Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives“The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.
Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).
Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.
There are three structures of double comparatives:
1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.
2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.
3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide
Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.
2) Passive Voice
Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it.
At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.
Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)
The overview states at least the number of stages. You can also add information on the duration of the process and how it starts and ends.
e.g. There are five stages in the development of the honey bee, from an egg to a mature adult insect. The life cycle takes between 34 and 36 days to complete.
2) Body Paragraphs
Body paragraphs are where the steps are described. Break the description into two paragraphs to make it more organised. Do not forget to include the initial and final steps mentioned in the overview, but describe them in more detail or in a different way.
The life cycle of the honey bee starts when the female adult lays an egg. It typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.
During the third stage, the nymph grows in size and shed its skin three times. This moulting first takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days later, and again other 9 days later. After a total of 30 to 31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey bee emerges from its final moulting stage, and in the space of only 4 days, it reaches full maturity.
Sequence Words and Phrases
To show the order of a process, sequence words and phrases can be used.
Hi, Fellas, how’s your day? I hope you have a great one, especially, it’s weekend!
Alright, this evening I would like to talk about some vocabulary that is related to ‘dislike.’ Before I start, I want to know whether you know the other words to express ‘disllke.’ Who knows it will be one of the words I am going to share to you.
1). ‘Can’t stand.’ Meaning: to not like something/someone very much.
Hi, everyone! How was your day? Did your favourite football team secure a slot in the quarter-final of #WorldCup2018? Mine was hectic, but I was able to do a lot today.
Notice the last sentence of the previous paragraph. It’s what we call a compound sentence.
A compound sentence is a sentence with more than an independent clause. An independent clause is a clause that can already stand as a sentence. It consists of a subject and a predicate. In Indonesian, a compound sentence is known as ‘kalimat majemuk.’
Example of an independent clause:
“I would like a cup of tea.”
“I would like a slice of cake.”
Even though these clauses are simple and short, they can already function as sentences with actual meaning.
Question: Could you combine those two examples and create a compound sentence? Answer: “I would like a cup of tea and a slice of cake.”
From the answer, we can identify two characteristics of a compound sentence.
It has a coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. We can also use a semicolon (;) to do so.
The ideas for both clauses are related.
The speaker implied that he would like to enjoy a tea-time with some delicacies, namely ‘a slice of cake.’
Create a compound sentence by filling the blanks with the correct conjunction.
What would you like for dinner, pizza _____ salad?
Salad is healthier, _____ pizza means a lot of fun.
When you have decided, order through the delivery service, will you? Don’t forget some side dishes _____ I’d suggest bruschetta, chicken wings, _____ some sausages.
I don’t want more carbs, _____ do I want sausages.
Well, take out the bruschetta, then, _____ it contains a lot of carbs. You’re so skinny, _____ you don’t like carbs.
I think I’ll place the order now, _____ it will be here by the time the game is on.
The sentence compares two alternatives.
2.BUT. The sentence introduces a second choice that is contrasting with what has been mentioned.
3.First blanks: (;)
There are two clauses being put together, ‘don’t forget some side dishes’ and ‘I’d suggest bruschetta.’
Second blanks: AND.
4.NOR. The speaker already mentioned a negative statement, ‘I don’t want more carbs,’ and ‘nor’ introduces another negative statement, ‘nor do I want sausages.
5.First blanks: FOR. ‘For’ explains why the ‘bruschetta will be taken out,’ and it is because ‘it contains a lot of carbs.’
Second blanks: YET.
It explains that despite being skinny, the other person still limits his carbohydrate intake.
6.SO. It explains that the order will be placed soon, with the aim that it will arrive by the time the game starts.
Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
You can review the second lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/17/engclass-blending-words-2/
Here are some examples of blending words:
1. Dramedy (drama + comedy).
Meaning: a movie or TV programme that combines elements of drama and comedy.
Chillax (chill + relax).
Meaning: to become calm and relax.
Hangry (hungry + angry).
Meaning: bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger.
Brainiac (brain + maniac).
Meaning: someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality.
Snark (snide + remark).
Meaning: an attitude or expression of mocking irreverence and sarcasm.
Infomercial (information + commercial).
Meaning: a TV programme that promotes a product in an informative and supposedly objective way.
Chocoholic (chocolate + alcoholic).
Meaning: a person who is addicted to chocolate.
Moped (motor + pedal).
Meaning: a low-power, lightweight motorized bicycle.
Edutainment (education + entertainment).
Meaning: things which are designed to be entertaining and educational at the same time.
Jeggings (jeans + leggings).
Meaning: tight-fitting stretch pants, made to look like denim.
Vitamin (vital + amine).
Meaning: substances that you need in order to remain healthy.
