In this era, world science is probably still dominated by the use of English. It can be seen from a large number of research papers written in English to reach a global audience. However, English had not been the lingua franca for European intellectuals prior to the 1600s. They, including Isaac Newton, published their works in Latin.
There were several reasons to write science in Latin. The first one was about its audience. Latin was deemed more suitable for international scholars. On the other hand, English was only able to reach a more local audience.
Scholars also continued writing in Latin due to a concern for secrecy. To put preliminary ideas into the public domain could jeopardize them. This concern about intellectual property rights showed the humanist idea of the individual, rational scientist inventing and discovering through private intellectual work, as well as the nexus of science and commercial exploitation.
The third factor which hindered the use of English in science was its linguistic inadequacy. English did not have sufficient necessary technical vocabulary. Likewise, its grammar was unable to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations.
Ultimately, several members of the Royal Society were interested in language and involved in various linguistic projects. They encouraged science to be published in English and a suitable writing style to be developed. Many of the society’s members also wrote their monographs in English, one of whom was Robert Hooke after conducting his experiments with microscopes in Micrographia (January 1665). Two months after the publication of Micrographia, Philosophical Transactions, world’s longest-running scientific journal, was introduced.
The development of scientific English thus saw a formative period in the seventeenth century. Nevertheless, German was the most prominent European language of science in the 1700s. By the end of the 18th century 401 German scientific journals had been inaugurated as opposed to 96 in France and 50 in England. The substantial lexical growth of scientific English occurred in the 1800s as the industrial revolution required new technical vocabulary. Furthermore, new, specialized, professional societies were formed to encourage and publish in the new areas of study.
Hi, Fellas, happy weekend! How are you doing during this week? Have you sensed holiday atmosphere in the air? Speaking of holiday, in this season I would like to share some information about the origin of thanksgiving
When you hear the word “thanksgiving,” what does suddenly come to your mind? Is it turkey? Or autumn? Family gathering? Do you know when was Thanksgiving celebrated for the first time? And where was it?
It is said that the first Thanksgiving was celebrated in North America, 1621. The tradition itself had been brought by English Pilgrims that came to Massachusetts. Some history stated it was acknowledged when The Pilgrims shared meals with the native, Wampanoag Indians, as a celebration of good harvest.
However, a historian named Michael Gannon stated that the culture had been existed around fifty years before. On September 1565, there were some colonists in St. Augustine, Florida, shared the Thanksgiving banquet to the natives. Despite of the original start of Thanksgiving, an information from History.com stated that for more than two centuries since 1621, Thanksgiving was celebrated in a different time by the colonist and Americans. And in some moments, Thanksgiving was celebrated for different purpose, too. As Illustrations, during American Revolution, Thanksgiving even celebrated more than one day a year.
After that, in 1789, George Washington hold Thanksgiving to celebrate America’s independence and to express gratitude of successful American ratification. Finally, in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed that Thanksgiving should be celebrated each year on final Thursday of November as a national event in America. However, the celebration was revised on the fourth Thursday of November by Franklin Roosevelt due to induce retail sale during Great Depression during 1930s. Ultimately, I think that nowadays’ Thanksgiving day is celebrated according to Roosevelt basis. source:
Fellas, do you know why Americans use honor instead of honour, color instead of colour and center instead of centre? The spelling stems from the work of one of the most influential figures in the development of American English, Noah Webster.
Noah Webster Jr. was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, on October 16, 1758. His father, Noah Webster Sr., was a descendant of John Webster, the Connecticut Governor. His mother, Mercy Steele Webster, was a descendant of William Bradford, the Plymouth County Governor.
Despite being well known for his work in the field of language, Webster studied at Yale Law School. His study began in 1774. Due to serving in the American Revolution, he was graduated four years later. Having been unable to find a work as a lawyer, he finally taught in a school in Goshen, New York.
While teaching, he was dissatisfied inasmuch as texts for children did not reflect the American culture. He said, “Let us then seize the present moment, and establish a national language, as well as a national government”. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. Webster argued that Americans should simplify their spelling by matching letters more closely with phonemes. He expected to standardize American English for Americans spelled, pronounced and used English words differently.
Webster’s most famous masterpiece, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was published in two volumes in 1828 and contained 70,000 entries. It took 18 years to complete the dictionary. In order to know the origin of words, he learned 26 languages, including Old English, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit. It sold more copies than any English book, except the Bible. Later, George and Charles Merriam purchased the right to publish the dictionary and it became what we know today as the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
Hi, hello, fellas! How was your Eid al-Fitr holiday? Eid Mubarak for all of you who celebrated it.
