example:

Because she was sick, she did not attend the class.
Being sick, she did not attend the class.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Friday, August 10, 2018

#EngVocab: What to say instead of using ‘very’ (2)

Hi, Fellas! Happy Friday night! How’s your work/school? This evening I am going to share some words that is used to substitute a strong expression, such as ‘very beautiful,’ ‘very smart,’ etc. 

  1. Exhausted.’ Meaning: ‘very tired.’ 
    • Example:
      • ‘I have many classes today and I still need to attend reading club meeting. I’m exhausted.’
  2. Gorgeous.’ Meaning: ‘very pretty’.
    • Example:
      • ‘You look gorgeous in that dress.’
  3. Hysterical.’ Meaning: ‘very funny.’
    • Example:
      • ‘Look at his hysterical act. I can barely laughing.’ 
  4. Exact.’ Meaning: ‘very accurate.’
    • Example:
      • ‘That was the exact answer I want to hear!’
  5. Obvious.’ Meaning: ‘very clear.’
    • Example:
      • ‘I know Jess likes Andrew. It is obvious.’’ 
  6. Captivating.’ Meaning: ‘very interesting.’ 
    • Example;
      • ‘She is the most captivating girl I have ever met.’ 
  7. Compelling.’ Meaning: ‘very powerful’ (effect).
    • Example:
      • ‘I have no doubt he would win the competition, his arguments are compelling’’ 
  8. Essential.’ Meaning: ‘very necessary.’
    • Example:
      • ‘Vitamin C is one of essential nutrients for our body.’ 
  9. Exceptional.’ Meaning: ‘very special.’ 
    • Example:
      • ‘You can have my dresses, even my jewelries, but not my books. They are exceptional!’ 
  10. Innovative.’ Meaning: ‘very creative.’
    • Example:
      • ‘I think her idea is innovative.’’ 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, August 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time

Hello, fellas. Last week we learned how to reduce relative clauses.

(More on reduced relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/)

In this session, we are still going to discuss the reduction of clauses. It is the reduction of adverb clauses of time.

(More on adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

In a sentence, an adverb clause functions as the dependent clause. It must be attached to the main clause or the independent clause (More on clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/26/engclass-clause/). An adverb clause of time begins with a conjunction, such as after, before, since, when, and while.

The reduction of an adverb clause of time to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time:

1) Omit the subject and be
Example:
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
While studying, I fell asleep.

2) If there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form
Example:
Jane has lived abroad since she pursued her education.
Jane has lived abroad since pursuing her education.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, August 2, 2018

#EngVocab: Types of injuries

Hi, Fellas! Happy Friday night! How’s your day? I hope you have a great one.

“I feel so excited because tomorrow I am gonna meet my old friends…’ – @mukmukhsin

“Exhausting day.” – @Albet_isla 

“I feel so great because today is the last day of exam, and of course I’ll be free from my lectures.” – @FathiaRD

This evening we are going to talk about injuries. Do you know what kind of
injuries we usually have? Bruise? Sprain?

“Hamstring, football fans must be familiar with this injury haha.. It is a muscle strain injuries. It happens when the athletes do acceleration rapidly that can torn their muscle, or maybe overused their knee.” – @Albet_isla

  1. ‘Cut.’ Meaning: a wound that is caused by incision of sharp edged
    things, such as a knife.

    •  Example:
      • ‘Don’t touch my hand. I’ve just had a paper cut.’
  2. ‘Fracture.’ Meaning: one kind of injuries that is caused by the cracking/breaking of your bones.
    • Example:
      • ‘He got an arm fracture from falling down the stairs.’
  3. ‘Bruise.’ Meaning: a bluish/purplish color on your skin led by the bursting of your blood vessels.
    • Example:
      • ‘I’ve just accidentally knocked my knee. I hope it wouldn’t cause any bruise.’
  4. ‘Splinter.’ Meaning: a small and thin break on your skin. I think in
    Bahasa it is known for ‘goresan.’

