Category Archives: knowledge

#ENGCLASS: PARADOX

Two days ago, we talked about oxymoron, which is a figure of speech that is made of two or more words with contradictory meaning. If you want to read the article on oxymoron, CLICK HERE.

Today, we are going to talk about its sibling, paradox. Both have similar features and are often mixed up.

Penrose triangle (picture by Wikipedia)

What is a paradox? The word paradox came from Latin word ‘paradoxum’, which came from Greek word ‘paradoxon’, which means ‘contrary to expectation.’

Just as an oxymoron, a paradox is also a figure of speech. Furthermore, it is a rhetorical device that seems to contradict itself, but actually has some truth to it.

Does this confuse you, fellas? To put it simply, a paradox is a statement that is logical but contrary to our expectation.

Example:

  1. “The only constant thing is change (Indonesian: satu-satunya hal yang tidak pernah berubah adalah perubahan).”
    Explanation: nothing in life is constant, except change. Change happens all the time, to everything, and to everyone, which makes it constant.
  2. “Failure leads to success (Indonesian: kegagalan adalah sukses yang tertunda).”
    Explanation: by failing over and over again, it means we keep trying and it might mean that someday we will be successful.
  3. “Social media brought us apart and brought us together (Indonesian: media sosial mendekatkan yang jauh dan menjauhkan yang dekat).”
    Explanation: focusing on social media often makes us ignore the people who are physically present around us.
  4. “The more you learn, the less you know (Indonesian: seperti padi, semakin berisi, semakin merunduk).”
    Explanation: the more knowledgeable we are, the more we will realise that there are so many things of which we have little knowledge.
  5. “The enemy of my enemy is my friend (Indonesian: musuh dari musuh saya adalah sekutu saya).”
    Explanation: meeting another enemy could easily make someone our enemy, too, but sometimes they can become our friend out of a mutual dislike towards someone else.

How do paradox and oxymoron differ?
How do we differentiate a paradox and an oxymoron when we see them in a sentence? The key is to remember that an oxymoron is made of words that have opposite meanings, while a paradox is a collection of words that contradicts itself. Check our sources below for complete reading.

Source:
https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/paradox
https://www.dictionary.com/e/paradox-oxymoron/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradox
https://tom-stevenson.medium.com/13-paradoxes-you-can-use-to-improve-your-life-today-b32d7dca4e0f

Do you have a favourite paradox, fellas? Share it with us.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 21 November 2020.

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#ENGCLASS: GOOD STORYTELLING

A few days ago, one of our followers requested tips on storytelling, especially how to narrate a story in a way that the readers/audience will understand.

Bear in mind that storytelling is not only useful on writings; even audio and visual messages need a good storytelling. Whether you are telling a story verbally or via visual cues, a good storytelling skill is necessary.

Take TV or YouTube ads, for example. Even if they are told via audio-visual, most of them have good storyline. This is especially important to send a message to the audience that the products the ads are trying to sell are worthy.

If you are wondering where to start, think of a storytelling as another way of reporting something but add some emotions to it to make it more relatable to the audience. Therefore, you first need to figure out what you are trying to tell. What is it that you want other people to know? Define this first as the main idea of your story.

Photo by Lina Kivaka on Pexels.com

From the main idea, develop the story with 4 Ps:
People: characters of the story
Place: the time and location of the story
Plot: how the story starts and ends
Purpose: what is the reason behind the storytelling

Let’s take for example the Harry Potter franchise. We have Harry as the protagonist and Voldemort as the antagonist and the others as supporting characters. They are the ‘people’ of the Harry Potter story.

The time and the location of the story are England and Scotland in the 90s, which means the story should present how England and Scotland looked like at that time. Of course, there are Hogwarts and the wizarding world as a fictional element to this story, which were created based on the author’s imagination.

And then there is plot, which begins with the murder of Harry’s parents. The story then tells Harry’s journey to defeat Voldemort and ends with Voldemort’s destruction. Along the way, there are major and minor subplots to keep the readers interested.

The last one is purpose. What is the purpose of the telling of Harry Potter story? Is it good against evil? Is it portraying the reality at the time? Is it for entertainment? Is it trying to send a message?

Once you have the general idea of the story, begin creating the structure by deciding the parts of the story that are important. How we meet the main character, how the other characters are introduced, and what happens to them.

You can use linear plot, which is a plot where events happen in chronological order. However, if you feel confident, you can try using non-linear plot. It will keep the readers/audience curious to figure out the exact timeline of the story.

Now, how do we make a storytelling effective?

1. Keep it simple
It’s good to give enough details to the story, but sometimes the less is the better, especially if there is a constraint on time and resources.