While we are still in the festivities, I’d like to share some words related to Eid al-Fitr tradition in Indonesia.
Mudik (Ina) = Homecoming trip (Eng)
A trip to our hometown that we usually do at the end of Ramadan.
Bermaaf-maafan (Ina) = forgiving one another (Eng)
It is believed that we should celebrate Eid al-Fitr with a clean mind, body, and soul, and forgiving one another is one way to achieve it.
Kemacetan panjang (Ina) = traffic congestion (Eng)
It is not exactly a tradition, but traffic congestion happens almost every year during homecoming. Luckily, the traffic and road condition have improved a lot this year.
Silaturahmi (Ina) = amity, tight friendship (Eng)
Refers to a close bond between two human beings who might or might not be related by blood.
Halalbihalal (Ina) = Gathering to ask for forgiveness (Eng)
An occasion when family or close friends gather to catch up with each other and ask/give forgiveness.
Ketupat (Ina) = Steamed rice cake wrapped in diamond-shaped palm leaves (Eng)
Similarly, we also have lontong (Ina) = steamed rice cake wrapped in banana leaves (Eng). Phew, quite a mouthful, isn’t it?
Opor ayam (Ina) = chicken braised in coconut milk (Eng)
One of the most popular dishes served during Eid al-Fitr celebration.
Rendang (Ina) = rendang (Eng)
This widely popular dish has been recognized by its own name, even when we are speaking English. We can also refer to it as meat simmered in spices and coconut milk.
Hi, fellas, how was your Monday? I was shook when I realized that we are halfway through 2018.
Does anyone recognize the word ‘shook’ that I used on the previous sentence? Have you ever read it before?
@catheramirez: ‘Surprise,’ ‘I can’t believe it.’
Q: @nadirantsy: Does shook have the same meaning with shocked? Same context? A:Yes, but I think we should limit ‘shook’ to a relaxed, playful context. We don’t use it to express our sadness when hearing a bad news, for example.
‘Shook’ is one of the popular internet terms that we are going to discuss tonight. As languages are ever-evolving, these internet terms are actual English words whose meanings have changed over the years.
Here are some popular internet terms that are still used as of mid-2018:
Bamboozled From the verb ‘to bamboozle’ (informal). It means to fool or cheat someone. It also means to confuse or perplex.
E.g.: “I’m bamboozled by the amount of retweets to my Twitter post.”
Boi/boye A cute way to spell ‘boy.’ Usually used to a male dog.
E.g.: “Oh, you’re such a good boiiiiii…”
Burn A reaction we gave when somebody has just been talked back to.
A: “Without the ugly in this world, there would be nothing beautiful.”
B: “Thank you for your sacrifice.”
Canceled ‘To cancel’ used to describe that an event would not take place OR a force negated another, but nowadays, netizen use ‘canceled’ to describe a dismissed or rejected person or idea.
E.g.: “If you don’t like my doggos, you will be canceled.”
Cringe and cringey ‘To cringe’ is to experience an inward shiver upon seeing or hearing something embarrassing. ‘Cringey’ is used as an adjective to describe something that causes somebody to cringe.
E.g.: “I cringed so hard when I watched her lip-synced performance. It was so cringey.”
Deceased It was used to politely say that someone has passed away, but now, it is used to describe that something is really cool or awesome or funny that it takes our lives away.
E.g.: “OMG, my brother bought me tickets to a Rich Brian’s concert! I’m deceased!”
Doggo Basically, it’s a cute way to say ‘dog.’
E.g.: “I just saw a super adorable, squishy, fluffy doggo.” insert crying face emojis
Extra Something is ‘extra’ if it is done in an exaggerated, over-the-top way.
E.g.: “Rihanna’s outfit at the 2018’s Met Gala is so extra.”
Epic comeback It used to describe a spectacular return of an artist, most of the time musicians, after a long hiatus. Now, it also means a witty (sometimes harsh) response to an insult.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.
Feels All emotions mixed up: sadness, joy, envy, love, etc.
E.g.: “TVXQ’s comeback gave me all the feels.”
HMU Stands for ‘hit me up,’ which means ‘contact me.’
E.g.: “HMU the next time you visit the city.”
Humblebrag The act of bragging while appearing humble; the art of false modesty.
E.g.: “Who knew that constant vacations and holidays could be this exhausting?”
Lit It used to describe the state of being drunk, but it is now used to express that something is exceptionally good.
E.g.: “The latest Arctic Monkey’s album was so lit it set my headphones on fire.”
A noob is a person who is inexperienced in a particular sphere or activity, especially computing or the use of the Internet. It came from the word ‘newbie.’ However, ‘newbie’ has a more positive connotation while ‘noob’ is intended as an insult.
