Halloween is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. The word Halloween comes from All Hallows’ Evening also known as Hallowe’en or All Hallows’ Eve. Continue reading #EngKnowledge: Halloween history
Yes, the symbol “&” is called ampersand. In this post, we will talk about its origin and history.
The ampersand (&) is used by Old Roman since more than 1,500 years ago. In the 1st century, Roman wrote in cursive, so when they wrote the Latin word “et” which means “and” they connect the e and t.
The ampersand symbol keeps evolving until the form of the symbol that is used today.
The name “ampersand” is rarely used until the 19th century, from “and per se and”.
In 1800s, the symbol ampersand (&) was actually part of the English alphabet. Since it would have been confusing to say “X, Y, Z, and.” So, people called the symbol “&”, “and per se and.”
The word “per se” means “by itself.”, so ”and per se and” means “and [the symbol] by itself is and.” Over time, “and per se and” was slurred together into the word we use today: ampersand.
- #GrammarTrivia: Hyphen, en dash and em dash
- #EngGrammar: ‘Shall’ and ‘should’
- #EngTrivia: The use of ‘then’ and ‘with’
- #EngKnowledge: a.m and p.m term
- #EngKnowledge: Hyphens and compound adjectives
Do you celebrate Valentine’s Day? Do you know the history behind the celebration? We’ll talk about it in this session.
Basically, Valentine’s Day is a commemoration of the death of St. Valentine. I gathered that there were two people with the name of ‘St. Valentine’ who died on February 14. Hence, there is a confusion about which Valentine it is that we commemorate. The first Saint Valentine was a Roman priest. The second was a bishop of Terni.
Not only the person, but the reason of death of St. Valentine is also confusing. A story says that he died after defying Emperor Claudius II who forbade his soldiers to marry. St. Valentine did not obey his king’s order and held some marriages in secret. The Emperor found out and St. Valentine was sent to jail. There, he fell in love with the daughter of a warden. Before the execution, he sent a letter to her with a closing remark “from your valentine.”
Another story says that St. Valentine cured a blind girl so that she could see again. The girl then fell in love with St. Valentine. Both stories came from Emperor Claudius II era (268-270) and ends with the death of St. Valentine on February 14.
- #IOTW: Valentine’s idioms
- #EngTalk: What you did on Valentine’s day
- #EngKnowledge: Valentine’s day celebration
- #EngVocab: Other ways to say ‘Love’
- #EngVocab: Different kinds of Love
Good evening, fellas! We’re on the verge of a new year. One thing that people usually do before the New Year is… making resolutions!
Do you make resolutions, fellas? (by the time the session ended, from 107 votes, only 37% said they made NY’s resolutions).
To welcome 2016, tonight we’ll talk about New Year’s resolutions. Please share your resolutions, I’ll RT later.
A CBS News poll in 2013 found that 68 percent of Americans don’t make New Year’s resolutions. People under the age of 30 were more likely than older folks to make resolutions, but only about half of resolution-makers keep their promises.
If you think New Year’s resolutions are just some traditions made by people in 20th century, you are wrong. It is believed that the Babylonians were the first to make New Year’s resolutions around 4,000 years ago. New Year didn’t start on Jan 1st at that time but in mid-March. March was a logical time period for the New Year because spring begins and crops are planted. The ancient Babylonians made promises to their gods that they would return borrowed objects and pay their debts.
The practice carried over into Roman times with worshippers offering resolutions of good conduct to the Janus.
Janus, the god of beginnings and endings.
Today, the only thing that has changed (for some) is that, rather than making promises to gods, we make promises to ourselves.
A professor of psychology at DePaul University in Chicago said that you ought to share your resolutions to others. Because when you keep your resolutions a secret, no one is goig to check up on you. So, tell us your resolutions!
cracking engineering services exam, learning French, Arabic and Spanish languages and achieving good body language etc etc.
graduate, meet the right guy and make parents happy and proud to meeew! hahaha
be better and not wasting time and money anymore:’D
these are my resolutions : being graduated from college, could realize my business plan , helping more people
Compiled by @FaridArdian for @EnglishTips4U on Dec, 30, 2015.