    • Example:
      • ‘In spite of a cut, you can get a splinter if you use the knife carelessly.’
  5. ‘Sunburn.’ Meaning: a reddening skin (inflamation) because of the overexposure of ultraviolet.
    • Example:
      • ‘I was told that Aloe vera is used to treat sunburn.’
  6. ‘Whiplash.’ Meaning: asuddent jolt, e.g., on the neck, limbs, or arms, which cause an injury.
    • Example:
      • ‘I experienced whiplash on my knee when I was started
        yoga for the very first time.’
  7. ‘Bite.’ Meaning: a kind of injuries that formed if you were bitten by someone or animals, such as dogs, cats, or maybe snakes.
    • Example:
      • ‘The dog’s bite left a mark for a quite long time.’
  8. ‘Sting.’ Meaning: a wound that is form by (usually) a sharp object that pierce through your skin, such as needles.
    • Example:
      • ‘I have a bee sting on my shoulder.’

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, July 27, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. How is it going? Today we are going to learn how to reduce relative clauses. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses with relative pronouns as subjects (who, which, or that) can be reduced to adjective phrases.

There are two ways in which a relative clause is changed to an adjective phrase:

1) If the relative clause contains be, omit the pronoun and be.
Relative clause: The research which was conducted by the students is published.
Adjective phrase: The research conducted by the students is published.

2) If there is no be in the relative clause, omit the pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
Relative clause: Students who conduct research should write in journals.
Adjective phrase: Students conducting research should write in journals.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Double Comparatives

Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives “The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.

Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).

(More on comparisons: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/20/engclass-degrees-of-comparison/comment-page-1/)

Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.

There are three structures of double comparatives:

1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.

2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.

3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 19, 2018

 

#EngVocab: Medical Conditions (3)

Today we will learn about some other words that are used to describe medical conditions.

You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/05/06/engvocab-medical-conditions/

And the second lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/05/14/engvocab-medical-conditions-2/

Let’s start:

  1. Cyst: lined cavity containing fluid or a solid material.
    E.g. “My brother had a painful cyst near his kidney.”

  2. Atopy: alergic skin disease caused by enviromental antigen.
    E.g. “Her atopy is getting worse.”

  3. Alopecia: partial or complete hair loss.
    E.g. “The new drug does not cure alopecia.”

  4. Abcess: subcutaneous collection of puss.
    E.g. “The doctor has to drain an abcess in his arm.”

  5. Dehydrated: in need of water.
    E.g. “Drink lots of water to avoid becoming dehydrated.”

  6. Focal: the infection is limited to one part of the body.
    E.g. “The symptom is leading to focal brain dysfunction.”

  7. Bariatric: relating to the causes and the treatment of obesity.
    E.g. “The doctor has to perform bariatrix surgery.”

  8. Infantile: affecting young children.
    E.g. “My cousin is suffering from infantile eczema.”

  9. Crippling: causing someone to be physically disabled, especially unable to walk.
    E.g. “The crippling disease kept him in bed for months.”

  10. Febrile: relating to a fever.
    E.g. “The epidemic febrile disease comes with severe headache.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 15, 2018.

#EngGrammar: Active vs Passive (IELTS Writing Task 1 Process)

Hi, fellas. Last week we learned how to structure our writing about a process in IELTS Task 1 (More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/07/engtips-process-ielts-writing-task-1/). Today we will focus on when to use active voice or passive voice in such kind of writing.

1) Active Voice

Active voice is used to describe natural processes or events occurring autonomously in nature, where humans are not involved, such as rain and formation of clouds.

e.g.

task 1 rain

(http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/04/ielts-writing-task-1-water-cycle-essay.html)

Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.

2) Passive Voice

Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/06/26/engclass-the-passive/)

e.g.

task 1 bricks

(https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/988-process-by-which-bricks-are-manufactured-for-the-building-industry)

At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.