A: “Hey guys, I’m kinda new here.“
B: “LOL, noob.”
Overproud A reaction we gave when our nation or something originated from our nation is being talked about in a positive way.
A: “Did you know that an instant noodle brand from Indonesia was marketed worldwide?”
B: “Are you being overproud right now?”
Pwned A gaming-style spelling of ‘owned,’ meaning being defeated badly.
E.g.: “Oh, snap, I was just pwned!”
Salty Upset, angry, or bitter, after being made fun of or embarrassed. It can also be used to say that someone is mad.
E.g.: “Gosh, stop being so salty! You broke up with him; now it’s time to move on!”
Savage Being ‘savage’ is saying or doing something harsh without a regard to the consequences.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.”
C: “Oooh, that was savage!”
Shady and throwing shade Shady = suspicious
Throwing shade = talking bad about something or someone, without naming (but the audience knows anyway).
E.g.: “I think her last Instagram post was a shade thrown to me. I don’t know why she’s so shady.”
Shook Originally, the word has a more serious connotation, as it means ’emotionally or physically disturbed.’ Nowadays, netizen use it as a playful way to say ‘surprised.’
E.g.: “She broke up with him? I’m shook!”
Stoked It means being excited or euphoric.
E.g.: “When they told me I was on the team, I was stoked.”
Tea A gossip or personal information belonging to someone else. The phrase ‘spill the tea’ is used the same way as ‘spill the bean’ is used, that is ‘to reveal an information that is supposed to be a secret.
E.g.: “The tea is exceptionally good today.”
Woke Supposedly has the same meaning as ‘awaken,’ which is being enlightened, always in the know of everything that is happening in the world, more than anyone else.
E.g.: “I never consume any products coming from animals anymore. I guess I can say I’m woke.”
As what we always suggest, avoid using slang or internet terms in a formal interaction. If you befriend your employer or boss on social media, for example, both of you are still expected to converse formally. Any school assignments, essays, job applications, letter of recommendations, or business emails should be free from these terms either.
@kaonashily: instantly I feel ‘gaul’ knowing these ‘nowadays’ words.
@babygraace: I think salty isn’t just used when someone is being made fun or embarrassed. E.g.: omg some people that watch my car vlogs literally get salty at me because I don’t put both my hands on the wheel!
Q: @sakurayujin: What about ‘shooketh?’ A: Even more surprised than ‘shook.’
Saturday, 19 May 2018, saw the wedding of Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle, who were designed the Duke and Duchess of Sussex shortly before the ceremony started. Here are the facts of the 2018 Royal Wedding:
Although there was no set protocol, a royal wedding of the British royal family has always happened on a weekday. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex opted for a weekend wedding to allow as many people as possible to celebrate the occasion.
Having come from a biracial background, the Duchess of Sussex has been considered by many to make the British monarchy more accessible and diverse.
The Duchess has also been involved in numerous charitable works, including issues on equality and women’s health.
Photographer Alexi Lubomirski, who captured the Duke and Duchess’ official engagement pictures, was selected to cover the wedding.
American Bishop Michael Curry captured the world’s attention with a long and powerful address. The Chicago-born bishop spoke passionately about the power of love, quoting Dr Martin Luther King Jr.
The Duke and Duchess’ wedding song, Ben E King’s classic ‘Stand by Me,’ was performed during the ceremony by Karen Gibson and the Kingdom Choir.
Also performing was Sheku Kanneh-Mason. The 19-year-old cellist, who was dubbed BBC’s Young Musician of the Year in 2016, performed 3 songs.
Clare Waight Keller from Givenchy was the designer of the Duchess’ wedding dress. The dress was also complemented by a veil which had flowers from 53 Commonwealth nations embroidered on it.
The Duchess paid tribute to the late Princess Diana by including forget-me-not, Princess Diana’s favourite flower, in her wedding bouquet. The bouquet also contained flowers hand-picked by the Duke from Kensington Palace.
The Duchess of Sussex has followed tradition of placing her wedding bouquet on the tomb of the unknown warrior at Westminster Abbey. The tradition was started by Queen Mother (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) the day after her wedding to future King George VI.
Those are #RoyalWedding trivia that I can share with you, fellas.
Source: The Sun, ABC Australia, CBC Canada, BBC, The Telegraph, and Harper’s Bazaar.
People who were born from 1981 to 1997 are often being referred to as millennial generation or simply ‘millennials.’ This age group is also the one who prides itself as 90s kids, as the people who belong to it spent their childhood and teenage era in the 90s.