Superhero film focuses on the actions of individuals with superhuman abilities dedicating their life to protect the public.
Most superhero films are based on comic books, though there are always exceptions. RoboCop, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, and Hancock are examples of films that were made original for the big screen. Whilst Green Hornet is an example of a film based on a radio series.
The history of superhero films went back to the 1940s, after the boom of superhero comic books. Before they came to the big screen, they were adapted to TV series aired on Saturdays, originally aimed for children.
Beginning with Mandrake the Magician (1939), it was then followed by big names like Batman (1944).
Between 1950-60, the comic industry faced a decline. (Decline = penurunan) But it didn’t stop the theatrical release of Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves.
A big change happened in the 1970s after the success of sci-fi/fantasy film Star Wars. Studios began to release the first major big-budget superhero feature film, with advance technology (for that time).
More success stories happened in 1980s, with films like Superman II (1980), Robocop (1987), and Batman (1989). And the 1990s saw the peak of superhero films with more varieties in titles and themes.
You might remember Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) or the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995), if you are old enough to watch it.
In 1994, The Crow set a record as the first independent comic superhero to be made a franchise. The film added elements of action to a superhero film, with a darker and more violent story. Unfortunately, here’s a tragic story behind the making of The Crow; the lead actor Brandon Lee died during the shooting process.
The Crow’s success subsequently led to more films by ‘smaller’ comic producers, like Spawn (1997) by Image Comics.
Men in Black (1997) set record as the first MARVEL product to win an Oscar for Best Makeup. In the 2000s, there was an increased interest in superhero films, with MARVEL becoming a top name for superhero films. Many can’t get over Tobey Maguire’s role as Spider-man (2002), one of the biggest blockbuster ever. I personally like Andrew Garfield better, but to each of their own.
- To each of their own. Meaning: semua punya pendapat masing-masing
- Can’t get over. Meaning: tidak bisa melupakan
- Blockbuster. Meaning: istilah untuk film yang sukses meraih pemasukan tinggi.
Aside from those mentioned above, there are also more interesting alternative styles of superhero films, like Unbreakable (2000).
Why do superhero films become more popular in the 2000s? Expert says it has something to do with social-political climate. 9/11 and the following wars made people crave for a hero to save the day. Films made a great escape for them.
The 2010s saw many successful reboots of successful superhero series.
- Reboot. Meaning: Pembuatan ulang.
- Crave. Meaning: mendambakan.
Who can forget Heath Ledger’s role as Joker in The Dark Knight (2008)? Sadly, apart from giving him an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor, the role also led him to his death. The Dark Knight set record as the most Oscar-nominated superhero film ever, with 8 nominations.
How is the future like for superhero films? Well, it seems exciting.
To compete with MARVEL, DC Comics prepared a film universe, started with Man of Steel & the sequel Batman v. Superman (2016).
Question: What’s your favourite superhero film?
batman, superman, the avengers – @arie90skid
Gatotkaca :D the original superhero of Indonesia – @AsriEsti
Question: How about superhero film from Indonesia? – @purwamel
Wiro Sableng. :) – @Kido26
I remember seeing a local comic series called @NusantaRanger . Hopefully one day Indonesia can make its own big budget superhero films.
But some of you might remember this TV series! :D
- #EngTalk: Movies vs series
- #EngQuote: Quotes from Disney movies
- #EngKnowledge: The sound of music
- #EngKnowledge: History of Marvel comics
- #EngTalk: Turkish TV series
‘Baby’ is an endearing term people use to call their husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend in the English language. Almost every love song will have the word ‘baby’ or ‘babe’ in it. Have you ever wondered where did the term came from?