Malware (malicious + softwarehic).
Meaning: any program or file that is intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, or computer network.
Hi, fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.
1) Past Tenses
a. Past Simple Tense
This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.
e.g. In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.
b. Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.
e.g. By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.
2) Present Simple Tense
Present simple tense is used to describe a process.
e.g. The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.
3) Future Tense
a. Simple Future Tense
Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.
e.g. The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.
b. Future Perfect Tense
Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.
e.g. The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.
In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. be likely to, be predicted to, be projected to, and be going to.
The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.
By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.
Hi, fellas. How is it going? Today we will talk about IELTS Writing Task 1. As we know, we must usually write an article based on data given in the test. Due to the fact that the data are expressed in numbers or percentages, it is essential that we know other ways of expressing them.
Sometimes, data in IELTS Writing Task 1 are expressed in percentages. To avoid repetition, percentages can be replaced by fractions.
75%= three quarters
67%= two thirds
50%= a half
33%= a third
25%= a quarter
20%= a fifth
75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only 20% was allocated on education.
75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only a fifth was allocated on education.
If the percentage is, for example 51% or 23%, we can use approximations (approximately, around, almost, about, nearly, just above/over, just below/under, a little/slightly more than or a little/slightly less than)
The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to 31% in 2004.
The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to just below a third in 2004.
2) Comparisons using half, twice, three times etc. with as many/much…as
In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won 32 gold medals, while Japan won 16 gold medals.
In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won twice as many gold medals as Japan.
3) double, treble, quadruple etc.
The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it rose to 60 in 1998.
The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it trebled four years later.
4) twofold, threefold etc.
In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it increased to 45%.
In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it saw a threefold increase.
Hi, Fellas!! Happy Eid al-Fitr for those who celebrate it. Happy holiday for those who in a vacation. How was your day anyway?
This evening I would like to talk about the word “roseate.” This word came from Latin, “roseus,” and it was adapted and known as an English word in 15th century. “Roseate” acts an adjective, which means pink or a color that resembles a rose.
“I love the roseate cardigan.”
On the other hand, “roseate” also mean optimistic. In this matter, there are some words that are related to “roseate,” such as “confident,” “doubtless,” “assuring,” etc.
“Where’s my roseate Emma? I am sure you will pass the test.”
Fellas, do you know why Americans use honor instead of honour, color instead of colour and center instead of centre? The spelling stems from the work of one of the most influential figures in the development of American English, Noah Webster.
Noah Webster Jr. was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, on October 16, 1758. His father, Noah Webster Sr., was a descendant of John Webster, the Connecticut Governor. His mother, Mercy Steele Webster, was a descendant of William Bradford, the Plymouth County Governor.
Despite being well known for his work in the field of language, Webster studied at Yale Law School. His study began in 1774. Due to serving in the American Revolution, he was graduated four years later. Having been unable to find a work as a lawyer, he finally taught in a school in Goshen, New York.
While teaching, he was dissatisfied inasmuch as texts for children did not reflect the American culture. He said, “Let us then seize the present moment, and establish a national language, as well as a national government”. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. Webster argued that Americans should simplify their spelling by matching letters more closely with phonemes. He expected to standardize American English for Americans spelled, pronounced and used English words differently.
Webster’s most famous masterpiece, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was published in two volumes in 1828 and contained 70,000 entries. It took 18 years to complete the dictionary. In order to know the origin of words, he learned 26 languages, including Old English, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit. It sold more copies than any English book, except the Bible. Later, George and Charles Merriam purchased the right to publish the dictionary and it became what we know today as the Merriam-Webster dictionary.
Hi, hello, fellas! How was your Eid al-Fitr holiday? Eid Mubarak for all of you who celebrated it.
While we are still in the festivities, I’d like to share some words related to Eid al-Fitr tradition in Indonesia.
Mudik (Ina) = Homecoming trip (Eng)
A trip to our hometown that we usually do at the end of Ramadan.
Bermaaf-maafan (Ina) = forgiving one another (Eng)
It is believed that we should celebrate Eid al-Fitr with a clean mind, body, and soul, and forgiving one another is one way to achieve it.
Kemacetan panjang (Ina) = traffic congestion (Eng)
It is not exactly a tradition, but traffic congestion happens almost every year during homecoming. Luckily, the traffic and road condition have improved a lot this year.
Silaturahmi (Ina) = amity, tight friendship (Eng)
Refers to a close bond between two human beings who might or might not be related by blood.
Halalbihalal (Ina) = Gathering to ask for forgiveness (Eng)
An occasion when family or close friends gather to catch up with each other and ask/give forgiveness.
