Tag Archives: knowledge

#EngKnowledge: The birth of British and American Accents

All this time, we have been learning about the difference between British and American accent. You know it when you hear it. But have you ever wondered how these two accents came to be? Online magazine Mental Floss tried to answer the big question in the article “When did Americans lose their British accent?” As you may have known, the history of these two countries are strongly related.

The first English colony in the land that would be America arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1667. They certainly carried the language and accent that they used in their homeland, England. So how did their accent change? Now here comes the most interesting part … It wasn’t the American accent that went through changes, it was the British accent! The current American accent is actually much closer to the ‘original’ British accent.

We must first remember that British and American accents are very diverse. There are various accents used in the UK, such as Geordie, cockney, or Yorkshire. American accents also varied. There are Southern accent, and even black people have their own accent.

What we call “British accent” is actually a standardised Received Pronounciation (RP). Also known as Public School English or BBC English. What we call “American accent” is actually ‘general American accent’ or ‘newscaster accent’ or ‘Network English.’

Back to the story about the English colony in America. Remember, we first had the technology to record human voice in 1860. 300 years after the colony arrived, the difference between the British and American accents was already apparent. Since recording technology wasn’t available in those 300 years, we can’t say for sure when the change happened. But changes in British society might provide us the clue to the answer.
To explain that, first we need to know the major difference between British and American accent: Rhotacism.

Rhotacism is the excessive use of the letter ‘R’ in pronunciation. American accent is rhotic and speakers pronounce the ‘R’ in words such as ‘hard’. Meanwhile, British accent is non-rhotic, making the way they pronounce ‘hard’ sounds more like ‘hahd’.

In the 19th century, there was a hot trend among the upper and upper middle class in southern England to become non-rhotic. The trend was to not pronounce the ‘R’. It became the signifier of class and status. This posh accent was later standardised as Received Pronunciation, and being taught widely by tutors to social climbers.

Slowly but sure, the accent spread across England and is being used by people across levels and professions. Across the pond, there were also societal changes that further strengthen the use of American accent. Big cities like New York, Chicago, and Detroit became the new centers of economic power in the region. The cities are populated by Scots-Irish and North English migrants. Southern English elites have no significance in there. The Received Pronunciation then lost its influence among people in the cities.

Source: Mental Floss

#EngVocab Extra

  1. Came to be. Arti: asal mulanya.
  2. Strongly related. Arti: berhubungan erat.
  3. Apparent. Arti: nyata, terlihat, tampak.
  4. Signifier. Arti: penanda.
  5. Posh. Arti: mewah.
  6. Social climber. Arti: orang yg ingin meningkatkan status sosial (dengan memakai barang mewah, mengubah cara bicara).
  7. Across the pond. Arti: di seberang Lautan Atlantik, cara orang Inggris menyebut Amerika.
  8. Societal change. Arti: perubahan masyarakat.
  9. Further strengthen. Arti: semakin memperkuat.

 

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, May 17, 2015

 

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#EngKnowledge: British Royal Family

Bet you’ve heard about this today: Prince William and Kate Middleton had welcomed their 2nd child, a baby girl!

So this is the perfect moment to learn some facts about the British monarchy!

  1. Queen Elizabeth II has been serving her country for more than 60 years.
  2. The Queen is a “Queen Regnant”, which means she became queen not because of marriage.
  3. She inherited the throne from her father.
    • Inherited. Arti: mewarisi,
    • Throne. Arti: takhta.
  4. Will Kate Middleton ever be a queen? Contrary to Queen Elizabeth II, she will be a ‘Queen Consort.’ Queen Consort is when a princess becomes a queen by marriage.
  5. Based on her lineage, Kate Middleton turned out to be a distant relative of George Washington.
  6. Queen Elizabeth had declared the family surname to be ‘Mountbatten-Windsor.’ Mountbatten is Prince Phillip’s surname.
    However, anyone with a ‘His/Her Royal Highness Title Prince/Princess’ does not usually require a surname.
  7. When a Royal Baby is born, a town crier will announce it in front of the hospital wing. Two footmen will then place an official declaration outside Buckingham Palace. Two footmen will then place an official declaration outside Buckingham Palace.
    • Hospital wing. Arti: bangsal rumah sakit.
  8. Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, wife of Prince Charles does not use the title ‘Princess.’ The decision was made out of respect to the late Princess Diana.
    • Out of respect. Arti: demi menghormati.
  9. Every Tuesday, the Queen will hold a meeting with the current British Prime Minister.
  10. Another interesting tradition involving the Prime Minister is when they are elected. The winner of the election is announced, then he/she is going to meet the Queen. Then he/she is going to publicly declare in front of the people: “Her Majesty the Queen has asked me to form a Government and I have accepted.”
  11. Using a postage stamp with the image of the Queen in the wrong way can be seen as a treason.
    • Postage stamp. Arti: perangko,
    • Treason. Arti: pengkhianatan terhadap negara.

Those are my fave facts about British Royal family. Do you have any fave facts?