Now, most millennials have grown up to the productive age when they start working as professionals. Fast-thinking, self-assured, and a high adaptability to technology are often considered as millennial workers’ strengths.
Sadly, millennials often get labelled as disloyal, quickly jumping from one job to the next, having high expectation, and having a great deal of entitlement. Millennials also tend to get bored easily. If they feel they are stuck, they will find a way to be unstuck, which makes them seem difficult to deal with. These traits make millennials easily misunderstood by their coworkers and employers who are from older generation.
So, how can millennials solve this? I’d like to share several old-school career rules that millennials can apply to their professional life.
Even when we’re working in the same workplace, people come from varied backgrounds. This means that we need to explain ourselves from time to time. So, there shouldn’t be ‘I thought you already knew’ or ‘Nobody told me that.’
Be on time.
By being on time (or early, if possible) we show people that we respect their schedule and we take them seriously. Besides, a delay often leads to other delays. If we don’t finish a task in a timely manner, it is very likely that the other tasks are delayed. In a fast-paced working environment, things can easily get out of hand.
Eyes on the details.
Be it on the way we dress, the way we write our emails with proper and acceptable manners in business relationship, or the way we refrain ourselves from checking our phones during important meetings, pay attention to small details. Again, we want to show our partners that working with them is important to us.
Never underestimate any tasks.
“I didn’t spend 5 years in the university only to work on Excel spreadsheets,” was my thought on the first day of my first job. Do you also have a similar experience, fellas? Well, no matter how much we dislike trivial assignments, they are actually necessary to learn the workflow at the workplace. If we can handle trivia, we can always ask for more responsibilities to our supervisor.
Give time for a change to happen.
Oftentimes, we as millennials want to see some changes to immediately happen once we utter the ideas. A new coworker to share our workloads with, a promotion, a more challenging position, or anything similar. What we should realize is that our supervisor or employer makes a decision that concerns many other people. Therefore, they might take some time before making up their mind.
That’s all I can share, fellas. Let us as millennials be a good example for our generation, while also being an agent of change to the workforce.
Happy National Education Day, fellas! Let us all take a moment to be thankful for the quality of education that has brought us to where we are today.
Many Indonesian in the past did not quite have the privilege and access for good education like what we enjoy today, but that did not stop them to become intellectuals. Some even contributed to bring the end to the occupation in Indonesia. Therefore, I’d like to make today’s session a tribute to our national heroes by sharing their famous quotes that are related to education.
P.S.: I translated some of them from the original ones which are in Bahasa Indonesia, so feel free to correct the translation if it’s wrong.
“Learning without thinking is useless, but thinking without learning is very dangerous!” – Soekarno, first President of Indonesia.
“I’d volunteer to go to prison, as long as there are books, because with books I am free.” – Mohammad Hatta, first Vice-President of Indonesia.
“Only with education will we build our nation.” – Dewi Sartika, founder of the first school for women.
“The purposes of education are to sharpen our wits, strengthen our will, and soften our senses.” – Tan Malaka, politician and activist.
“Advancing in civilization requires advancing in both intelligence and character growth.” – Kartini, women’s rights activist.
“Make a teacher out of everyone and a school out of every place.” – Ki Hajar Dewantara, first Minister of National Education of Indonesia and the national hero whose birthday we celebrate as National Education Day.
Hola, Fellas! What a beautiful day, isn’t it? Well, it must be because we are going to have a long weekend. For those who are going to celebrate Chinese New Year tomorrow, I hope you’ll have a wonderful family reunion tonight. Speaking of Chinese New Year, this evening I am going to share some information about Chinese New Year tradition.
Traditionally, when Chinese New Year is coming most people will clean their house. It is believed that cleaning the house will sweep away the bad luck. Celebrating a new year means welcoming a new beginning. Thus, removing all of the matters of the past would give a space for a new hope, prosperity, and fortune. That is why cleaning the house on Chinese New Year is prohibited.
Besides cleaning the house, some people will have a new hair cutting, buy some new outfits and other stuffs as a completion of the new start. After cleaning the house, Chinese will have a Chinese New Year eve dinner with their family, which is today. It is similar to having a family reunion in Thanksgiving, Christmas eve, as well as (if I’m not mistaken) Eid Mubarak eve. This is the most important event of Chinese New Year celebration because it would be a moment for a family to be rebound and share happiness.
Some sources states that dumpling is the most important food in this family dinner, especially in northern China. Its pocket like shape is believed will bring wealth, harmony and happiness to those who eat it. The various fillings of the dumplings will related to the fortune that awaits you in the next year.