Sources:
Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 10, 2018

 

#EngTips: Process (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. To prepare for IELTS Writing Task 1, you do not only need to practice writing based on data, but also diagrams describing how a process occurs. Here is the outline of the task.

bee process

(Taken from https://essayforum.com/writing/honey-bees-life-cycle-57460/)

1) Introduction

Like the other types of IELTS Writing Task 1, the first paragraph constitutes an introduction. It comprises of the paraphrase of the questions and an overview.

a. Paraphrase of the questions

The first sentence tells what the diagram is all about. It can be made by paraphrasing the questions. For example, the question above can be changed into:

“The diagram illustrates the various stages in the life of a honey bee” (More on paraphrasing: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/05/24/engtips-paraphrasing/).

b. Overview

The overview states at least the number of stages. You can also add information on the duration of the process and how it starts and ends.

e.g. There are five stages in the development of the honey bee, from an egg to a mature adult insect. The life cycle takes between 34 and 36 days to complete.

2) Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs are where the steps are described. Break the description into two paragraphs to make it more organised. Do not forget to include the initial and final steps mentioned in the overview, but describe them in more detail or in a different way.

e.g.

The life cycle of the honey bee starts when the female adult lays an egg. It typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.

During the third stage, the nymph grows in size and shed its skin three times. This moulting first takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days later, and again other 9 days later. After a total of 30 to 31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey bee emerges from its final moulting stage, and in the space of only 4 days, it reaches full maturity.

Sequence Words and Phrases

To show the order of a process, sequence words and phrases can be used.

• The First Stage

First,

In the first stage,

At/In the beginning

,The first stage is when…

The process begins/starts/commences when…

The process begins with + <noun/noun phrase>

• Middle Stages

Next,

Then,

Before

After

After this/that,

Afterwards, 

In the following stage, 

In the stage after/following this,

In the stage that follows,

• The Last Stage

Finally,

Ultimately,

Eventually,

The last/final stage is when…

The process ends when…

The process ends with + <noun/noun phrase>

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Ielts-simon.com, IELTS Writing Task 1: life cycle essay, http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2013/01/ielts-writing-task-1-life-cycle-essay.html

Lin Lougheed, Barron’s Writing for the IELTS

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 3, 2018

 

#EngVocab: Ways of expressing dislike

Hi, Fellas, how’s your day? I hope you have a great one, especially, it’s weekend!

Alright, this evening I would like to talk about some vocabulary that is related to ‘dislike.’ Before I start, I want to know whether you know the other words to express ‘disllke.’ Who knows it will be one of the words I am going to share to you.

1). ‘Can’t stand.’ Meaning: to not like something/someone very much.

Example:

  • ‘I can’t stand being around him.’

“In bahasa: tidak bisa bertahan.” – @Subaggiyo

“It is an expression that used when you can’t handle something and makes you want to give up, whether in the situation of angry or sad. P.s. that’s what I usually see and use it ” – @NeNi961111

 

2). ‘Allergic.’ Meaning: a strong feeling of not liking (aversion) something or maybe someone.

  • Example:
    • ‘She is allergic to shopping in malls.’

3). ‘Disgust.’ Meaning:

  1. a strong feeling of dislike because someone/something has an unpleasant trait, whether it is an appearance, smell, behavior, etc.
  2. anger of something bad, unfair, or inappropriate.

Examples:

  • ‘His arrogance disgusts me,’ ‘

4). ‘Detest.’ Meaning: an extreme dislike. Merriam Webster dictionary states that ‘detest’ is synonymous with ‘hate’ and it sometimes can be violent.

Example:

  • ‘I actually detest our school’s new regulation.’

5). ‘Dread.’ Meaning: to fear something greatly.

Example:

  • ‘My little brother dreads lightning. That’s why he always stay with my mother when it is raining.’

The next is ‘loathe.’ Does anyone know its meaning?