“Another fact about royal family was Prince Charless cheated with Camilla before Princess Diana got rumour.” – @iamderi

Source:

  • Telegraph UK,
  • yourtango.com

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, May 3, 2014

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#EngKnowledge: MOOCs

Fellas. Have you ever wanted to study from the world’s best teachers … Without having to leave the comfort of home? 

Today we’ll talk about the coolest new innovation in education: MOOCs! 
What is MOOCs? No, it’s not the sound that cows make. 
MOOCs stands for Massive Online Open Course. 
MOOCs is basically a form of distance learning. 
In our grandparents’ days, people who live in remote places can get education by doing correspondence. 
Remote places = tempat terpencil, correspondence = surat-menyurat. 
MOOCs is actually a digital version of it: Students study from universities in far away places (even abroad) …
Submitting assignments and tests via email, meeting classmates via discussion forum, watching lectures via Youtube … 
 In the end, they got a certificate. And guess what? MOOCs lessons are available for free! 
 There are also paid MOOCs courses. The difference is what you can do with the certificate. 
You can use paid MOOCs courses to enroll to universities. With the unpaid version you can only use it to apply for jobs. 
Some of the most popular MOOCs providers are http://t.co/qQOtIzvTJt and http://t.co/zmGVtjVcDT
If you go to those sites, you can find lists of universities and the courses they provide, from business to music. 
MOOCs operate under the idea that education and information should be free for all, not limited to those in universities. 
Here’s the history of MOOCs: 
Distance learning was pioneered by the Open University, United Kingdom, in 1971. It uses the BBC to broadcast classes. 
Pioneered = dipelopori 
 The model was so successful that other countries began to follow suit, including Indonesia with Universitas Terbuka. 
Follow suit = mengikuti jejak langkah. 
Sir John Daniel, former CEO of Commonwealth of Learning, refer to open universities as ‘mega universities’. 
Because there is no limit to the number of students an open university can have. 
The Internet era introduced us to the concept of ‘Open Content’. 
Open Content is when learning materials are widely available in online platform, so it can be accessed for free by anyone. 
MIT was the first university to declare that all its materials will be accessible for free online. 
MIT’s OpenCourseWare program inspired UNESCO to coin the term ‘Open Educational Resource’. 
Coin the term = mencetuskan istilah 
University of the People (http://t.co/NvzwSp8Gjf) took it even further. Not only that they distribute materials, they also have experts donating time and knowledge to teach via videos and recordings. 
Took it even further = mengembangkan lebih jauh lagi. 
MIT and Harvard then collaborate to build http://t.co/qQOtIzvTJt. They are only some of the many universities taking part. 

MOOCs became so popular that The New York Times declare 2012 as “The Year of MOOCs.” 

Do you want to know how popular it is? Well, for example, Stanford University’s first MOOCs class was “Intro to Artifical Intelligence”. There are 160,000 students enrolling in that program alone! Imagine having 160,000 classmates from all over the world.

Interestingly, these top universities are actually not the first to come out with the idea of using Internet to teach. 

George Siemens from University of Manitoba, Canada, was the founder of MOOCs. 

  
(Image: online-educa.com)

With Stephen Downes, he conducted his classes online and for free to the public, other than 25 of his own students.

Siemens began his innovation in 2008. He was concerned because education is available only to those attending universities. 

His innovation had enabled people to get greater access to education.
In 2012, University of Miami launched Global Academy, the first high school level MOOCs. 

Even US President Barrack Obama complimented MOOCs as ‘having potential to help reduce the cost of higher education.’ 

Reduce cost = Mengurangi biaya.

The admin had tried an MOOCs course once via http://t.co/qQOtIzvTJt. It was wonderful! :D

The class was ‘Intro to College Writing’ by University of California, Berkeley. Great way to help improve English writing skills.

Have any of you tried MOOCs classes? How was your experience?

@nanovita: @EnglishTips4U I’ve tried coursera. It’s also supporting a 5-week workshop in @america Pacific Place these weeks. Helpful ;)
Source: Wikipedia, Tian Belawati – Pendidikan di Era Keterbukaan.

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 26 April 2015.

#EngKnowledge: Lines

First weekend of year 2015! Woohoo!

To start the year, today I am going to share an #EngKnowledge from a quite interesting book by Tim Ingold

Tim Ingold is Professor of Social Anthropology at the University of Aberdeen

Do not worry, it is not going to be a boring lecture

Rather, a very interesting thought on: Lines (Indo: garis)

Yes, these -> ——–________————___________

But what about it? I am going to quote from him in this session

So, let’s see what Ingold has to say about lines :)

“What do walking, weaving, observing, singing, storytelling, drawing and writing have in common?”

“The answer is that they all proceed along lines of one kind or another.”

“Indeed when I have broached the idea to friends and colleagues, their initial response has usually been one of blank incredulity.”

“The line? This is hardly the kind of thing that has served traditionally as the focus of our attention”

“We have anthropological studies of visual art, of music and dance, of speech and writing, of craft and material culture, but not of the production and significance of lines.”

“Yet it takes only a moment’s reflection to recognize that lines are everywhere.”

“As walking, talking and gesticulating creatures, human beings generate lines wherever they go.”