‘Baby’ and ‘babe’ first came up around year 1400s in England, used to describe ‘a human child.’
People started to use the term to describe a romantic partner in America around 19th century. At first, men used ‘baby’ to call each other without any romantic feeling to it. (How time has changed!) That was in 1835.
In 1911, Oxford English Dictionary began to list ‘babe’ with romantic connotation. The word didn’t show up again until 1960s, in a letter by General H. M. Naglee. Starting in 1915, ‘baby’ began to be used to describe an attractive woman. But only in 1975 that ‘baby’ began to used to describe attractive men. Notice how the meaning had changed rapidly from 1835 to 1975 alone.
Nowadays, there are different variety of the word. ‘Bae’ is commonly used as an Internet slang. ‘Bae’ itself is short for ‘before anyone else.’
Katherine Connor Martin, head of US dictionaries in Oxford English Dictionaries, explained the different terms people had used to call their loved ones throughout the ages.
Words like ‘honey’ and ‘sugar’ began to be used in early 20th century. Whilst ‘cinnamon’ and ‘honeysop’ were popular even between 1400-1500s. Even ‘lamb chop’ was commonly used in 1960s. Hm… I love you, dear lamb chop.
According to Connor Martin, American English played a big role in spreading the use of ‘baby,’ especially through pop music.
Today, ‘baby’ is used to describe both a human child and someone attractive. Whilst ‘babe’ is exclusively for someone attractive. Even in Indonesian language, we often see ‘beb’ being adsorbed in our daily life.
Is there any endearment term you’d like to share with us?
Source: New York Magazine’s The Cut
May 1st, is an annual holiday where we celebrate Labor Day or International Workers’ Day, also known as May Day. Do you know what May Day means and the history behind it? This time, let me share some knowledge and facts about this day.
Are you currently working, fellas? How many hours do you work in a day? 8 hours? Where did this rule come from?
Well, here’s the history…
- May Day is originally a pagan holiday, which is an ancient Northern Hemisphere spring festival.
- But in relation to Labor Day, it is held in commemoration of four workers executed for struggling for an 8-hour day.
- On 1 May 1886, a strike demanding an 8 hour day in Chicago started. 400,000 workers from different backgrounds were involved.
- The eight-hour movement began a century before that, 1806. In that era workers worked 19 to 20 hours a day. Imagine that!
- Two days after 1 May 1886, a mass meeting was held. After a police attack and a bomb, 8 men were captured and stood trial.
- Although there was no proof that the 8 men threw the bomb, and the defense was not allowed to present evidence, 7 were sentenced to death.
- 1 was sentenced to 15 years in prison. After a massive international campaign for their release, 2 were sentenced to life imprisonment.
- The day before the executions, 1 committed suicide. On 11 November 1887 Parsons, Engel, Spies and Fischer were hanged.
- 600,000 workers came to their funeral. The campaign to free the other 3 workers continued. They were eventually set free.
- Later evidence showed that the bomb may have been thrown by a police agent, as a way to discredit the labour movement.
- 1904, the International Socialist Conference meeting in Amsterdam declared 1 May as the legal establishment of the 8-hour day.
- In Indonesia Labor Day has been celebrated since 1920. But it was prohibited during Soeharto era. In 2014 it has become a public holiday.
- Well, that’s the end of our #EngKnowledge tonight. Remember, it never hurts to learn some history. It even brings us many advantages! :)
- Learning history makes you appreciate life & give thanks to those who lived before you & sacrificed so you can enjoy what you have today. :)
- #EngKnowledge: History of action movies
- #EngKnowledge: Halloween history
- #EngKnowledge: History of ampersand
- #EngKnowledge: History of Marvel comics
- #EngKnowledge: History of English dictionary
Hey fellas, ready for tonight’s session? I must warn you though, tonight’s session needs a lot more of your contribution ;)
Sadly it’s not a quiz, it’s not a game, but it’s not hard either. Don’t need to be scared or shy. It’s more like a relaxing English club discussion kind of thing but online for tonight and what we’re discussing tonight is….