The next thing I am going to talk about is generally the main focus of Chinese New Year, the red packet! (hong bao in Chinese). it is publicly known that a red packet contains a certain sum of money. The red packet is traditionally given from married couple to their parents and younger relatives. This is a symbol of blessing and the red color of the envelope is a symbol of happiness.
Lastly, in the following days Chinese usually go to temple and pray before visiting their another family member and relatives. That was a general tradition of Chinese New Year. People may have a similar yet a quite different one because it might be adjusted to another local tradition.
Well, I may have to call it a night. Happy Chinese New year for those who celebrate it. Have a joyful moment with your family and enjoy your special dinner.
This special day is also intended to commemorate Ki Hadjar Dewantara. He is a proud national figure for education in Indonesia and also the mastermind of Indonesia education founding philosophy, “Tut wuri handayani.”
Indonesian people certainly familiar with “Tut wuri handayani.” Do you still remember what it is?
Tut wuri handayani is one of philosophy in education initiated by Ki Hadjar Dewantara. It is generally followed by two other ideas, “Ing ngarsa sung tulada” and “Ing madya mangun karso.“ Generally, “Tut wuri handayani” means empowering form behind.
It was proposed by Ki Hadjar Dewantara as an ideal concept for education in Indonesia. Ki Hadjar Dewantara aspire that a good education system leads people fulfill both the spiritual and intellectual aspects. In addition, he stated that the aim of education is self-control because when a person can control his/herself, then she/he knows how to behave. In other words, besides technical skills, teachers should have a good personality, spirit and mentality.
He also emphasized that teachers should be an education facilitator and a figure. “Tut wuri handayani” had been demonstrated by Ki Hadjar Dewantara in his well-known institute, “Taman Siswa,” before eventually became our main education ideology. Thus, the ministry of education decided to use it as one of the elements of their logo.
There is an academic article described that “Tut wuri handayani” is implemented in among teaching system. It consists of three elements, e.g., ‘asih,’ ‘asah,’ and ‘asuh,’ which cover all Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s education concept. Naturally, this system lets the students exploring and learning their interest subject while the teachers act as a supporter/advisor. We can take the process of writing a thesis as a suitable example.
In order to write an academic paper we need to do a research, such as laboratory research, a survey or literature research. After that, we need to analyze the results. Furthermore, we certainly will discuss it with our academic supervisor, especially when we are dealing with some difficulties. The research and analyzing process illustrate the term of exploring and learning, while consulting illustrates the teacher’s supports.
Nowadays, we do online interaction as much as offline. Tech innovators and providers always try their best to come up with the freshest ideas and inventions to make our online interaction just as lively as the offline one.
The introduction of emoji in early 1990s undoubtedly forever changed our way of exchanging messages online. With a single icon, we can describe exactly what we feel or how we react to something our friends said. For example, we use the emoji ‘face with tears of joy’ to react to something so funny that got us laughing in tears.
‘Face with tears of joy’ emojis (Source: Wikipedia)
However, there are also those, like me, who prefer to type our laughter instead. For this purpose, we usually type LOL (Laughing Out Loud), LMAO (Laughing My A** Off), or simply hahahahahahaha.
‘Hahahahahahahahaha’ is considered as the most basic written laughter that everybody from anywhere can understand. Now, here are some that are not that simple.
Italy – Ah ah ah ah ah Italian seem to think ‘ah ah ah ah ah’ as the phonetic way of writing laughter.
Chinese (Mandarin): 哈哈 or 呵呵 Laughter is written 笑声 and pronounced xiào shēng, but Mandarin native speaker also relies on onomatopoeia for laughter: 哈哈, pronounced hā hā, and 呵呵, pronounced he he. Similarly, xixi, 嘻嘻, suggests giggling and is usually used when somebody is trying to be cute.
Japanese: www Not to be confused with World Wide Web, www in Japanese laughter came from Kanji character 笑 for ‘laugh’ which is pronounced as warai. Warai was quickly shortened as ‘w’ in chatroom and internet forums. Nowadays, Japanese type ‘w’ to indicate laughter, or ‘wwwwwwwww’ if it’s something really funny.
Korean: kkkkk or kekekekeke The written form kkkkk or kekekekeke comes from ㅋㅋㅋ, short for 크크크, or keu keu keu, the Korean equivalent of hahaha.
Thai: 55555 In Thai, the number 5 is pronounced ‘ha,’ so instead of saying ‘hahahahaha,’ Thai speakers will sometimes write ‘55555.’
Spanish: jajaja and Greek: xaxaxa In Spanish, ‘j’ is pronounced like ‘h’ in English, therefore ‘jajaja’ is an analog to ‘hahaha.’ Same goes to ‘x’ in Greek, which is pronounced like ‘h’ in English.