Lines, linear, linearity, straight, zig zag, criss cross – they are all related And they are created within walking, weaving, observing, singing, storytelling, drawing and writing

So, do you see lines everywhere now? :)

Do you see the word “line” in a different way?

Hope this #EngKnowledge has been useful and have fun looking at lines :D

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4u on January 3, 2015

Session is from “Lines: A Brief History” by Tim Ingold, do check him out if you are interested :)

 

#EngKnowledge: History of superhero films

img_6540
Avangers: Age of Ultron (2015)

Superhero film focuses on the actions of individuals with superhuman abilities dedicating their life to protect the public.

Most superhero films are based on comic books, though there are always exceptions. RoboCop, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, and Hancock are examples of films that were made original for the big screen. Whilst Green Hornet is an example of a film based on a radio series.

The history of superhero films went back to the 1940s, after the boom of superhero comic books. Before they came to the big screen, they were adapted to TV series aired on Saturdays, originally aimed for children.

Beginning with Mandrake the Magician (1939), it was then followed by big names like Batman (1944).

photogrid_1487309131419
Top: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) | Bottom Left: Batman (1944) | Bottom Right: Superman (1978)

Between 1950-60, the comic industry faced a decline. (Decline = penurunan) But it didn’t stop the theatrical release of Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves.

A big change happened in the 1970s after the success of sci-fi/fantasy film Star Wars. Studios began to release the first major big-budget superhero feature film, with advance technology (for that time).

More success stories happened in 1980s, with films like Superman II (1980), Robocop (1987), and Batman (1989). And the 1990s saw the peak of superhero films with more varieties in titles and themes.

photogrid_1487309237878
Top Left: The Crow (1994) | Top Right: Star Wars OT | Bottom Left: Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995) | Bottom Right: Spawn (1997)

You might remember Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) or the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995), if you are old enough to watch it.

In 1994, The Crow set a record as the first independent comic superhero to be made a franchise. The film added elements of action to a superhero film, with a darker and more violent story. Unfortunately, here’s a tragic story behind the making of The Crow; the lead actor Brandon Lee died during the shooting process.

The Crow’s success subsequently led to more films by ‘smaller’ comic producers, like Spawn (1997) by Image Comics.

photogrid_1487309313509
Top: Men in Black (1997) | Bottom: Unbreakable (2000)

Men in Black (1997) set record as the first MARVEL product to win an Oscar for Best Makeup. In the 2000s, there was an increased interest in superhero films, with MARVEL becoming a top name for superhero films. Many can’t get over Tobey Maguire’s role as Spider-man (2002), one of the biggest blockbuster ever. I personally like Andrew Garfield better, but to each of their own.

Note:

  • To each of their own. Meaning: semua punya pendapat masing-masing
  • Can’t get over. Meaning: tidak bisa melupakan
  • Blockbuster. Meaning: istilah untuk film yang sukses meraih pemasukan tinggi.

Aside from those mentioned above, there are also more interesting alternative styles of superhero films, like Unbreakable (2000).

Why do superhero films become more popular in the 2000s? Expert says it has something to do with social-political climate. 9/11 and the following wars made people crave for a hero to save the day. Films made a great escape for them.

The 2010s saw many successful reboots of successful superhero series.

Note:

  • Reboot. Meaning: Pembuatan ulang.
  • Crave. Meaning: mendambakan.
photogrid_1487309386870
Top: The Dark Knight (2008) | Bottom: Spider-man (2002)

Who can forget Heath Ledger’s role as Joker in The Dark Knight (2008)? Sadly, apart from giving him an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor, the role also led him to his death. The Dark Knight set record as the most Oscar-nominated superhero film ever, with 8 nominations.

How is the future like for superhero films? Well, it seems exciting.

To compete with MARVEL, DC Comics prepared a film universe, started with Man of Steel & the sequel Batman v. Superman (2016).

Question: What’s your favourite superhero film?

batman, superman, the avengers – @arie90skid

Gatotkaca :D the original superhero of Indonesia – @AsriEsti

Question: How about superhero film from Indonesia? – @purwamel

Wiro Sableng. :) – @Kido26

I remember seeing a local comic series called @NusantaRanger . Hopefully one day Indonesia can make its own big budget superhero films.

But some of you might remember this TV series! :D

img_6553
Saras 008 (1998 – 2000)

Sources:

  • Wikipedia,
  • screenrant.com,
  • IMDB,
  • comicvine.com

 

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 29 March 2015

 

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#EngKnowledge: International Women’s Day

Happy International Women’s Day! Here’s to a better future for all women!

 

(Image: myeventsblog.com)

What is International Women’s Day or #IWD? Let’s learn about the history of this global movement.

Every 8 March, the global community celebrates women’s economic, political, and social struggles and achievements. Purple is the color associated with this international day, as seen in their logo.  In some countries, #IWD is celebrated as a national holiday. For example, in China women are given half-day off.

 

(Image: vovworld.vn)

In 1977, United Nations General Assembly declared 8 March as #IWD, the United Nations Day for women’s rights and world peace. However, the history of #IWD goes way back before 1977.  It is said that even in developed country like Germany, women were not allowed to vote until 1918!