Ketupat (Ina) = Steamed rice cake wrapped in diamond-shaped palm leaves (Eng)
Similarly, we also have lontong (Ina) = steamed rice cake wrapped in banana leaves (Eng). Phew, quite a mouthful, isn’t it?
Opor ayam (Ina) = chicken braised in coconut milk (Eng)
One of the most popular dishes served during Eid al-Fitr celebration.
Rendang (Ina) = rendang (Eng)
This widely popular dish has been recognized by its own name, even when we are speaking English. We can also refer to it as meat simmered in spices and coconut milk.
Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here.
A blending word is a word that is made up of parts of other words that are combined to form a new word with a new meaning.
Usually ‘blending words’ are made by joining the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Blending words can also be called portmanteau words.
Here are some examples of blending words:
Blog (web + log).
Meaning: a regularly updated website or web page, usually run by an individual or small group, containing a writer’s or group of writers’ own experiences, observations, opinions, etc.
Brunch (breakfast + lunch).
Meaning: a late morning meal eaten at a time between breakfast and lunch, replacing the two meals with one instead.
Cyborg (cybernetic + organism).
Meaning: a fictional or hypothetical human being with physical abilities that are beyond a normal human because mechanical elements have been built into the body.
Frenemy (friend + enemy).
Meaning: a person who is a friend even though there is an underlying dislike or rivalry in the relationship.
Glamping (glamorous + camping).
Meaning: luxury camping or glamprous camping, involving accommodation and facilities more luxurious than traditional camping.
Humongous (huge + monstrous).
Meaning: very big, both of these words mean large so putting the two words together indicates that something is extremely big.
Internet (international + network).
Meaning: the global communication network that allows computers around the world to connect and share information.
Mocktail (mock + cocktail).
Meaning: a cocktail that has no alcohol in it, consisting of a mixture of fruit juices or other soft drinks.
Spanglish (Spanish + English).
Meaning: a mix of words and idioms from both Spanish and English, often used by people who know both languages well.
Spork (spoon + fork).
Meaning: an eating utensil that is shaped like both a spoon and fork, often has a rounded spoon shape with short prongs at the end like a fork.
Staycation (stay + vacation).
Meaning: a budget-friendly alternative to a vacation in which people stay at home during their time off from work.
Affluenza (affluence + influenza).
Meaning: the guilt or lack of motivation experienced by people who have made or inherited large amounts of money.
This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’
@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS
Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.
On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.
“Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.” Subject linking verb complement
On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’
If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’
Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.
Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.
Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.
a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.
@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to. @notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to. @cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.
Answers: a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’
b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’
A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:
‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).
‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.
Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)
A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin: A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom. The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.
Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…
A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan. The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions. Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury. Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’
Hi, fellas, how was your Monday? I was shook when I realized that we are halfway through 2018.
Does anyone recognize the word ‘shook’ that I used on the previous sentence? Have you ever read it before?
@catheramirez: ‘Surprise,’ ‘I can’t believe it.’
Q: @nadirantsy: Does shook have the same meaning with shocked? Same context? A:Yes, but I think we should limit ‘shook’ to a relaxed, playful context. We don’t use it to express our sadness when hearing a bad news, for example.
‘Shook’ is one of the popular internet terms that we are going to discuss tonight. As languages are ever-evolving, these internet terms are actual English words whose meanings have changed over the years.
Here are some popular internet terms that are still used as of mid-2018:
Bamboozled From the verb ‘to bamboozle’ (informal). It means to fool or cheat someone. It also means to confuse or perplex.
E.g.: “I’m bamboozled by the amount of retweets to my Twitter post.”
Boi/boye A cute way to spell ‘boy.’ Usually used to a male dog.
E.g.: “Oh, you’re such a good boiiiiii…”
Burn A reaction we gave when somebody has just been talked back to.
A: “Without the ugly in this world, there would be nothing beautiful.”
B: “Thank you for your sacrifice.”
Canceled ‘To cancel’ used to describe that an event would not take place OR a force negated another, but nowadays, netizen use ‘canceled’ to describe a dismissed or rejected person or idea.
E.g.: “If you don’t like my doggos, you will be canceled.”
Cringe and cringey ‘To cringe’ is to experience an inward shiver upon seeing or hearing something embarrassing. ‘Cringey’ is used as an adjective to describe something that causes somebody to cringe.
E.g.: “I cringed so hard when I watched her lip-synced performance. It was so cringey.”
Deceased It was used to politely say that someone has passed away, but now, it is used to describe that something is really cool or awesome or funny that it takes our lives away.
E.g.: “OMG, my brother bought me tickets to a Rich Brian’s concert! I’m deceased!”
Doggo Basically, it’s a cute way to say ‘dog.’