2. Keep it focused
An elaborated story is good as long as it does not stray from the purpose of the storytelling. Back to the Harry Potter example, we are all invested in how Harry will finally win the war against Voldemort, so Uncle Vernon’s family tree won’t really be necessary. Not only it does not add much to the storyline, it could also be distracting.

3. Be relatable
A great story appeals to our emotions: we care about what happens to the characters because we see parts of ourselves in them. We struggle with Harry when he is living with the Dursleys, we can understand how Ron is sometimes jealous of Harry, we are annoyed by Draco Malfoy, and some of us agree with Hermione in her bossiest, nosiest moments.

4. Use concise language
Concise means delivering a message clearly and briefly, only in a few words. Some of the ways to achieve this are reading a lot, expanding your vocabulary, and doing a lot of practice.

I hope you find this article helpful. Feel free to add your most favourite way of telling a story.

P.S.: mine is using a non-linear plot, jumping from one event to another, and preparing a plot twist or even a vague ending.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 9 November 2020.

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#ENGKNOWLEDGE: GUY FAWKES NIGHT

“Remember, remember, the fifth of November
The gunpowder treason and plot
I see of no reason why the gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot…”

Do you remember this line, fellas? Along with this mask?

Photo by NEOSiAM 2020 on Pexels.com

Most of us heard the lines or saw the mask first on the movie ‘V for Vendetta’ (James McTeigue, 2006). The main character of the movie, V, was a victim of a biological weapon experiment. The weapon then brought England to a despotic era led by Chancellor Sutler.

V was portrayed to have taken his inspiration from Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes was a member of the Gunpowder Plot who was arrested on 5 November 1605. V wore a mask that was said to resemble Fawkes’ face and set a revolution on the day Fawkes was arrested, 5 November.

Due to the popularity of the movie, many people then associated the Guy Fawkes mask with a symbol of resistance against tyranny. We even have hackers that go by the name Anonymous and use the mask as their persona. However, the history of 5 November 1605 was not exactly that black and white.

If we trace the history of 5 November 1605, we could go back to the reign of Henry VIII from House of Tudor, who was the king of England from 1509 to 1547. During his reign, he declared himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. He adopted the Protestant faith which severed the tie between England and the Catholic Church led by the Pope and eventually resulted in excommunication of England by the Pope and other notable European kingdoms who supported the Pope.

Catholic churches and monasteries across England were forced to close their doors and had their assets confiscated. Anyone who spoke against Henry VIII found their heads rolling off of the chopping block (executed by beheading). This definitely caused a deep resentment between people of different faiths.

Upon his death, Henry passed the throne to his only legitimate son, Edward VI, who was also a devout Protestant. Unfortunately, Edward VI died young at the age of 15-16 and did not leave any heir. He chose his cousin, Lady Jane Grey, to be the new queen, despite having two half-sisters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

The older sister, Mary I, was set on returning England to a Catholic state. With the nobility as her supporters, she overthrew Jane Grey and became the Queen of England for the next 5 years. During her reign, those of Protestant faith were deemed heretics and executed, which led to the coinage of the term ‘Bloody Mary.’ Her sister, Elizabeth I, almost met the same fate; she was accused of plotting against the Queen.

Eventually, Mary I fell ill and died of what was suspected to be ovarian cysts or uterine cancer, and as she had no heir, she reluctantly named her sister, Elizabeth I, who was a Protestant, as her successor. Elizabeth I then reigned for 45 years. She promoted religious tolerance and introduced a Religious Settlement which then became the foundation of the Church of England and Anglicanism.

But again, the succession was an issue, as Elizabeth was a woman and therefore could not pass on her family name. She was torn between marriage proposals from Spain and France, which in her view, would make England merely a vassal state of either kingdom. She was concerned that her marriage would again bring England to disharmony.

So she did something drastic: she chose not to marry. Upon her death in 1603, the throne then passed on to her closest Protestant relative, James VI of Scotland from House of Stuart, who then became James I and reigned upon England and Scotland.

The deep resentment caused by Henry VIII’s decision to declare himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England was still very much obvious more than half a century later. Even during the reign of Elizabeth I, there had been numerous attempts to overthrow the monarch and enthrone someone of Catholic faith, and this also happened during the reign of James I. One of the most notable ones was the Gunpowder Plot.

Set as an attempt to blow up the House of Lords (the parliament) and kill James I, the plot was discovered on 5 November 1605 when Guy Fawkes was arrested. To celebrate the fact that the King had survived the assassination attempt, people lit bonfires around London. An act called ‘The Observance of 5th November’ was then passed to enforce an annual thanksgiving to celebrate the plot’s failure. From then on, the 5th of November is celebrated annually in the UK. It is also known as Bonfire Night and Guy Fawkes Night.