“Hate something so much.” – @aminocte

“It resembles with hate..” – @nanangfauzi

“Benci.” – @kaoshitam

“Feel dislike or disgust for sth.” – @uzunyolarabasi

6). ‘Loathe.’ has a similar meaning to ‘detest.’ The question is, what is the difference?

Merriam Webster said that ‘detest’ expresses antipathy while ‘loathe’ expresses intolerance.

Example:

  • ‘Andrew’s decision on terminating the project is loathed by his team members.’

7). ‘Repel.’ Meaning: be repulsive to something. On the other word, ‘repel’ could means resisting something.

Example:

  • ‘The idea of eating broccoli repels her.’

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, June 29, 2018

#EngClass: Compound Sentences

Hi, everyone! How was your day? Did your favourite football team secure a slot in the quarter-final of #WorldCup2018? Mine was hectic, but I was able to do a lot today.

Notice the last sentence of the previous paragraph. It’s what we call a compound sentence.

tomato pizza
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

A compound sentence is a sentence with more than an independent clause. An independent clause is a clause that can already stand as a sentence. It consists of a subject and a predicate. In Indonesian, a compound sentence is known as ‘kalimat majemuk.’

Example of an independent clause:
“I would like a cup of tea.”
“I would like a slice of cake.”

Even though these clauses are simple and short, they can already function as sentences with actual meaning.

Question:
Could you combine those two examples and create a compound sentence?
Answer:
“I would like a cup of tea and a slice of cake.”

 

From the answer, we can identify two characteristics of a compound sentence.

  1. It has a coordinating conjunction.
    There are seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. We can also use a semicolon (;) to do so.

  2. The ideas for both clauses are related.
    The speaker implied that he would like to enjoy a tea-time with some delicacies, namely ‘a slice of cake.’

 

Exercise:
Create a compound sentence by filling the blanks with the correct conjunction.

  1. What would you like for dinner, pizza _____ salad?
  2. Salad is healthier, _____ pizza means a lot of fun.
  3. When you have decided, order through the delivery service, will you? Don’t forget some side dishes _____ I’d suggest bruschetta, chicken wings, _____ some sausages.
  4. I don’t want more carbs, _____ do I want sausages.
  5. Well, take out the bruschetta, then, _____ it contains a lot of carbs. You’re so skinny, _____ you don’t like carbs.
  6. I think I’ll place the order now, _____ it will be here by the time the game is on.

 

Answer:

1.OR.
The sentence compares two alternatives.

2.BUT.
The sentence introduces a second choice that is contrasting with what has been mentioned.

3.First blanks: (;)
There are two clauses being put together, ‘don’t forget some side dishes’ and ‘I’d suggest bruschetta.’
Second blanks: AND.

4.NOR.
The speaker already mentioned a negative statement, ‘I don’t want more carbs,’ and ‘nor’ introduces another negative statement, ‘nor do I want sausages.

5.First blanks: FOR.
‘For’ explains why the ‘bruschetta will be taken out,’ and it is because ‘it contains a lot of carbs.’
Second blanks: YET.
It explains that despite being skinny, the other person still limits his carbohydrate intake.

6.SO.
It explains that the order will be placed soon, with the aim that it will arrive by the time the game starts.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 2 July, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

 

#EngClass: Blending Words (3)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
You can review the second lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/17/engclass-blending-words-2/

Here are some examples of blending words:
1. Dramedy (drama + comedy).
Meaning: a movie or TV programme that combines elements of drama and comedy.

  1. Chillax (chill + relax).
    Meaning: to become calm and relax.

  2. Hangry (hungry + angry).
    Meaning: bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger.

  3. Brainiac (brain + maniac).
    Meaning: someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality.

  4. Snark (snide + remark).
    Meaning: an attitude or expression of mocking irreverence and sarcasm.

  5. Infomercial (information + commercial).
    Meaning: a TV programme that promotes a product in an informative and supposedly objective way.