Hebrew: חחח/ההה or khkhkhkhkhkhkhkhkh The letter ‘ח’ is pronounced ‘kh.’ Some sources also render it as ‘xaxaxa.’
Brazilian Portuguese: huehuehue This is Brazilian onomatopoeia for laughter.
Portuguese: rsrsrs, hashuashuashuashua, rá!, and kkkkk ‘Rsrsrs’ seems to me like somebody laughing through his teeth, while hashuashuashuashua seems more complicated as the position of letter h and u and s and a are in such distance on the keypad. Rá! sounds like Ha! and I think kkkkk is similar to Korean’s kkkkk.
French: hahaha, héhéhé, hihihi, hohoho, or MDR French uses onomatopoeic laughter variations much like those in English, as well as the universal ‘LOL’ to indicate laugher. The French equivalent of LOL is MDR, which stands for ‘mort de rire’ or ‘dying of laughter.’
Indonesian: wkwkwkwkwkwkwk or wakakakakakaka Also an onomatopoeia, this is how most Indonesian laugh online. We also use hahaha, LOL, xixixixi, hehehe, buakakakakakakak, or bahahahahhahahak.
I love discussing and analysing poems together with my friends and also debating what the authors meant. Here we have compiled 6 poems which you might enjoy reading. You may share your thought about the poems and leave your comments on the comment box below.
Kid was nominated by UN as the best poem of 2006. It was written by an African child called Oglala Lakota.
When I born, I black
When I grow up, I black
When I go in Sun, I black
When I scared, I black
When I sick, I black
And when I die, I still black
And you white fellow
When you born, you pink
When you grow up, you white
When you go in sun, you red
When you cold, you blue
When you scared, you yellow
When you sick, you green
And when you die, you grey
And you calling me colored??
This poem was written by Gary Soto. If you have a hard time wondering what these poems are talking about, this poem is not one of those. You need no background knowledge to understand this poem. This one is clear and cute.
The first time I walked
With a girl, I was twelve,
Cold, and weighted down
With two oranges in my jacket.
December. Frost cracking
Beneath my steps, my breath
Before me, then gone,
As I walked toward
Her house, the one whose
Porch light burned yellow
Night and day, in any weather.
A dog barked at me, until
She came out pulling
At her gloves, face bright
With rouge. I smiled,
Touched her shoulder, and led
Her down the street, across
A used car lot and a line
Of newly planted trees,
Until we were breathing
Before a drugstore. We
Entered, the tiny bell
Bringing a saleslady
Down a narrow aisle of goods.
I turned to the candies
Tiered like bleachers,
And asked what she wanted –
Light in her eyes, a smile
Starting at the corners
Of her mouth. I fingered
A nickle in my pocket,
And when she lifted a chocolate
That cost a dime,
I didn’t say anything.
I took the nickle from
My pocket, then an orange,
And set them quietly on
The counter. When I looked up,
The lady’s eyes met mine,
And held them, knowing
Very well what it was all
A few cars hissing past,
Fog hanging like old
Coats between the trees.
I took my girl’s hand
In mine for two blocks,
Then released it to let
Her unwrap the chocolate.
I peeled my orange
That was so bright against
The gray of December
That, from some distance,
Someone might have thought
I was making a fire in my hands.
3. I, Too, Sing America
This poem was written by Langston Hughes. This poem talks about hope for black Americans.
I, too, sing America.
I am the darker brother.
They send me to eat in the kitchen
When company comes,
But I laugh,
And eat well,
And grow strong.
I’ll be at the table
When company comes.
Say to me,
“Eat in the kitchen,”
They’ll see how beautiful I am
And be ashamed—
I, too, am America.
4. The Man He Killed
This poem was written by Thomas Hardy. This poem has a unique shape.
Had he and I but met
By some old ancient inn,
We should have sat us down to wet
Right many a nipperkin!
But ranged as infantry,
And staring face to face,
I shot at him as he at me,
And killed him in his place.
I shot him dead because —
Because he was my foe,
Just so: my foe of course he was;
That’s clear enough; although
He thought he’d ‘list, perhaps,
Off-hand like — just as I —
Was out of work — had sold his traps —
No other reason why.
Yes; quaint and curious war is!
You shoot a fellow down
You’d treat if met where any bar is,
Or help to half-a-crown.
5. I Stop Writing the Poem
This poem was written by Tess Gallagher.
to fold the clothes. No matter who lives
or who dies, I’m still a woman.
I’ll always have plenty to do.