So, I personally have mixed feelings about the fifth of November. I love the movie V for Vendetta, and many people apparently do, too. But it’s safe to say that the history behind Guy Fawkes is… a lot. Do feel free to add anything if there’s something I missed and correct me for any historical inaccuracy.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 5 November 2020.

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#EngTrivia: Idioms and Expressions with the Same or Similar Meanings in English and Indonesian

What are you doing for the Saturday night? I hope that you are staying safe at home but if you must go outside for essential purposes that cannot be delayed, please exercise safety precautions.

Several years ago, we posted an article about common expressions in English and its Indonesian counterparts. You can check it here: Expressions in English and Their Indonesian Counterparts Part 1 and Part 2. 

The background of these articles was that there are expressions in English that we cannot quite translate into Indonesian; we just know what they mean, thus we were trying to find similar expressions in Indonesian to help understand the English version better.

For this article, we are going to do something similar: we’ll start a series of idioms and expressions that have similar or even the same meanings in English and Indonesian. An example submitted by one of our followers on Twitter:

@fatfukuro: Don’t judge a book by its cover (Eng) and jangan menilai buku dari sampulnya (Ina).

pexels-photo-267669.jpeg
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

So here is the list of what we compiled so far:

  1. Backbone (Eng) = Tulang punggung (Ina)
    Meaning: the chief support of a system or an organisation.

  2. Backstab (Eng) = Menusuk dari belakang (Ina)
    Meaning: the action or practice of harming someone’s reputation whilst feigning friendship.

  3. Big-headed (Eng) = Besar kepala (Ina)
    Meaning: conceited or arrogant.

  4. Big-hearted (Eng) = Besar hati (Ina)
    Meaning: kind and generous.

  5. Big mouth (Eng) = Besar mulut (Ina)
    Meaning: a boastful person.

  6. Blue blood (Eng) = Darah biru (Ina)
    Meaning: a person of noble or royal birth.

  7. Bookworm (Eng) = Kutu buku (Ina)
    Meaning: someone who loves reading.

  8. Brainwash (Eng) = Cuci otak (Ina)
    Meaning: force someone to adopt a radically different belief.

  9. Brokenhearted (Eng) = Patah hati (Ina)
    Meaning: overwhelmed by grief or disappointment.

  10. Cold-blooded (Eng) = Berdarah dingin (Ina)
    Meaning: deliberately cruel or violent.

  11. Cool-headed (Eng) = Kepala dingin (Ina)
    Meaning: calm.

  12. Empty-handed (Eng) = Tangan hampa (Ina)
    Meaning: unsuccessful, fruitless effort.

  13. Fall in love (Eng) = Jatuh hati (Ina)
    Meaning: develop romantic feelings towards someone or deep liking for something.

  14. Flesh and blood (Eng) = Darah daging (Ina)
    Meaning: someone related to us by blood.

  15. Get some fresh air (Eng) = Cari angin (Ina)
    Meaning: go outside to take a break from a possibly stressful situation.

  16. Go in one ear, out of the other (Eng) = Masuk kuping kiri, keluar kuping kanan (Ina)
    Meaning: of a piece of information that is quickly forgotten.

  17. Golden child (Eng) = Anak emas (Ina)
    Meaning: a favoured child amongst a group of children.

  18. Half-heartedly (Eng) = Setengah hati (Ina)
    Meaning: not feeling fully committed or engaged to an activity.

  19. Head of the family (Eng) = Kepala keluarga (Ina)
    Meaning: someone who leads a family.

  20. Heavy heart (Eng) = Berat hati (Ina)
    Meaning: with much sadness and regret.

  21. Hot seat (Eng) = Kursi panas (Ina)
    Meaning: being in a position of heavy duty and responsibility.

  22. Iron fist (Eng) = Tangan besi (Ina)
    Meaning: of a government or someone exercising power in a ruthless or oppressive manner.

  23. Law of the jungle (Eng) = Hukum rimba (Ina)
    Meaning: of a world where those who are strong and apply ruthless self-interest will be most successful.

  24. Lift one’s hat to… (Eng) = Angkat topi (Ina)
    Meaning: praise, salute, congratulate, or pay tribute to someone.

  25. Open arms (Eng) = Tangan terbuka (Ina)
    Meaning: a warm welcome.

  26. Open secret (Eng) = Rahasia umum (Ina)
    Meaning: of a secret who is known to many people.

  27. Out of control (Eng) = Hilang kendali (Ina)
    Meaning: of something that’s no longer possible to manage.

  28. Pen pal (Eng) = Sahabat pena (Ina)
    Meaning: someone with whom we develop friendship by sending letters to one another, particularly if we live in different countries.