Where did British English or even English Language itself come from?
Is it from Britain? Is it only created by England? Is it from somewhere else? How did it get up to we talk or type like this? So, let’s start! Tell us what you think, apa yang ada di benakmu atau pikiranmu.
So, here are some of your answers for the first question we’re starting on
“Latin & french?” – @gadsya
“England.” – @chachaicho
“UK maybe.” – @gitaKuswara
“Turkey, some 9000 yrs ago.” – @TaniaNataya:
“Originally the first come from Celts people, so it form from Celtic, and get some influence Roman, France, Germany n Scotland.” – @Liia1116
“It’s god’s will hahaha, Anglo-Saxon?” – @rezapongo
” I once read from a source (forget what was it) that English didn’t come from England/UK but Turkey..” – @alltimelfcfan
“English is West Germanic language that was first spoken in England. …i got that from wikipedia lol.” – @syifa21
“English originated from west Germany language (Anglo-Frisian dialects)that was brought by Germany invaders to Britain.” –@SatrioTeguh
“The pioneer tribe of English language is Anglia, Saxon, Frisia, and Frank from Eastern Europe.” – @Hendry_Andreas
“ada lg! English has 3stages, OLD, MIDDLE and MODERN. ” – @angelaamoy
“As I know Britain once used French for few hundreds years. A possibility it was adapted from French.” – @HadiSyuja
“English is classified West-Germany language fmly. Its combined from local languages that used by Norway & Denmark people” – @tieput
“The first English that was used back then, was an old English from 3 ethnics, such as German. But mostly the two ethnics influenced the English (old Eng), then mixed with Celtic language.” – @AriAGafur
“min, I think English language has the same root with many European countries such as Germany, French, and Nederland.” – @Heni_HT
So, what do fellas think now we have these answers from you? Any other thoughts?
The reason admin brought it up tonight like this is to make this topic open and to let any opinion come from you and practising your English. Why? Have you noticed that nowadays, any history seemed unreal anymore to a lot of people? Many new findings with new technology. Moreover, some parts of history was believed to be changed or not as it is for any kind of reason it has.
As admin knows, the history of English language itself is hardly brought up even in English language studies or lessons, and from what admin read, as admin don’t really master on this subject although the curiosity grew bigger now, it seemed that English is a member of the Germanic family of languages.
We can see that Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family, but there were developments later stating it is not from Anglo Saxon and some research of science resulted with Turkey as origin. (It’s not much but here’s one of them http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19368988 … @annjara_ )
It seemed that English itself has developed for years indeed, became a powerful language. England or as we know Inggris, which is part of UK of Britain, became really powerful and managed to make it a universal language.
“Sometime in history, when French colonized England, French was nobler than English (which was spoken by low class people only). It’s then spoken around the globe. I followed History of English Language class back then and it was interesting such a long a history of a language, influenced with politics.” – @iniuni:
“But since the Anglo-Saxon was invading England, i think, the most trusted development is that Germany is the origin. It can be proved from the literary works. The Shakespearean Sonnet was adapted from the Sonnet of Petrarch-Germany. So that, Germany has an important rule in developing the English language especially for the literary work.” – @puteriwidya:
“ProtoEnglish: Wst Grmnc Tribs livd, Trded, Fought Roman Emp. people who spoke latin before they arrived in Britain. So, some vocabs f Latin language entered these Germanic people (Anglo, saxon, etc) language before their arrival in Britain.
OldEnglish: The Germanic invaders dominated the people of Britain who spoke Celtic language. The Lang. that the invders uttered in Britain aftr the Celtic lang ws neglected calld Anglo-Saxon or Old English Lang. Old Eng ws strongly Influnced by North Germanic Language that was used by Norsemen or Viking. Old Eng. period ended when Normans who spoke French Dialect Conquered Britain.