  6. Chocoholic (chocolate + alcoholic).
    Meaning: a person who is addicted to chocolate.

  7. Moped (motor + pedal).
    Meaning: a low-power, lightweight motorized bicycle.

  8. Edutainment (education + entertainment).
    Meaning: things which are designed to be entertaining and educational at the same time.

  9. Jeggings (jeans + leggings).
    Meaning: tight-fitting stretch pants, made to look like denim.

  10. Vitamin (vital + amine).
    Meaning: substances that you need in order to remain healthy.

  11. Malware (malicious + softwarehic).
    Meaning: any program or file that is intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, or computer network.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 1, 2018.

#EngGrammar: Tenses for IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.

1) Past Tenses

a. Past Simple Tense

This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.

e.g. In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.

b. Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.

e.g. By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.

2) Present Simple Tense

Present simple tense is used to describe a process.

e.g. The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears. 

3) Future Tense

a. Simple Future Tense

Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.

e.g. The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.

b. Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.

e.g. The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.

In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. be likely to, be predicted to, be projected to, and be going to.

e.g.

The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.

By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers: Self-study grammar reference and practice

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2016/09/ielts-writing-task-1-separate-line-graphs-answer.html

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2013/01/ielts-writing-task-1-life-cycle-essay.html

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#EngTips: Numbers and Percentages in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. How is it going? Today we will talk about IELTS Writing Task 1. As we know, we must usually write an article based on data given in the test. Due to the fact that the data are expressed in numbers or percentages, it is essential that we know other ways of expressing them.

1) Fractions

Sometimes, data in IELTS Writing Task 1 are expressed in percentages. To avoid repetition, percentages can be replaced by fractions.

75%= three quarters

67%= two thirds

50%= a half

33%= a third

25%= a quarter

20%= a fifth

e.g.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only 20% was allocated on education.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only a fifth was allocated on education.

If the percentage is, for example 51% or 23%, we can use approximations (approximately, around, almost, about, nearly, just above/over, just below/under, a little/slightly more than or a little/slightly less than)

e.g.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to 31% in 2004.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to just below a third in 2004.

2) Comparisons using half, twice, three times etc. with as many/much…as

e.g.

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won 32 gold medals, while Japan won 16 gold medals

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won twice as many gold medals as Japan. 

3) double, treble, quadruple etc.

e.g.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it rose to 60 in 1998.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it trebled four years later.

4) twofold, threefold etc.

e.g.

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it increased to 45%

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it saw a threefold increase

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: Graph Review (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#WOTD: Roseate

Hi, Fellas!! Happy Eid al-Fitr for those who celebrate it. Happy holiday for those who in a vacation. How was your day anyway?

This evening I would like to talk about the word “roseate.” This word came from Latin, “roseus,” and it was adapted and known as an English word in 15th century. “Roseate” acts an adjective, which means pink or a color that resembles a rose.

  • Example
    • “I love the roseate cardigan.”

On the other hand, “roseate” also mean optimistic. In this matter, there are some words that are related to “roseate,” such as “confident,” “doubtless,” “assuring,” etc.

  • Example:
    • “Where’s my roseate Emma? I am sure you will pass the test.”

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, June 16, 2018

#EngKnowledge: Noah Webster

Fellas, do you know why Americans use honor instead of honour, color instead of colour and center instead of centre? The spelling stems from the work of one of the most influential figures in the development of American English, Noah Webster.

Noah Webster Jr. was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, on October 16, 1758. His father, Noah Webster Sr., was a descendant of John Webster, the Connecticut Governor. His mother, Mercy Steele Webster, was a descendant of William Bradford, the Plymouth County Governor.

Despite being well known for his work in the field of language, Webster studied at Yale Law School. His study began in 1774. Due to serving in the American Revolution, he was graduated four years later. Having been unable to find a work as a lawyer, he finally taught in a school in Goshen, New York.

