That is Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE, “How amazing it is!“
Did you notice the form that I used to compliment Burj Khalifa? Yes, I said, “How amazing it is!“. On that sentence, I used what we call exclamatory sentence, which is going to be our topic for today.
An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses about wonder or a feeling caused by something beautiful or stunning. Usually, the characteristic of an exclamatory sentence is it ends with an exclamation mark (!).
Check these sentences: “How small their house was!” (Betapa kecil rumah mereka!)
Hi, everyone! How was your day? Did your favourite football team secure a slot in the quarter-final of #WorldCup2018? Mine was hectic, but I was able to do a lot today.
Notice the last sentence of the previous paragraph. It’s what we call a compound sentence.
A compound sentence is a sentence with more than an independent clause. An independent clause is a clause that can already stand as a sentence. It consists of a subject and a predicate. In Indonesian, a compound sentence is known as ‘kalimat majemuk.’
Example of an independent clause:
“I would like a cup of tea.”
“I would like a slice of cake.”
Even though these clauses are simple and short, they can already function as sentences with actual meaning.
Question: Could you combine those two examples and create a compound sentence? Answer: “I would like a cup of tea and a slice of cake.”
From the answer, we can identify two characteristics of a compound sentence.
It has a coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. We can also use a semicolon (;) to do so.
The ideas for both clauses are related.
The speaker implied that he would like to enjoy a tea-time with some delicacies, namely ‘a slice of cake.’
Create a compound sentence by filling the blanks with the correct conjunction.
What would you like for dinner, pizza _____ salad?
Salad is healthier, _____ pizza means a lot of fun.
When you have decided, order through the delivery service, will you? Don’t forget some side dishes _____ I’d suggest bruschetta, chicken wings, _____ some sausages.
I don’t want more carbs, _____ do I want sausages.
Well, take out the bruschetta, then, _____ it contains a lot of carbs. You’re so skinny, _____ you don’t like carbs.
I think I’ll place the order now, _____ it will be here by the time the game is on.
The sentence compares two alternatives.
2.BUT. The sentence introduces a second choice that is contrasting with what has been mentioned.
3.First blanks: (;)
There are two clauses being put together, ‘don’t forget some side dishes’ and ‘I’d suggest bruschetta.’
Second blanks: AND.
4.NOR. The speaker already mentioned a negative statement, ‘I don’t want more carbs,’ and ‘nor’ introduces another negative statement, ‘nor do I want sausages.
5.First blanks: FOR. ‘For’ explains why the ‘bruschetta will be taken out,’ and it is because ‘it contains a lot of carbs.’
Second blanks: YET.
It explains that despite being skinny, the other person still limits his carbohydrate intake.
6.SO. It explains that the order will be placed soon, with the aim that it will arrive by the time the game starts.
Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.
There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.
Zero Conditional Sentences Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).
First Conditional Sentences First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).
Second Conditional Sentences Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).
Third Conditional Sentences Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:
If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).
Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily). A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).
Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF). A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.
Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista). A: Bisa. Bentuk kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’
Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300). A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”