E.g.: “I just saw a super adorable, squishy, fluffy doggo.” insert crying face emojis
Extra Something is ‘extra’ if it is done in an exaggerated, over-the-top way.
E.g.: “Rihanna’s outfit at the 2018’s Met Gala is so extra.”
Epic comeback It used to describe a spectacular return of an artist, most of the time musicians, after a long hiatus. Now, it also means a witty (sometimes harsh) response to an insult.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.
Feels All emotions mixed up: sadness, joy, envy, love, etc.
E.g.: “TVXQ’s comeback gave me all the feels.”
HMU Stands for ‘hit me up,’ which means ‘contact me.’
E.g.: “HMU the next time you visit the city.”
Humblebrag The act of bragging while appearing humble; the art of false modesty.
E.g.: “Who knew that constant vacations and holidays could be this exhausting?”
Lit It used to describe the state of being drunk, but it is now used to express that something is exceptionally good.
E.g.: “The latest Arctic Monkey’s album was so lit it set my headphones on fire.”
A noob is a person who is inexperienced in a particular sphere or activity, especially computing or the use of the Internet. It came from the word ‘newbie.’ However, ‘newbie’ has a more positive connotation while ‘noob’ is intended as an insult.
A: “Hey guys, I’m kinda new here.“
B: “LOL, noob.”
Overproud A reaction we gave when our nation or something originated from our nation is being talked about in a positive way.
A: “Did you know that an instant noodle brand from Indonesia was marketed worldwide?”
B: “Are you being overproud right now?”
Pwned A gaming-style spelling of ‘owned,’ meaning being defeated badly.
E.g.: “Oh, snap, I was just pwned!”
Salty Upset, angry, or bitter, after being made fun of or embarrassed. It can also be used to say that someone is mad.
E.g.: “Gosh, stop being so salty! You broke up with him; now it’s time to move on!”
Savage Being ‘savage’ is saying or doing something harsh without a regard to the consequences.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.”
C: “Oooh, that was savage!”
Shady and throwing shade Shady = suspicious
Throwing shade = talking bad about something or someone, without naming (but the audience knows anyway).
E.g.: “I think her last Instagram post was a shade thrown to me. I don’t know why she’s so shady.”
Shook Originally, the word has a more serious connotation, as it means ’emotionally or physically disturbed.’ Nowadays, netizen use it as a playful way to say ‘surprised.’
E.g.: “She broke up with him? I’m shook!”
Stoked It means being excited or euphoric.
E.g.: “When they told me I was on the team, I was stoked.”
Tea A gossip or personal information belonging to someone else. The phrase ‘spill the tea’ is used the same way as ‘spill the bean’ is used, that is ‘to reveal an information that is supposed to be a secret.
E.g.: “The tea is exceptionally good today.”
Woke Supposedly has the same meaning as ‘awaken,’ which is being enlightened, always in the know of everything that is happening in the world, more than anyone else.
E.g.: “I never consume any products coming from animals anymore. I guess I can say I’m woke.”
As what we always suggest, avoid using slang or internet terms in a formal interaction. If you befriend your employer or boss on social media, for example, both of you are still expected to converse formally. Any school assignments, essays, job applications, letter of recommendations, or business emails should be free from these terms either.
@kaonashily: instantly I feel ‘gaul’ knowing these ‘nowadays’ words.
@babygraace: I think salty isn’t just used when someone is being made fun or embarrassed. E.g.: omg some people that watch my car vlogs literally get salty at me because I don’t put both my hands on the wheel!
Q: @sakurayujin: What about ‘shooketh?’ A: Even more surprised than ‘shook.’
Hi fellas, how is life today? This article is still related to other articles about the passive. Perhaps, you already know that the most common form of the passive is be + past participle. However, there are other forms of the passive.
1) Reporting with Passive Verbs
With reporting verbs and verbs of thinking or feeling we can use
• it + passive verb + that
e.g. It is said that filmmaking is a lucrative industry.
• subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
e.g. Filmmaking is said to be a lucrative industry.
2) need + -ing need + -ing is sometimes used as an alternative to the passive to without stating who does it.
e.g. Some houses need reconstructing after an earthquake occurred.
3) have/get + object + past participle
The past participle is used after have/get and the object to give a passive meaning.
e.g. I had my watch repaired. I got my watch repaired.
In the two examples above, I caused my watch to repaired by someone.
•Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers
• Fiona Aish and Jo Tomlinson, Collins English for Exams: Grammar for IELTS
• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar
Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, June 8, 2018
Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.
There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.
Zero Conditional Sentences Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).
First Conditional Sentences First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).
Second Conditional Sentences Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).
Third Conditional Sentences Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:
If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).
Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily). A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).
Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF). A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.
Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista). A: Bisa. Bentuk kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’
Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300). A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”