I bring the arms of his shirt
together. Nothing can stop
our tenderness. I’ll get back
to the poem. I’ll get back to being
a woman. But for now
there’s a shirt, a giant shirt
in my hands, and somewhere a small girl
standing next to her mother
watching to see how it’s done.
6. The Send-Off
This poem was written by Wilfred Owen.
Down the close, darkening lanes they sang their way
To the siding-shed,
And lined the train with faces grimly gay.
Their breasts were stuck all white with wreath and spray
As men’s are, dead.
Dull porters watched them, and a casual tramp
Stood staring hard,
Sorry to miss them from the upland camp.
Then, unmoved, signals nodded, and a lamp
Winked to the guard.
So secretly, like wrongs hushed-up, they went.
They were not ours:
We never heard to which front these were sent.
Nor there if they yet mock what women meant
Who gave them flowers.
Shall they return to beatings of great bells
In wild trainloads?
A few, a few, too few for drums and yells,
May creep back, silent, to still village wells
Up half-known roads.
If we are not an English native speaker but we are planning to study or work abroad, in some stage of the application, we will need to also attach our IELTS or TOEFL score to our application. Both tests aim to assess our English proficiency and make sure that we are able to communicate well in English.
What are IELTS and TOEFL?
International English Language Test System (IELTS) is an English language test that is used for educational, immigration and occupational purposes, and is accepted by over 9,000 institutions across 130 countries worldwide. Jointly administered by the British Council, University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations and IDP Education Australia, IELTS uses British English, and is more likely to be favoured by UK and institutions in Commonwealth nations such as New Zealand and Australia. Depending on the entry requirements of the program, we might need to take either the Academic or General Training IELTS exam.
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) tests our ability to communicate in English in specifically academic, university and classroom-based settings. It is accepted by over 8,500 institutions across 130 countries, including the UK, USA and Australia, as well as all of the world’s top 100 universities. TOEFL is administered by US-based organization, the Education Testing Service, and so is conducted in American English. This test is more likely to be favoured by American institutions.
Similarities between IELTS and TOEFL
Both test our four main language skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. IELTSn Indonesia is similar to other countries, and so is TOEFL, that is why the scoring system is consistent all over the world.
Both tests also cost within the same price range, USD 150 – USD 250 per test per person.
Differences between IELTS and TOEFL
1. Scoring system
IELTS band score ranges from 1 to 9. The score report is valid for two years. We will generally aim to 6.5 to 7 to be considered as a ‘competent’ to ‘good’ user of English language.
TOEFL scores come in two versions. TOEFL Internet Based Test (TOEFL iBT) is more progressive, but test administration in some countries still uses the Paper Based Test (PBT). iBT score ranges from 0 to 120, while PBT ranges from 310 to 677.
The following spreadsheet shows the link between IELTS and TOEFL iBT score.
2. Reading module
The IELTS test has a wide range of question types, while TOEFL test is multiple choices only. IELTS reading test lasts 60 minutes. Reading in TOEFL takes approximately 60 to 80 minutes.
3. Listening module
The IELTS listening test is 30 minutes, while TOEFL is 60 minutes. IELTS has a range of different questions including sentence completion, matching headings, and True, False or Not Given. The TOEFL test is multiple choices only.
We will also hear a range of different accents from English speaking countries such as Ireland, Wales, Scotland, the USA, Canada and Australia on the IELTS test whereas the TOEFL test will always be standard American English.
4. Speaking module
IELTS speaking test consists of 3 sections and its total duration is 15 minutes. In the test, we will have a face-to-face conversation with native English speaker.
In TOEFL speaking test, based on more recently used iBT, we will be talking to the computer. For those who don’t really have time to conduct IELTS, because it’s usually conducted during office hours, taking TOEFL iBT might be more suitable. The test will last for 20 minutes.
5. Writing module
IELTS has two different types of writing test: writing for Academic Training and General Training. Academic is suitable for those hoping to attend university, while General Training is mostly used for immigration purposes.
Both types have total duration 1 hour. In the Academic paper, we will be required to write a short essay based on a given graph, chart, map or cycle diagram. In the General Training paper, we will be asked to write a letter and a short essay on a particular topic.
TOEFL writing test consists of two tasks. The total duration is 50 minutes. In the first task, we need to read a text and then listen to a 2-minute lecture on the same topic. We must then write a short response to a specific question on that topic. The second task is a longer discursive essay on a particular issue, similar to a university style academic essay.
Which test to take?
Normally, the institutions we are applying to would specify which test to take. If they can accept either, the following table can be your consideration.
I like talking to people one-on-one.
I prefer talking to a computer.
I like to write by hand.
I am better at typing than handwriting.
I can understand a variety of English-speaking accents.