MidEng: The Norman High ranking people used Anglo-Norman Lang but the lower class people used English or Anglo-saxon. Normans had a great influences in the development of English Lang at that time and producing the Middle English Language.” – @SatrioTeguh
“And I don’t know what exactly the difference between England and Great Britain is. Aren’t they just the same? Unfortunately, they are not the same. In fact, England is now part of Great Britain which means England is a province of Great Britain the country.” – @iancurly2992:
As I stated before, England is the province of the country Great Britain, sama halnya Bali adalah propinsi dalam negara Indonesia. Can you imagine what great power England has as a province/county to conquer the world and spread this English language.
“No it’s county, di UK propinsi dibilang county not country instead of province.” – @biantoro_wisnu
“Well it can be from Turkey knowing that before the new settlers come, anglo-saxon, Britain wasn’t unpopulated. There were the forest dwellers about 8500 bc. Maybe they spoke the old english which was from Turkey, since there was nobody wrote anything down and the information just comes fossils, bones metal or relics. Thats my opinion.” – @annjara_
“Great Britain=England+Wales+Scotland,while England+Wales+Scotland+North Ireland=UK(utd kingdom). as far as I know, the official name of the country is “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.””- @Heni_HT
“They have now become Commonwealth countries where most of them get benefits from Britain itself such as in education.” – @andretrih
“the UK flag is a combination between English, Scottish, & old Irish flag. – GB flag: + merah dan dasar putih = England, x putih dan dasar biru=Scotland, x merah dasar putih=old Irish.” – @greg_ario
” After middle English period, the period from 1500 to about 1650 is called Early Modern English period. It was the period when Shakespeare was born, the first English dictionary and English newspaper were published.” – @nakamuralia:
Here’s a link about the differences of GB and UK coming from a school website: http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/britain.html … Hopefully you all won’t be confused on GB and UK and England anymore now hehe
So if the question is where did British English came from? It is from English and England, yet why there’s British in front of it? British English seemed to come about due to the many version of English there are now, well, they conquer big places don’t they?
@SatrioTeguh: If you wanna know more about th history of Eng. Lang., you can read this book, A History of Th English Language by N.F. Blake
Maybe English should have come up with a different name now? Hehehe well enjoy your day fellas!
- #EngKnowledge: History of English Dictionary
- #EngTips: ejaan American English (AmE) vs ejaan British English (BrE)
- #EngVocab: British English (4) –Archaic English pronouns
- #EngClass: British English (1)
- #WOTD: British English (8) – Proper
Kali ini topik kita adalah bahasa slang Amerika yang dipakai sewaktu zaman dulu. Coba yuk diliat seperti apa dan tahun berapa kata tersebut digunakan.
- Dust. Arti: Membunuh (thn 1940).
- “I could have you dusted (off) tomorrow.”
- Low. Arti: Sedih, depresi (thn 1740).
- “I am feeling really low right now.”
- Umph. Arti: Semangat (thn 1930).
- “Couldn’t you get a little more umph into this ad campaign?”
- Dotty. Arti: Gila, crazy (thn 1880).
- “I hope he’s not as dotty as your father.”
- Flame. Arti: Pacar (1640).
- “Andrew has dozens of old flames but has never been burned.”
- Coals. Arti: Abu rokok (thn 1980).
- “Hey, don’t flip your coals on the tablecloth!”
- Stupe. Arti: Orang bodoh (thn 1820).
- “Don’t tell that stupe anything, he will not listen.”
- Breeze. Arti: Sesuatu yg mudah (thn 1920).
- “Cooking this food is a breeze!”
- Clam up. Arti: menutup mulut (thn 1910).
- “When I asked him where he got the money, he clammed up.”
- Grease. Arti: membunuh (thn 1950).
- “Shut up or I’ll grease him!”
- #UKSlang: Clothing
- #UKSlang: “Bloody hell!”