While teaching, he was dissatisfied inasmuch as texts for children did not reflect the American culture. He said, “Let us then seize the present moment, and establish a national language, as well as a national government”. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. Webster argued that Americans should simplify their spelling by matching letters more closely with phonemes. He expected to standardize American English for Americans spelled, pronounced and used English words differently.

Webster’s most famous masterpiece, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was published in two volumes in 1828 and contained 70,000 entries. It took 18 years to complete the dictionary. In order to know the origin of words, he learned 26 languages, including Old English, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit. It sold more copies than any English book, except the Bible. Later, George and Charles Merriam purchased the right to publish the dictionary and it became what we know today as the Merriam-Webster dictionary.

Sources:
Wikipedia, Noah Webster, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_Webster
Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Noah Webster, https://www.britannica.com/print/article/638653
Elyse Graham, Noah Webster, American identity, and the simplified spelling movement, https://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2018/05/07/noah-webster-american-identity-simplified-spelling-movement/
Garden of Praise, Noah Webster, https://gardenofpraise.com/ibdnoahw.htm
The Atlantic, Noah Webster, Father of the American Dictionary, Was Unemployable, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/10/noah-webster-father-american-dictionary-was-unemployable/322508/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 21, 2018

#EngClass: Blending Words (2)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/

A blending word is a word that is made up of parts of other words that are combined to form a new word with a new meaning.
Usually ‘blending words’ are made by joining the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Blending words can also be called portmanteau words.

Here are some examples of blending words:

  1. Blog (web + log).

Meaning: a regularly updated website or web page, usually run by an individual or small group, containing a writer’s or group of writers’ own experiences, observations, opinions, etc.

  1. Brunch (breakfast + lunch).
    Meaning: a late morning meal eaten at a time between breakfast and lunch, replacing the two meals with one instead.

  2. Cyborg (cybernetic + organism).
    Meaning: a fictional or hypothetical human being with physical abilities that are beyond a normal human because mechanical elements have been built into the body.

  3. Frenemy (friend + enemy).
    Meaning: a person who is a friend even though there is an underlying dislike or rivalry in the relationship.

  4. Glamping (glamorous + camping).
    Meaning: luxury camping or glamprous camping, involving accommodation and facilities more luxurious than traditional camping.

  5. Humongous (huge + monstrous).
    Meaning: very big, both of these words mean large so putting the two words together indicates that something is extremely big.

  6. Internet (international + network).
    Meaning: the global communication network that allows computers around the world to connect and share information.

  7. Mocktail (mock + cocktail).
    Meaning: a cocktail that has no alcohol in it, consisting of a mixture of fruit juices or other soft drinks.

  8. Spanglish (Spanish + English).
    Meaning: a mix of words and idioms from both Spanish and English, often used by people who know both languages well.

  9. Spork (spoon + fork).
    Meaning: an eating utensil that is shaped like both a spoon and fork, often has a rounded spoon shape with short prongs at the end like a fork.

  10. Staycation (stay + vacation).
    Meaning: a budget-friendly alternative to a vacation in which people stay at home during their time off from work.

  11. Affluenza (affluence + influenza).
    Meaning: the guilt or lack of motivation experienced by people who have made or inherited large amounts of money.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, June 17, 2018.

#GrammarTrivia: Due to vs. Because of (REVISIT)

This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’

@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS

Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.

person people woman hand
Photo by Public Domain Pictures on Pexels.com

On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.

“Her headache                  was                                        due to the noise coming from upstairs.”
Subject                               linking verb                         complement

 

On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’

If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’

Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.

Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.

 

Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.

a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.

@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to.
@notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to.
@cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.

 

Answers:
a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’

b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’

 

A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:

‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).

‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.

 

Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)

due to

A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin:
A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom.
The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.

Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…

due to 2

A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan.
The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions.
Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury.
Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 13 June, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

Indonesia's first and only Twitter-based English learning portal