  29. Put one’s hands up (Eng) = Angkat tangan (Ina)
    Meaning: raise one’s hands to surrender.

  30. Quick on one’s feet (Eng) = Cepat kaki (Ina)
    Meaning: able to think and take quick action.

  31. Right hand (Eng) = Tangan kanan (Ina)
    Meaning: an assistant, the most important position next to someone.

  32. Scapegoat (Eng) = Kambing hitam (Ina)
    Meaning: someone who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others.

  33. Silent witness (Eng) = Saksi bisu (Ina)
    Meaning: an object that displays traces of evidences of a crime.

  34. Stage fright (Eng) = Demam panggung (Ina)
    Meaning: nervousness before or during an appearance before an audience.

  35. Stepping stone (Eng) = Batu loncatan (Ina)
    Meaning: an action or event that helps someone to make progress towards a specified goal.

  36. Take something to one’s heart (Eng) = Memasukan ke dalam hati (Ina)
    Meaning: take criticism seriously and be affected or upset by it.

  37. Tangled web (Eng) = Benang kusut (Ina)
    Meaning: of a situation or a problem that is confusing or difficult to solve.

  38. Throw a towel (Eng) = Lempar handuk (Ina)
    Meaning: stop trying or doing something because lacking of determination or conviction that one can win or be successful.

  39. Turn a blind eye (Eng) = Tutup mata (Ina)
    Meaning: pretend not to notice something is happening, usually something bad.

  40. Two-faced (Eng) = Bermuka dua (Ina)
    Meaning: of someone being insincere or acting one way in certain situations and then in a contrary manner in others.

  41. Walk away (Eng) = Ambil langkah seribu (Ina)
    Meaning: easily, casually, or irresponsibly abandon a situation in which one is involved or for which one is responsible.

  42. Wash one’s hands of… (Eng) = Cuci tangan (Ina)
    Meaning: not wanting to be involved with someone or something, not taking responsibility of someone or something.

  43. Watch one’s mouth (Eng) = Jaga lidah/mulut (Ina)
    Meaning: being careful of what one says.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 11 July 2020.


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#EngTrivia: Extended Family Members

When it comes to family members, we have our immediate family members consisting of our parents, siblings, spouses, and children. This group might also include our half-siblings (siblings we have from different parents).

And then there are our close relatives, such as grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, and cousins.

What we also count as our relatives are the extended family members, who are still related to us by blood but not as close as our immediate family members or our close relatives. Who are they and how do we address them?

pexels-photo-1835926.jpeg
Photo by Craig Adderley on Pexels.com

Say, my grandfather has a younger brother. In Indonesian, I will simply call him ‘Kakek’ or grandfather, just as how I call my grandfather. But in English, I will refer to him as my great uncle. The same applies to great aunt.

And then I have a cousin, who is a child of my parent’s sibling. I will refer to this cousin as my first cousin. If my parent’s cousin has a child, that person is my second cousin. My child will also refer to the child of my cousin’s as the second cousin.

What about my parent’s cousins? In Indonesian, I will call them uncles and aunts. In English, they are still called cousins only with ‘removal’, that implies different generation. For example, my father’s first cousin is my first cousin once removed. The term applies both ways. My father’s first cousin will also refer to me as his/her/their first cousin once removed. My children will refer to them as the first cousin twice removed and vice versa.

The last but not least, we have the in-laws, who are related to us by marriage. Our spouse’s parents are our parents in law and our spouse’s siblings are our siblings in law.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 20 June 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: Twitter Handles to Expand Your Vocabularies

Many of us are on self-quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only to keep ourselves safe and healthy, we are doing this to prevent further transmission of the virus to other people with whom we interact. We might not be showing symptoms (asymptomatic), but it does not always mean we are not carrying the virus with us. For me, it is better to be safe than sorry.

However, being on self-quarantine does come with challenging times. Eventually, I noticed my sleep pattern changes as I sleep or take frequent naps during the day and stay awake almost the whole night. Do you also experience the same?

I figured that I needed to find new interests to keep me busy and I decided to read and learn more especially about topics that I had never really touched before the pandemic.
Recently, I completed the 30-day word challenge by Merriam-Webster Dictionary.

Merriam Webster
Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary’s Twitter handle

On this article, I’m going to share some accounts that will help you expand your vocabularies and learn grammar effectively.
1. Merriam-Webster dictionary
@MerriamWebster provides you with Word of the Day, the background story behind words and phrases, and trending words.