In the early 20th century, there was a rise of women movement in different parts of the world. For instances, in 1908, women in New York City marched to demand for shorter working hours, better pay, and suffrage. Then in Indonesia, 1911 saw the publication of R. A. Kartini’s “Habis Gelap Terbitlah Terang.”

The first National Women’s Day is celebrated in the United States on 28 February 1909. The day was established based on a declaration of Socialist Party of America. In the beginning, International Women’s Day is strongly tied to socialism, but as women movement spread worldwide it became more universal.

In 1910, the second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. In the event, activist Clara Zetkin proposed the idea of #IWD. Some countries can use it as momentum to press for women’s rights and the idea was approved unanimously. International Women’s Day was celebrated on 19 March 1911 in Austria, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland.

Why did it changed to 8 March? Because there are many significant events related to women movement happened on 8 March. In 8 March 1914, Sylvia Pankhurst led a march in London for women’s right to vote. She was arrested n continued the struggle behind bars. In Russia, the February Revolution also happened on 8 March 1917 where the women marched to demand for “Bread and Peace”.

So! How do you celebrate the day, fellas? What do you think is the most urgent problem for women in Indonesia and the world?

Source: internationalwomensday.com

Compiled and written by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 8 March 2015.


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#EngKnowledge: Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird

Have you read the novel To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee? It’s available in English and Indonesian.

IMG_6139

To Kill a Mockingbird (TKM) is known as one of the greatest novels in American literary.

First published in 1960, the novel had won a Pulitzer Prize. It’s the only published work of author Harper Lee, until …

Last Wednesday, she announced that there’ll finally be a sequel to the novel!! http://t.co/eDrKg8K2bN

Imagine: Waiting 55 years for a sequel! (And I thought Sherlock Series 4 took forever to make).

Took forever to … = Butuh waktu lama untuk …

TKM is being taught in schools all over United States. Students read and review them in English classes.

Even British librarians claimed TKM as one of the ‘books you must read before you die’.

What makes TKM so special in the heart of American society and book lovers?

If you haven’t read it, here’s a summary of the story: (Don’t worry, it’s spoiler free!)

A little girl named Scout lives in Alabama during the time of segregation. She is the daughter of a lawyer, Atticus Finch.

Segregation = Kebijakan hukum yang membatasi hak warga kulit hitam di AS pada tahun 1960-an.

Atticus created an uproar when he decided to defend an innocent black man, Tom Robinson.

Created an uproar = Menimbulkan kontroversi/kegaduhan.

Even though Tom was innocent, as a black man he does not deserved to be defended by a white lawyer like Atticus.

TKM tells the story of their struggle through Scout’s eyes. She also meets a mysterious man, Boo Radley.

What happened to Tom and Atticus, and who is Boo Radley? You should find out by yourself :D

TKM is important because it speaks of social injustice from the perspective of a child.

It teaches us not to judge people based on their appearance, also not to be believe in negative stigma.

Even in this modern era, racism prevails in many places in the world. Which is why the lessons in TKM remains relevant.

This is why the world is excited about the publicity of its sequel, coming soon in July 2015.

Not only because it is a great book, but also because the author is known to dislike her popularity.

Harper Lee refused to do any interview with media after TKM became very popular.

Which is why some people expressed concerns when the sequel is announced. They fear that Lee is being pressured to publish it.

Express concern = menyatakan kekhawatiran.

They fear that Lee is being pressured to publish it. But Lee denied the claim.

She originally wrote the sequel to be published instead of TKM. But her editor thought the story would be more interesting if being spoken from a child’s perspective.

What do you think, fellas? If you’ve read TKM, are you excited about the sequel? If you haven’t, would you like to try it?

@rsmno: @EnglishTips4U YES! TKM has hit my heart so deep. Can’t wait for the sequel.

@fantastisch_1D: @EnglishTips4U well, I do really want to read that now😔

@bakahikki: @EnglishTips4U good author.. keep making masterpiece !!

@salmaazkiya: I love the book! “@EnglishTips4U: Even British librarians claimed TKM as one of the ‘books you must read before you die’. #EngKnowledge”

What is your favourite thing about it?

@salmaazkiya: @EnglishTips4U about Mrs. Dubose’s story, I was kind of shocked when I read about her real story

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 8 February 2015

#EngKnowledge: The history of ‘baby’

‘Baby’ is an endearing term people use to call their husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend in the English language. Almost every love song will have the word ‘baby’ or ‘babe’ in it. Have you ever wondered where did the term came from?

‘Baby’ and ‘babe’ first came up around year 1400s in England, used to describe ‘a human child.’

People started to use the term to describe a romantic partner in America around 19th century. At first, men used ‘baby’ to call each other without any romantic feeling to it. (How time has changed!) That was in 1835.

In 1911, Oxford English Dictionary began to list ‘babe’ with romantic connotation. The word didn’t show up again until 1960s, in a letter by General H. M. Naglee. Starting in 1915, ‘baby’ began to be used to describe an attractive woman. But only in 1975 that ‘baby’ began to used to describe attractive men. Notice how the meaning had changed rapidly from 1835 to 1975 alone.