I find American accents easy to listen to.
I find it difficult to concentrate for long periods of time.
Happy Valentine’s Day! May you always surrounded by people you love and who love you.
How do you usually celebrate Valentine’s Day? By sending greeting cards? Or giving a chocolate? Having a romantic dinner with your date? Those are common ways to celebrate Valentine’s Day in almost every country around the world, but there are some countries which still celebrate it with their tradition. Tonight I will share the way people traditionally celebrate the Valentine’s Day in their country.
The history said that once The Emperor of Roman, Claudius, was against the engagement and marriage in his kingdom. Then one day a priest named Valentine came and secretly helped the couple in the kingdom to marry. When the Emperor knew this, St. Valentine was tortured and prisoned until he died on 14th February 270. Valentine’s Day is originally the day of St. Valentine’s death celebration to honor him. It is also related to Pagan Festival in the era which to honor the goddess Februata Juno. According to the tradition there are tokens, which represent the name of young girls, will be placed in the love urn. The boys then draw the token and paired off the girl whose name written in the token he got.
The idea of the celebration then brought to United Kingdom. As time goes by, people change it by sending cards, flowers, and gifts to their loved ones. Traditionally the cards is sent anonymously to the one they secretly love.
We can find the similar tradition in Denmark and Norway. The boys will write a poem or love letter and send it to the girl he’s attracted to anonymously. The girl should guess whom the sender by the clue in the letter and if she guess it right, she will get an Easter Egg on Easter Day.
The Valentine’s Day tradition which similar to Pagan Festival can be found in South Africa. The women will pin the token, where their crush’s name written, on their sleeve. Another tradition is occur in Wales. Wales men will carve a symbolic ornament in a wood spoon, then give it to the woman he wants to marry.
In Japan and Korea, traditionally women give the chocolate to the man as the sign of affection or love. And then the next month, on the same date, the man will give the women chocolate in return. Special in Japan, there are two types of Chocolate. Giri-choco (obligation chocolate) which is given to friends, work collegues, etc as long as romance is not involved; and Honmei-choco which will be given to the lover, husband, or boyfriend.
This article will talk about the seven honorary knights of British empire. Sir Ian McKellen, Sir Patrick Stewart, Sir Alex Ferguson are all British so you won’t find their names in this list. Let’s just get to the list now, shall we?
Bill and Melinda Gates. Yes, because of Microsoft and their notable charity work. Bill was knighted as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire in 2005.
John Edgar Hoover. The first FBI director. Hoover was knighted as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire in 1950.
Angelina Jolie. Not because of her acting, but because she was involved in preventing sexual violence. Jolie received the title Dame Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St Michael and St George in 2014.
Bono from U2. His concern to end hunger in Africa made him anointed as a knight in British Order. Bono was knighted as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire in 2007.
Steven Spielberg, because he was able to double the cinema admission in UK since 1980s. Spielberg earned the title Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of British Empire in 2001.
Mother Teresa, because of her charitable and missionary works in India. Mother Teresa was granted a membership of Order of Merits in 1983, an exclusive order that has limited members.
Benito Mussolini attained the title years prior to World War II. Of course, it was annulled several years later. Mussolini was knighted as Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of The Bath in 1923 and annulled in 1940.
Here’s a bonus! The late President Soeharto was also given honorary knighthood in 1974. He earned the title Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath.
This time, I want to share something which might be a hard topic to talk about. I bet you have heard of Ebola.
It’s the name of a very fatal virus. Do you know that Ebola was originally the name of a river in Republic of Congo? The first outbreak of Ebola virus was in South Sudan and Republic of Congo in 1976; and because the spreading area in Republic of Congo was near Ebola river, so the river’s name was adopted to name the virus itself.
It was said that bats were the original host of the virus, but apparently it was also infectious to human. Just like us, when we found a place with friendly environment and delicious food, we would start to feel comfortable; and if possible, we would want to get a job and start a new life there. But virus doesn’t recognize the concept of ‘possibility.’ If they’re comfortable with a new environment and there are resources to support their life, they would live, settle and reproduce.
The disease is known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever because it could cause internal & external bleeding of the human body. I would say that this is a terrible disease because you could get infected through direct contact with the body fluid, namely sweat, blood, and saliva. A huge number of people died because of Ebola.
Having said all those above, I have a good news to share. At the end of 2016, an effective vaccine to fight was finally found. Have you heard of the news? More than 5000 people in Guinea were vaccinated and, after 10 days, there was no development of Ebola in any cases. This is such a fresh air for the medical sector, mainly in Ebola groundwork. One of the best findings of all time. After years of ups and downs, they finally made a great finding.