- #USSlang: Italian gangsters slang
- #USSlang: ‘Basic bitch’
- #USSlang: African-American vernacular
Cerita ini admin kutip dari Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary dan admin bagikan agar lebih banyak orang yang tahu.
Bahasa Inggris adalah salah satu bahasa di dunia yang paling kaya vocabulary (kosakata). Hal ini dilatarbelakangi oleh sejarah yang panjang. Bahasa Inggris pada kala itu tidak seperti bahasa yang kita kenal saat ini.
Bahasa Inggris yang kita gunakan dan ketahui saat ini adalah “modern English.” Selama berabad-abad, Bahasa Inggris telah menyerap kata-kata yang berasal dari berbagai bahasa. Mari kita lihat lini masa sejarahnya.
Bahasa Inggris berkembang dari Anglo-Saxon, atau juga dikenal sebagai “Old English,” yang dibawa oleh suku-suku dari Jerman. Suku-suku dari Jerman itu adalah Angles, Saxons, dan Jutes, yang datang pada abad 5 Masehi. Dari mereka pula “England” mendapat namanya.
England berasal dari “the land of the Angles” (tanah orang Angles). Para penyerbu dari Jerman ini menyumbangkan banyak kosakata. Beberapa kata yang berasal dari masa Anglo-Saxon antara lain: man, breed, eat, shire, woman, work, house.
Di akhir abad 6, sekelompok biarawan datang sebagai utusan dari Roma, Italia, untuk memperkuat agama Kristen di Inggris. Pada saat itu, kata-kata yang diserap dari Bahasa Latin ke Bahasa Inggris kebanyakan adalah yang berhubungan dengan agama dan pembelajaran. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Latin antara lain: school, pope, candle, minister, verse, mass.
3. Old Norse.
Pada abad 9 dan 10, datang penyerbu dari Skandinavia dan menguasai sebagian besar wilayah di bagian timur Inggris. Banyak kata sehari-hari dalam “modern Inggris” diambil dari Old Norse, yang masih ada hubungannya dengan Anglo-Saxon. Banyak nama tempat berakhiran dengan “-by” yang dalam Bahasa Old Norse sendiri artinya adalah “desa”, mIsalnya Whitby. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Old Norse antara lain: sky, call, dirt, leg, take.
4. French (Bahasa Perancis).
Ketika Inggris ditaklukkan oleh Bangsa Norman dari utara Perancis pada 1066, Bahasa Perancis menjadi bahasa kaum penguasa. Banyak kata dalam “modern English” yang menjelaskan tentang sistem pemerintahan dan hukum, serta masak-memasak berasal dari Bahasa Perancis pada saat itu. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Perancis antara lain: sovereign, govern, braise, mutton, court, advise, veal.
5. Latin dan Greek (Yunani).
Banyak kata dari Bahasa Latin masuk ke dalam Bahasa Inggris melalui Bahasa Perancis. Namun Abad Renaisans pada abad 15 dan 16 membuat orang begitu tertarik pada pembelajaran klasik atau kuno. Kata-kata dari Bahasa Latin dan Yunani ramai digunakan. Beberapa kata yang berasal dari Bahasa Latin dan Yunani antara lain: physics, architecture, compute, educate, radius, history.
6. Worldwide (dari seluruh dunia).
Bahasa Latin dan Yunani masih digunakan sebagai sumber kata baru, terutama berhubungan dengan ilmu pengetahuan. English speaker (pengguna Bahasa Inggris) sekarang mengambil kata dari berbagai sumber di bahasa lain, untuk menjelaskan fenomena yang tidak ada dalam Bahasa Inggris. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari seluruh dunia antara lain: telephone, tea, tattoo, futon, video, sauna.
- #EngClass: British English (3) – British English history
- #EngKnowledge: History of English dictionary
- #EngVocab: English words of Vikings origin
- #EngClass: British English (2) – AmE vs BrE history + More differences
- #EngKnowledge: History of ampersand