Nowadays, there are different variety of the word. ‘Bae’ is commonly used as an Internet slang. ‘Bae’ itself is short for ‘before anyone else.’

Katherine Connor Martin, head of US dictionaries in Oxford English Dictionaries, explained the different terms people had used to call their loved ones throughout the ages.

Words like ‘honey’ and ‘sugar’ began to be used in early 20th century. Whilst ‘cinnamon’ and ‘honeysop’ were popular even between 1400-1500s. Even ‘lamb chop’ was commonly used in 1960s. Hm… I love you, dear lamb chop.

Embedded image permalink
(Image courtesy mymoonbargumbet.com)

According to Connor Martin, American English played a big role in spreading the use of ‘baby,’ especially through pop music.

Today, ‘baby’ is used to describe both a human child and someone attractive. Whilst ‘babe’ is exclusively for someone attractive. Even in Indonesian language, we often see ‘beb’ being adsorbed in our daily life.

Is there any endearment term you’d like to share with us?

“Sweety pumpkin! 😅” – @higuanief
“cutie pie ^^” – @fathiaee
“mok. If u hvnt heard of it. Haha” – @baozizilu

Source: New York Magazine’s The Cut

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4u on Sunday, December 14, 2014

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#EngKnowledge: Spell It Out! by David Crystal

 One thing for sure this Saturday… there will be an #EngKnowledge… on…. this question…

“Why on earth is — spelled like that?”

Name one time you did not ask that question in your life? Or at least “How do you spell it?”

Adding to what admin Patty has discussed previously ->http://ow.ly/EiPBw, English spelling has been always questioned

Taken from David Crystal’s book “Spell it Out”, it is stated that the background of someone learning English spelling constitutes of “twofold”:

1. “Children learning to read and write English as a mother-tongue”

2. “The vast number of children and adults who are learning English as a foreign language” 

According to Crystal, the complaint of English spelling is a result of the language’s centuries of evolution

No wonder it is difficult :/ 

“Can anything be done to facilitate the task of learning to spell English words?” Crystal believes yes, although..

..”a new pedagogy (way of teaching) will take a while to implement”

To be honest, it is not all doom and gloom if you cannot spell an English word

Crystal stated:

“Society expects us to spell perfectly. And yet we are all aware that there are some words in the language that we don’t know how to spell, and have to look them up before we write them. There are no exceptions.”

Crystal continued, “Nobody knows how to spell every word in the language. Even the brilliant spellers who win prizes in spelling bees get some words wrong.”

Crystal creates this book to break down the spelling problem. He does it by EXPLAINING it.

Crystal stated that “some people think spelling reform is the best way forward” yet to him, the first step is to understand it

To Crystal, understanding the present English spelling system would not be the whole solution, “but it’s half the battle”

So, fellas, do not worry if you didn’t get an English word spelling right by the first attempt :)

More on David Crystal’s Spell It Out can be Googled, or stay tuned with us as next week, more bits of it will be discussed :)

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4u on November 15, 2014

Source: “Spell It Out” Introduction by David Crystal, 2013

#EngKnowledge: The Story of Typhoid Mary

Been reading “Fever” by Mary Beth Keane in the past weeks. Anyone here ever heard of Typhoid Mary?

@neysaaeve: it’s typhoid fever, one of Indonesia’s endemic tropical infectious disease.
@SheylaMcF: oh yes! I worked on a tv program about her.. and… is she even a human?! :S
Yup, that’s her! The story of Typhoid Mary is one of the most intriguing in the history of public health!
Imagine New York City at th dawn of 20th century. Not as developed as it’s now, but it’s a bustling city filled with immigrants.
The quiet life of rich landlords and businessmen in Upper East Side was shaken with the sudden outbreak of thypoid fever. (Outbreak = wabah)
The authority tried to track down the source of the outbreak. And they noticed that every family which member had been contracted with the disease had once employed a cook named Mary Mallon.
Mary Mallon was an Irish immigrant who migrated to the US when she was 15 years old in 1883.
When she worked in Oyster Bay area, 10 of the 11 family members that she worked for developed thypoid.
Suspicion arised when it is revealed she herself had never been sick with thypoid fever.
George Soper, a researcher, noticed a certain pattern: Thypoid cases seemed to follow wherever Mary had worked.
She had a habit of resigning from her work as soon as the outbreak happened.
Soper began to approach her to talk about the disease. He wished to persuade her to quit.
Mallon did not take this very lightly. (Tidak menerima begitu saja).
When they finally arrested her, Mallon took on a violent rage. She kicked and punched the officers.
Violent rage = mengamuk hebat sampai mukul2.
They took her to a quarantine where they subjected her to various tests.
They found out that there are Thyphoid bacteria in her gallbladder.
Mallon turned out to be a healthy carrier of Thypoid. She has the bacteria in her system, but immune to it.
Despite admitting poor hygiene habit, Mallon still rejected the accusation of her being the cause of the outbreak.
She didn’t believe a healthy person can possibly spread the disease to other people. She kept on fighting for her freedom.
There were also many people who supported her case. She managed to get a lawyer to defend her case.
She finally managed to be released under the condition that she should never work as a cook again.
At first, everything was all right. But then Mallon got back into working as a cook again. This time, in a restaurant.
The end was predictable. More people got infected and died because of the disease.
Mallon then was taken back into a quarantine. This time, it’s permanently.
November 1938, she died of pneumonia in her isolation.
The book that I showed you earlier tried to tell the story from Mallon’s perspective.
When I first heard about her, I though Mallon was an evil woman who did not care at all about others’ wellbeing.
But then this book made me realise that it does get lonely to be in her position.
So yeah, the moral of the story is to take seriously the advice to wash your hands thoroughly.
Source: Fever by Mary Beth Keane.
Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4u on Sunday, 23 November 2014.