  1. Dictionary.com
    @Dictionarycom also provides word of the day and trending words, with quite a sassy and hilarious manner.
  2. The Oxford English Dictionary
    My most favourite feature of @OED is its Word of the Year, which doesn’t only cover the most searched word of the year as it might also introduce a new word that is widely used but not registered on any dictionaries yet.
  3. The Yuniversity
    @The_YUNiversity posts daily vocabulary and grammar lessons in just a few tweets and helpful infographics. Its explanation is also really easy to comprehend. Bonus: KPop fans will relate so much to this handle.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 11 June 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: World Environment Day 2020

Hello everyone, how are you doing? It’s been raining a lot here in Bali, Indonesia, despite we have entered dry season. By the way, did you know that 5 June is celebrated every year as World Environment Day?

pexels-photo-1072824.jpeg
Photo by Akil Mazumder on Pexels.com

World Environment Day (WED) is observed every year on 5 June to raise global awareness to take positive environmental action to protect nature and the planet Earth.

UN designates 5 June as World Environment Day in 1972 and two years later (1974), WED is celebrated for the first time under the slogan “Only One Earth.” During 1974-1983, WED was celebrated 10 times but only in three countries (USA, Canada, and Bangladesh).

World Environment Day 2020 is focusing on biodiversity and will be hosted in Colombia in partnership with Germany. The theme of World Environment Day 2020 is “Celebrate Biodiversity.” Videos highlighting the biodiversity and environmental achievements of different regions of Colombia will be featured throughout the day, including images and drone footage of strategic ecosystems. We can join the conversation online with the hashtag #ForNature.

Air pollution, overpopulation, deforestation, and climate crisis have been some of the major factors that affect our environment. By actively participating to decrease the impact of any factors above, we might have hope for a better environment. Humans are not the only species on this planet and our actions have significant impact on the existence of other species. Furthermore, studies show deforestation and loss of wildlife cause increases in infectious diseases, including the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

We have only one Earth and we live on this world together, fellas. Let’s let nature be nature and do our parts to help reduce the negative impact of climate crisis. Stay safe everywhere you are.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, 5 June 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: Eid al-Fitr 2020

Hi, hello, everyone, how was your Eid holiday?

I’ll admit that to me it felt different as we have been in self-quarantine for a while that I lost count of what day it is. Do you also experience the same? Share your story!

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Photo by Khairul Onggon on Pexels.com

Eid al-Fitr is an important holiday for Muslims worldwide. In Indonesia, it is usually marked by 7-10 days of holiday to accommodate those who do homecoming trip. We didn’t see the hustle and bustle this year as much as the previous years due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

It is also marked with visiting the houses of our close friends and relatives to ask and give forgiveness for our wrongs, which is usually ended with dining together. The signature dishes are ketupat (rice cake wrapped in coconut leaf), opor ayam (braised chicken soup), and rendang. What about in your countries?

Aside of that, we also provide assorted cakes and cookies, such as nastar (pineapple tart), putri salju (literally snow princess), and kaasstengels (soft cheese sticks), accompanied with cold juice to the guests. Given the pandemic, most of us might skip all these traditions and some might not get the chance to meet our families.

Stay strong, fellas. Sometimes we need to make a sacrifice to keep ourselves and our loved ones safe.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 25 May 2020.


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#EngTips: Eid al-Fitr During COVID19 Pandemic

A big holiday is coming in less than a week for us in Indonesia, but sadly, it’s most likely that this year’s Eid al-Fitr will be very different than the previous years. Regardless, it’s a difficult situation for all of us so we need to work together to help flatten the curve.

What can we do on this year’s Eid? Here’s what we recommend.

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Photo by Tayeb MEZAHDIA on Pexels.com

  1. Save the funds for emergency.
    I think we can put less priority on new clothing or lavish celebrations in favour of emergency funds and donation to those who are in need.
    Do you agree, fellas?

  2. Stay in the city.
    I understand that the situation is very different from one person to another but if you still can stay in the city where you’ve been living, consider not doing the homecoming trip until we get the situation under control. This is to avoid spreading the COVID-19 virus to our family and relatives in our hometown.

  3. Minimise movement and keep physical distance.
    The Eid prayer is an important part of the Eid holiday. If the local government considers it safe to do so, still maintain your distance from other people. Keeping a safe distance between two people could reduce the risk of getting infected by the virus.

  4. Make use of the technology.
    Make use of our smartphones to contact our loved ones by, perhaps, having a virtual celebration. It is very important to stay connected as well as checking up on each other.