#EngKnowledge: Sweden’s and Netherlands’ English Fluency

So, does anyone know which countries that speak English well despite it is their second language?

@arifdarmawan88: India?” Yes, anywhere else?

@LilMissSlipshot: Malaysia? Well some Malaysians. Ps, your account is awesome!” Yes, Malaysia is one of them. And thanks :)

@fitigy: Netherlands, right? I read that almost 90% of their population can speak English.” Yep

@M_AryoUmbara: singapore. Philippine”

@arifdarmawan88: Nigeria ^_^”

@ajengRDewi: Spain”

@ajengRDewi: France”

@zuojia8: Phillipines: english is their second language, their text book used english and tagalog.”

@baguspratamasn: South Africa”

@ratnashf: Germany”

@ChieWon407: malaysia~ ah wonder if English also as second language in Indonesia~” hmm a survey did say we are

Well, interestingly if we look up the internet the English Proficiency Index is done by English First (EF), sadly the Philippines and Nigeria are not there. Yet it doesn’t mean their proficiency is really low :)

See here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EF_English_Proficiency_Index#2013_Rankings … and here https://ph.news.yahoo.com/blogs/the-inbox/english-proficiency-ph-still-good-20110411-232650-442.html …

The past years admin has experienced staying in Sweden and the Netherlands

Both countries struck me with their great English Proficiency almost to wherever we go, especially in speaking

Can you guess why are they good at it, fellas?

Admin terkagum2 bahwa Swedia dan Belanda memiliki keahlian berbahasa Inggris yang tinggi, terutama dalam berbicara @Ersrdnto

Padahal bahasa Inggris bukan bahawa utamanya @Ersrdnto

Ada yang bisa menebak mengapa negara-negera seperti Swedia, Belanda bisa memiliki keahlian bahasa Inggris yang cukup tinggi?

@Khafila: karena pernah dijajah oleh Inggris” I don’t think so…

@Ersrdnto: europe made english as 2nd language.” could be a factor :)

@SescoSaragih: their languages belong to anglo-norman (in which most english words derive)” hmm interesting point :)

@Yusuke3192: they’re proud to their own language (?)” if so, why would they learn English well?

One of the factors I found is that they learn English in school from early age

Interestingly, apparently, like in the Netherlands, they have to master their own language and English in the same time, even to the same level in that same time

In an article about Sweden’s English Proficiency, what helps them learn is also that English is “Germanic-based”

Some of you have mentioned some things too, I will share them :)

@widyatamala: they obviously realized that English is such a global language, which is why they keep learning and practicing it”

@Roollz: Maybe because their language grammar structures similar with english…”

@morends: maybe they dont have ‘bahasa daerah’ so, they speak english. Make sense?” Hmm they have dialects though

@nythaata: because their languages are the same type with English. Germanic.” I missed yours!

@ramadhanughi: i’m not sure for Spain and France. Coz ppl in there love their native language. I think Sweden has more active english users”

I think education plays a part for the Swedes/Dutch English Proficiency

But what’s interesting, such as in Sweden, there are no specific English newspapers published by Sweden itself

And in the Netherlands, only in Amsterdam you can find transportation warnings in English. In Stockholm, Sweden there are none.

Even though Sweden and Netherlands are good in English speaking wise, they don’t forget their culture and language.

So being able to speak English well as a second language does not mean that you have left your own.

And even though you haven’t spoken English well, does not mean you can’t learn to be better either :)

I hope what I shared is a new and useful #EngKnowledge for you today :)

@fangurl___: I am surprised to know that South Korea has more English Proficiency points than us…” yep, apparently

@umisadiq: the problem with Indonesians is that they r not confident enough to practice english they’ve learned from school/eng course

@ramadhanughi: some countries are proud speaking in their mother tongue than english. E.g. Japan, Italy, France

@Wesli_S: I think before English become a global language, Esperanto become global language first.. (cmiiw)” What’s Esperanto?

@Wesli_S: Esperanto is not Spanish language.It created by a community. It similar with Spanish,but it’s not(if I’m nt wrg)”

@Putrindhw: esperanto is a language introduced in 1887 by Dr. L.L. Zamenhof (further info http://esperanto-usa.org/node/3 )

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4u on August 9, 2014

 

Sources:

http://www.thelocal.se/galleries/lifestyle/2560

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EF_English_Proficiency_Index#2013_Rankings

https://ph.news.yahoo.com/blogs/the-inbox/english-proficiency-ph-still-good-20110411-232650-442.html

 

#EngKnowledge: Short history of May Day

May 1st, is an annual holiday where we celebrate Labor Day or International Workers’ Day, also known as May Day. Do you know what May Day means and the history behind it? This time, let me share some knowledge and facts about this day.