Those are the tips that we can share, fellas. Happy holiday and stay safe!

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 18 May 2020.


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#EngTalk: Generation Equality

Hi, hello, everyone! How are you doing today? Yesterday, we celebrated the International Women’s Day so this article will be related to it.

As we know it, the theme for this year’s International Women’s Day is ‘I Am Generation Equality: Realizing Women’s Rights.’ So what do you think about the theme, fellas?

calendar conceptual data date
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

For me, equality is about no discrimination towards someone regardless of whether the person is a male or female. The same opportunity, the same appreciation, and consequently, the same responsibility. I’d love to read your thoughts about it. I think I was fortunate to grow up in an environment that emphasises how women should be encouraged and supported to be the best version of themselves and I think everyone should have the same chance. Do you agree, fellas?

We have made progress, but there’s still so much to do to ensure that we could become the generation equality. I will start with promoting a safe environment for women to live in and to thrive, be it in a family, at school, or at the workplaces. The work that needs to be done is not necessarily exclusive to one type of sex or gender. We should always respect, support, and care about each other.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 9 March 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: Word of the Year

Hi, fellas, did you know that Oxford Dictionaries’ Word of the Year 2019 is ‘climate emergency?’

We face more and more weather and climate-related crisis every year, so it is natural that people all around the world are getting more curious about the term ‘climate emergency’ and decided to look it up on the dictionaries.

As defined by Oxford Dictionaries, climate emergency is “a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it.”

But what is ‘Word of the Year’ and how did this tradition start?

words text scrabble blocks
Photo by Skitterphoto on Pexels.com

 

Word(s) of the Year refers to any of various assessments as to the most important word(s) or expression(s) during a specific year.

The first known version of this tradition is the German one, Wort des Jahres, which was started in 1971. The American Dialect Society is the oldest English version, started in 1991. By early 2000s, a lot of organisations began to announce their versions of Word(s) of the Year for various purposes and with various criteria for the assessment.

Oxford Dictionaries’ Word of the Year for the last five years are:

2015: Face with tears of joy emoji or laughing-crying emoji, the first emoji to have ever been selected.
2016: Post-truth.
2017: Youthquake.
2018: Toxic.
2019: Climate emergency.

The American Dialect Society also chose the Word of the Decade, which is ‘web’ for 1990s, ‘to google’ for 2000s, and singular ‘they’ for 2010s. According to the Society, the Word of the 20th century is jazz and the Word of the Past Millennium is ‘she.’

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 20 February 2020.


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#EngVocab: Words Related to Mobile Phone

Nowadays, a mobile phone has become a permanent part to our hands. We check our phones constantly even if there is no notification of incoming messages or calls or anything important on social medias. Do you also experience the same, fellas?

person taking photos of food
Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

This article will discuss words related to mobile phones.

1. Credit
This is a common term for prepaid mobile phone service, where we purchase some amount to use the provider’s service. In Indonesian, the term ‘phone credit’ has the same meaning as ‘pulsa.’

2. Data
(Mobile) data is what connects the phone to the internet when it is not connected to a Wi-Fi network.

3. Plans
Plans mean a package that might include a number of SMS, several minutes of phone calls, and some gigabits of mobile data that we purchase from the provider on a one-off occasion or on a regular basis.

Made Wirautama (@wirautama): In Indonesian we call it “paket data”.

4. 4G and 4.5G
4G means the fourth generation of mobile phone connection. It allows a mobile phone to connect to the internet with a relatively high download speed, which is 7-12 Mbps (megabits per second), and converts the phone to a mobile multimedia. 4.5G is an improved version of 4G with faster connection that could reach 14-21 Mbps. At the moment, we’re all excited for 5G, of course.

5. 4K
What is a 4K video? A video with 4K on it means that it was shoot with a lens with 3840 x 2160 pixels. It provides clearer, less fuzzy motions.

6. 720p
720p is currently the most common number to describe screen resolution. ‘P’ means progressive-scan and ‘720’ is the number of horizontal lines on the display. Higher screen resolutions are 1080p, 2160p (4K), and 8K.

7. HD
HD stands for high definition, which is also another name for a video with 720p resolution. 1080p is full HD (FHD). 1440p is Quad HD (QHD). 2160p or 4K is Ultra HD (UHD).

8. Lite
A lite version is a ‘lighter’ version of an application. It typically takes smaller space of the phone memory, displays media with lower resolutions, and has limited features compared to the full version.

9. Beta version
A beta version generally refers to a version of a piece of software that is made available for testing, typically by a limited number of users outside the company that is developing it, before its general release.