Are you currently working, fellas? How many hours do you work in a day? 8 hours? Where did this rule come from?

Well, here’s the history…

  • May Day is originally a pagan holiday, which is an ancient Northern Hemisphere spring festival.
  • But in relation to Labor Day, it is held in commemoration of four workers executed for struggling for an 8-hour day.
  • On 1 May 1886, a strike demanding an 8 hour day in Chicago started. 400,000 workers from different backgrounds were involved.
  • The eight-hour movement began a century before that, 1806. In that era workers worked 19 to 20 hours a day. Imagine that!
  • Two days after 1 May 1886, a mass meeting was held. After a police attack and a bomb, 8 men were captured and stood trial.
  • Although there was no proof that the 8 men threw the bomb, and the defense was not allowed to present evidence, 7 were sentenced to death.
  • 1 was sentenced to 15 years in prison. After a massive international campaign for their release, 2 were sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • The day before the executions, 1 committed suicide. On 11 November 1887 Parsons, Engel, Spies and Fischer were hanged.
  • 600,000 workers came to their funeral. The campaign to free the other 3 workers continued. They were eventually set free.
  • Later evidence showed that the bomb may have been thrown by a police agent, as a way to discredit the labour movement.
  • 1904, the International Socialist Conference meeting in Amsterdam declared 1 May as the legal establishment of the 8-hour day.
  • In Indonesia Labor Day has been celebrated since 1920. But it was prohibited during Soeharto era. In 2014 it has become a public holiday.
  • Well, that’s the end of our tonight. Remember, it never hurts to learn some history. It even brings us many advantages! :)
  • Learning history makes you appreciate life & give thanks to those who lived before you & sacrificed so you can enjoy what you have today. :)

Sources: A short history of May DayInternational Workers’ Day and Hari Buruh on Wikipedia

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 1, 2014

Related post(s):

^MQ

#EngKnowledge: Origins of ‘Soccer’ and ‘Football’

Hello, fellas! How was your first day of fasting? What did you have to break the fast with? Share us some pictures!

June and July are super exciting months. There’s the Election, Ramadhan … And of course there is FIFA World Cup!

Who are you rooting for in this year’s World Cup? (Rooting = mendukung)

Today’s #EngKnowledge topic is strongly related to football – or as the American people call it: Soccer!

Do you know why British people call it ‘football’ whilst American people call it ‘soccer’?

Stefan Szymanski, a professor at University of Michigan, explained how in his recent paper.

Funnily enough, the word ‘soccer’ was first used in United Kingdom some 200 years ago.

The word ‘soccer’ comes from the official name of the sports itself: Association Football.

The game developed into different versions, including the Rugby Football.

To tell the difference between each game, the Brits uses the term ‘rugger’ to refer to Rugby, and ‘soccer’ to Association Football.

In 1980, soccer became popular in the US with the rise of North American Soccer League.

Gradually, the term ‘soccer’ gained popularity in the US because it helps distinguish the game from American Football.

At the same time, British publications had begun to use ‘soccer’ less and less. They felt it was “too American”.

They decided to go back into calling the game “football”.

Apparently, many British are not too happy with Americans calling their favourite game ‘soccer’!

Check out this video of John Cleese (Nearly Headless Nick in Harry Potter films) ranting about football vs soccer: http://bit.ly/VwWuzC

Source: Huffington Post

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on 29 June 2014.

 

#EngKnowledge: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and His Inspiration

Image

Hi, fellas! Is there anyone here who is a fan of Sherlock Holmes? Do you know who created him?

@masyoza: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

@jkcrawling: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle?

@AzwarSD: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

 

Exactly! Today we’ll be talking about Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and his influence in creating Sherlock Holmes!

Born in 22 May 1859, Doyle started his career as a doctor before finally pursued writing for living.

Have you ever wondered if Holmes was a real-life character? Doyle surely learned about science of deduction from somewhere!

To understand that, first we need to know Doyle’s background as a physician.

Doyle graduated from University of Edinburgh Medical School, Scotland, UK, in 1881.

He had always loved writing stories, and his life changed when he was being taught by Dr. Joseph Bell.

Dr. Bell has a unique ability. When a student entered class, he was able to tell what he ate for lunch or where he had been.

His observation skills earned him the title as the pioneer of forensic science, bridging medicine and crime investigation.

Dr. Bell was often requested to testify in courts as expert witness. He had helped solve murders at least twice!

Doyle worked for Dr. Bell at the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary in 1877. He was so impressed and learned as much as he could.

As a tribute, he created a new character – a detective – based on his former lecturer.

So, Sherlock Holmes was not a real-life character. But he was inspired by a real person.

To practice your listening skill and learn more about Dr. Bell, you can watch this documentary in here:

Do you have any questions about English words used in this session? Mention us!

@eka_supriyadi: Admin numpang tanya, kalimat. But he was inspired by a real person. Kenapa he was inspired, bukan, he inspired?