10. International roaming
The term refers to a feature that allows us to use the service of the provider in a foreign country where the service is not available. It usually costs more than the regular service.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 10 February 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: Common Misconceptions in English Learning

Hi, hello, fellas! How are you?

With the increasing use of English in every field, English proficiency is a must-have skill. We in Indonesia, however, could find a lot of challenges when trying to learn English, some of them came from the misconceptions that we still believe to be true until now.

By changing our mindset about these misconceptions, we will be better prepared to embrace English learning or learning any other foreign languages as a part of our daily life.

What are those misconceptions?

 

abstract blackboard bulb chalk
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

English (or any foreign languages) is hard. I will never be good at it.
Trust me, fellas, I also had the same mindset when I first started learning English. It turned out that it was just in my mind. And so, I tried a variety of learning methods. One that helped me a lot was doing a lot of exercise and practice, whether it was reading, listening, or structure/grammar. Take your time while learning something new and be patient with yourself.

We can learn English better and faster with a native speaker.
Not always true. Most native speakers learn English through language acquisition when they were young, which means they might not experience the difficulty of learning a new language at a later age. Native speakers can often follow English grammar patterns without knowing what that grammar pattern is, so they can use English well but might not be able to teach it.

I can never master the correct British/American/Australian accent.
Again, this is not always true, fellas. With practice, you can acquire the accent, but the more important thing is the correct pronunciation as well as your confidence in yourself to use English on a daily basis.

Grammar is the most important part of English learning.
The correct statement is all elements of English learning are equally important. Grammar at times can be the most intimidating part, but as you grow to love what you are learning and notice the pattern on which a grammar is used, you will find no difficulties using grammar.

Someone who speaks English is more intelligent than others.
Proficiency in English does not equate intelligence, fellas. It’s true that by being proficient in English, the opportunity to learn new things will open widely. However, it will depend on the person whether he/she/they can use the opportunity and the resources well, including understanding the subject.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 13 January 2020.


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#EngKnowledge: 2020 Fun Facts

#Page364of365 Today is the last Monday this year and only less than 48 hours before we change the calendar. How excited are you for 2020, fellas?

pexels-photo-3401900.jpeg
Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

I myself am looking into personal growth, doing more voluntary works or charitable activities, and learning some new skills, like sewing. What about you?

While making a list of things we are planning to do in 2020, let’s share some facts about the new year.

  1. The year 2020 will start on a Wednesday and as it is a leap year, will have 366 days.
  2. People all over the world mostly believe that 2019 is the last year of this decade (2010-2019), which means 2020 is the first year of the new decade. However, there are some who believe that the new decade starts in 2021. How is that? Because there are two ways to decide from when to when a decade lasts. The first way is by the same digit. For example, the 1990s started from 1990 and lasted until 1999. The second way is by starting a decade with the last digit ‘1.’ As there is no year ‘zero/0,’ we start counting the years from year 1. By this definition, the 2020 is the last year of the decade and the new decade will begin on 1 January 2021.
  1. The Roman number of 2020 is MMXX.
  2. The Gregorian year 1992 had the exact same calendar as the year 2020.
  3. The Chinese year of Metal Rat will last from 25 January 2020 until 11 February 2021. Rat is the first animal on the Chinese zodiac list so the year of rat is believed to be a new beginning when people from all zodiac signs can prosper.

If you think 2019 was not up to your expectation and 2020 is not going to be any different, plan to try out new things or rediscover your love for old hobbies and idle skills. Who knows what will happen, right? Let’s welcome 2020 with a bang!

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 30 December 2019.


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#EngKnowledge: The Twelve Days of Christmas

Have you ever heard of the phrase ‘The Twelve Days of Christmas,’ fellas? Have you ever wondered what it is and what it means?

‘The Twelve Days of Christmas’ is a Christmas carol that dated back to 1780 when it was first used in England as a chant or a rhyme. It is believe to have a French origin.

It tells a story of accumulating gifts for twelve days since Christmas Day; each day the amount of gift increases from the day before.

assorted color gift boxes
Photo by Giftpundits.com on Pexels.com

The song goes like this (source: Google):

On the first day of Christmas my true love sent to me
A partridge in a pear tree
On the second day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the third day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the fourth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the fifth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the sixth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Six geese a laying, five gold rings, four calling birds
Three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the seventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying, five gold rings
Four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the eighth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the ninth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Nine drummers drumming, eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying, five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the tenth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Ten pipers piping
Nine drummers drumming, ten pipers piping
Drumming, piping, drumming, piping
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the eleventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Eleven ladies dancing, ten pipers piping, nine drummers drumming
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the twelfth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Twelve Lords a leaping, eleven ladies dancing, ten pipers piping
Nine, drummers drumming, eight maids a milking
Seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
And five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree, and a partridge in a pear tree

 

There are several variations and versions to this song but all tells a story of cumulative wealth or gifts. There are also similar verses in Scotland, Faroe Islands, and France. The exact origins and the meaning of the song are unknown, although many believe that it came from children’s memory and forfeit game. Each child in succession repeats the gifts of the day and forfeits or is given penalty for each mistake.