@eka_supriyadi: eh udah tau jawabannya, itu karena bentuk kalimat pasif past tenses :))

Meanwhile, back in university, Doyle had a roommate named James Watson. So, in a way, we can say that Dr. Watson did exist!

Thanks for reading, fellas. Hope you have a good night rest before Monday starts!

: when I went to London and visited Sherlock’s Museum, I was in awe. It was as if he lived there and was away for a while.

Compiled and written by @animenur at @EnglishTips4U on May 25, 2014

#EngTrivia: Some ronunciation errors that changed the English language

Hi, fellas! Pernah nggak sih kalian salah mengucapkan sesuatu sewaktu lagi ngobrol?

Di Bahasa Inggris hal ini juga sering terjadi, dan saking terbiasanya orang salah mengucapkan malah jadi dianggap benar.

Berikut adalah beberapa kesalahan pengucapan yang terjadi di dalam Bahasa Inggris.

  1. Kata-kata yang dulunya diawali dengan “n”.  “Adder”, “apron”, & “umpire” dulu diawali dengan huruf “n”. Dulu, “n” di “a nadder” dianggap bagian dr kata sebelumnya.  Sehingga orang menyebutnya jadi “an adder”. Proses ini disebut “reanalysis” atau “rebracketing”.

  2. Bunyi yang tertukar. “Wasp” dulunya adalah “waps”, “bird” dulunya adalah “brid”, dan “horse” dulunya adalah “hros”.  Proses ini disebut sebagai “metathesis”, dan hal ini sangat umum terjadi.

  3. Ketika bunyi menghilang. Banyak huruf-huruf di dalam Bahasa Inggris yang nampak di tulisan namun tidak terdengar saat dilafalkan. Dulunya, “Wednesday” disebut sebagai “Woden’s day” (dinamakan sesuai dengan nama Dewa Nordik). Siapa juga yang sekarang melafalkan huruf “t” di kata “Christmas”?  Proses ini disebut sebagai “syncope”.

  4. Ketika huruf “l” menghilang. Huruf “l” diucapkan dengan cara mengangkat bagian belakang lidah ke atas. kebanyakan orang mengangkat lidah ini sangat tinggi sehingga huruf “l” terdengar seperti huruf “w”. Sekarang, hampir semua orang menggunakan “w” untuk mengucapkan kata “folk”, “talk”, and “walk”. Jadi seperti apa? Tentunya begini: “fowk”, “tawk”, dan “wawk”. Proses ini disebut “velarisation”.

  5. Ketika ada bunyi asing yang muncul. Tahukah kamu, “thunder” dulunya disebut “thuner”, sementara “empty” dulunya disebut “emty”. Sementara itu, banyak orang menyebut “hamster” menjadi “hampster”. Proses ini disebut “epenthesis”.

Compiled by @Patipatigulipat at @EnglishTips4U on May 16, 2014

#EngKnowledge: The Sound of Music


Hey fellas :) I hope your Saturday has been well :D

Have you heard of the songs “Edelweiss”, “Do-Re-Mi”, and “My Favourite Things”?

Do you know what movie it comes from?

@vinceputri: Edelweiss, Edelweiss bless my homeland forever :)

@blukrisna: I love that film! best musical I’ve ever seen!

@silmy94: yes i have, love that songs

@Istiquers: Do re mi, i <3 it

If your  answer is “The Sound of Music” then you are correct :) Today’s #EngKnowledge will be this movie :D

“The Sound of Music”, a movie released in 1965, tells the story of Maria and the Von Trapp Family.

The movie was based on a Broadway theatre play based on the book The Story of the Trapp Family Singers by Maria von Trapp.

The Broadway play’s plot was not as true to the story but it is based on the real family’s existence.

The plot tells the journey of a young postulant at Nonnberg Abbey, Salzburg, Austria, named Maria.

The nuns and Mother Abbess have found her troublesome.

When there was a request from a widowed Austrian naval captain looking for a governess for his seven children, Mother Abbess asks Maria to accept it even though Maria was reluctant.

Captain Georg von Trapp, the widowed Austrian naval captain, seems so strict to his children.

Maria then breaks the ice to the kids by teaching them singing and allows them to play, even planned a trip around Salzburg for them when their father’s away with a lady that he likes at the time.

The children’s singing impressed a friend of the Captain and wanting to enter them to the Salzburg Festival.

In the story the captain disapproves, but the story goes on with music surrounding them.

The singing activities made us the audience felt engaged, wanting to sing-a-long, as the songs were not hard to sing.

Since then Sound of Music songs were known to the world up until today, to some are songs to be learnt as beginners in music.

Some of the songs could even be our way of learning English such as “Do-Re-Mi” and “My Favourite Things”.

They have quite catchy melodies and easy lyrics, which is a perfect way to learn something new.

Before I end the session, here are parts of “Do-Re-Mi” lyrics and see what you get from it:

Screen Shot 2014-04-12 at 00.01.09

Here is a link to the song’s video, see for yourself how the actual song is: http://youtu.be/xIjobdArtiA or http://ow.ly/vHRV8

I hope you guys had fun this session :) Hope you have a great weekend :D

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4u on April 12, 2014