Do you want to try to memorise it, fellas?

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 26 December 2019.


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#EnGrammar: Rather Than

Hi fellas, Have you studied English today?

Today we will discuss how to use “rather than” in the sentence. Let’s get started!

Basically, the role of “rather than” depends on the type of sentence in which it’s being used.

Rather than in sentences, it functions as an adverb, conjunctions and prepositions.

1. As an adverb, to indicate a preference, degree, or accuracy.

Example:

I would rather not go.

” She is a doctor, or rather, a surgeon.”

2. As a conjunction, parallel grammatical constructions appear on each side of rather than.

Example:

“For exercise, I walk rather than run.”

” Rather than repair the car, I prefer to buy a new one.”

3. As a preposition, rather than is synonymous with instead of and begins subordinate clauses.

Example:

Rather than driving, he rode his bike to work.

“Rather than using dried herbs, he picked fresh ones from the garden.”

#EngTalk : Job Interview (2)

Fellas, are you a fresh graduate from a college or a university or do you want to take a professional work as early as after finishing high school? You must have been aware of job interviews.

Job Interview with Interviewers
https://www.wallstreetmojo.com/top-best-job-interviewing-books/

Job interviews are amongst the first steps that must be taken before you start corporate life. Multinational companies specifically conduct the interviews in English. Could you share some stories of your first job interviews? Mention us.

@arditaher

“My first job interview was fun! Other candidates graduated from Perth and Californian campus, but the company picked me from Kalibata campus”.

@prabhuconnects

I went for job interview for bpo job. Interviewer asked me to speak 5 minutes English. I spoke 30 seconds in proper English. It was Amazing experinced until I missed my bus“.

You must also have been aware that nowadays job interviews are not done face to face only. Companies can conduct the interviews through video calls or Skype.

But if you must meet the company’s HRD person or the user, dressing politely and making a good first impression will make you go a long way.

If you are applying for a job in creative industry, never forget to prepare your portfolio and creative experiences. They could help convincing the company to hire you.

A job in creative industry might vary from being a copywriter, a web content writer, a photographer, an illustrator, to a graphic designer.

As for formal sector, prepare your most updated CV that mentions your relevant past experiences. Formal sector jobs refer to an administrative staff, a financial staff, a customer service, a teller, a manager, and so on.

After the interview is over, make sure you have given the company your contactable phone number and email address.

That’s all for today, fellas. Good luck for your next job interview!

Compiled and Written by: @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, April 24, 2019

#Engvocab: Election

Hello fellas, how are you today? Fellas, on April 17, 2019, we in Indonesia hold a general election to determine the future members of House of Representative and the future president and vice president. Therefore, today, we are going to discuss vocabularies related to election.

An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. There are several vocabularies that we often hear or read in regards to election terms. Here they are:

1. Campaign
Means the things a candidate does to get elected (shaking hands, giving oration, etc.).
E.g.: “He took a campaign tour of West Java last week.”

2. Debate
Means to argue for or against something.
E.g.: “The topic of tonight’s presidential debate is national defense and security.”

3. Candidate
Means the person who is running in an election.
E.g.: “The Indonesia presidential election in 2019 has two pair of candidates.”

4. Politics
Means the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area.
E.g.: “I told her I was going into politics.”

5. Voter
Means the individual who is voting in an election.
E.g.: “Now the voters will decide.”

6. Ballot paper
Means a piece of paper or a small ball used in a secret voting.
E.g.: “Each person will get a ballot which should be kept confidential.”

7. Supporter
Means the individual who supports a candidate during an election.
E.g.: “All supporters in this campaign are so excited to meet the candidate.”

8. Political party
Means a group of people with similar political goals and opinions whose main purpose is to get candidates elected to public office.
E.g.: “Most of political parties in this election are optimistic about their candidates being elected.”

9. Democracy
Means a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

E.g.: “Indonesia is one of the countries that adapts democracy as its system of government.”

10. Government
Means the governing body of a nation, state, or community.
E.g.: “The first MRT in our city was planned by the previous government.”

Thank you and see you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, April 10, 2019