Tag Archives: history

#EngKnowledge: April Fools’ Day History

As it is the 1st of April, we will have a little story-time on the history of April Fools’ Day.

In modern times, April Fools’ Day is synonymous with pranks and jokes, which involve not only individuals but also brands and media.

There are many versions of how April Fools’ Day came to such an importance. First, we will talk about the transition from Julian calendar to Gregorian calendar, which happened in France in 1582.

In Julian calendar, the new year was celebrated on 1 April, the spring equinox. Those who didn’t get the memo that year and didn’t realise that the beginning of the year had been moved to 1 January were referred to as ‘poisson d’avril’ or April fish.

The term itself meant a gullible person or ‘April fools.’ Those who still celebrated the new year during the last week of March through 1 April were made fun of by having a paper fish stuck onto their backs.

The second version said that April Fools’ Day is related to ‘Hilaria’ (Latin for ‘joyful’), an ancient Roman festival celebrated at the end of March which included citizen dressing up and mocking fellow citizen or public officials.

Who would have thought that Mother Nature and the weather are related to April Fools’? It is said that the unpredictable weather at the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere is Mother Nature making a fool of us.

Finally, the April Fools’ spread throughout Britain in the 18th century. This version of April Fools’ was probably the closest to what we know now, as it sometimes involved sticking ‘kick me’ sign on someone’s derriere (back side). Since then, April Fools’ Day became an unofficial holiday in many parts of the world, where people are allowed to do harmless pranks, jokes, and hoaxes, and the targets are not usually mad or upset.

Source: https://www.history.com/topics/holidays/april-fools-day

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 1 April 2021.

#EngKnowledge: “Bank Holiday”
#EngKnowledge: Halloween History
#EngKnowledge: Songkran Festival
#EngKnowledge: The Twelve Days of Christmas
#EngKnowledge: Valentine Day’s Celebration


“Remember, remember, the fifth of November
The gunpowder treason and plot
I see of no reason why the gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot…”

Do you remember this line, fellas? Along with this mask?

Photo by NEOSiAM 2020 on Pexels.com

Most of us heard the lines or saw the mask first on the movie ‘V for Vendetta’ (James McTeigue, 2006). The main character of the movie, V, was a victim of a biological weapon experiment. The weapon then brought England to a despotic era led by Chancellor Sutler.

V was portrayed to have taken his inspiration from Guy Fawkes. Guy Fawkes was a member of the Gunpowder Plot who was arrested on 5 November 1605. V wore a mask that was said to resemble Fawkes’ face and set a revolution on the day Fawkes was arrested, 5 November.

Due to the popularity of the movie, many people then associated the Guy Fawkes mask with a symbol of resistance against tyranny. We even have hackers that go by the name Anonymous and use the mask as their persona. However, the history of 5 November 1605 was not exactly that black and white.

If we trace the history of 5 November 1605, we could go back to the reign of Henry VIII from House of Tudor, who was the king of England from 1509 to 1547. During his reign, he declared himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. He adopted the Protestant faith which severed the tie between England and the Catholic Church led by the Pope and eventually resulted in excommunication of England by the Pope and other notable European kingdoms who supported the Pope.

Catholic churches and monasteries across England were forced to close their doors and had their assets confiscated. Anyone who spoke against Henry VIII found their heads rolling off of the chopping block (executed by beheading). This definitely caused a deep resentment between people of different faiths.

Upon his death, Henry passed the throne to his only legitimate son, Edward VI, who was also a devout Protestant. Unfortunately, Edward VI died young at the age of 15-16 and did not leave any heir. He chose his cousin, Lady Jane Grey, to be the new queen, despite having two half-sisters, Mary I and Elizabeth I.

The older sister, Mary I, was set on returning England to a Catholic state. With the nobility as her supporters, she overthrew Jane Grey and became the Queen of England for the next 5 years. During her reign, those of Protestant faith were deemed heretics and executed, which led to the coinage of the term ‘Bloody Mary.’ Her sister, Elizabeth I, almost met the same fate; she was accused of plotting against the Queen.

Eventually, Mary I fell ill and died of what was suspected to be ovarian cysts or uterine cancer, and as she had no heir, she reluctantly named her sister, Elizabeth I, who was a Protestant, as her successor. Elizabeth I then reigned for 45 years. She promoted religious tolerance and introduced a Religious Settlement which then became the foundation of the Church of England and Anglicanism.

But again, the succession was an issue, as Elizabeth was a woman and therefore could not pass on her family name. She was torn between marriage proposals from Spain and France, which in her view, would make England merely a vassal state of either kingdom. She was concerned that her marriage would again bring England to disharmony.

So she did something drastic: she chose not to marry. Upon her death in 1603, the throne then passed on to her closest Protestant relative, James VI of Scotland from House of Stuart, who then became James I and reigned upon England and Scotland.

The deep resentment caused by Henry VIII’s decision to declare himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England was still very much obvious more than half a century later. Even during the reign of Elizabeth I, there had been numerous attempts to overthrow the monarch and enthrone someone of Catholic faith, and this also happened during the reign of James I. One of the most notable ones was the Gunpowder Plot.

Set as an attempt to blow up the House of Lords (the parliament) and kill James I, the plot was discovered on 5 November 1605 when Guy Fawkes was arrested. To celebrate the fact that the King had survived the assassination attempt, people lit bonfires around London. An act called ‘The Observance of 5th November’ was then passed to enforce an annual thanksgiving to celebrate the plot’s failure. From then on, the 5th of November is celebrated annually in the UK. It is also known as Bonfire Night and Guy Fawkes Night.

So, I personally have mixed feelings about the fifth of November. I love the movie V for Vendetta, and many people apparently do, too. But it’s safe to say that the history behind Guy Fawkes is… a lot. Do feel free to add anything if there’s something I missed and correct me for any historical inaccuracy.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 5 November 2020.

#EngClass: The History of English Vocabulary
#EngKnowledge: Halloween History
#EngKnowledge: Short History of May Day
#EngKnowledge: The History of Scientific English
#EngKnowledge: The Story of Typhoid Mary

#EngKnowledge: History of ampersand

Yes, the symbol “&” is called ampersand. In this post, we will talk about its origin and history.

The ampersand (&) is used by Old Roman since more than 1,500 years ago. In the 1st century, Roman wrote in cursive, so when they wrote the Latin word “et” which means “and” they connect the e and t.

The ampersand symbol keeps evolving until the form of the symbol that is used today.


The name “ampersand” is rarely used until the 19th century, from “and per se and”.

In 1800s, the symbol ampersand (&) was actually part of the English alphabet. Since it would have been confusing to say “X, Y, Z, and.” So, people called the symbol “&”, “and per se and.”

The word “per se” means “by itself.”, so ”and per se and” means “and [the symbol] by itself is and.” Over time, “and per se and” was slurred together into the word we use today: ampersand.


Source: What Character Was Removed from the Alphabet?

Compiled and written by @AnienditaR at @EnglishTips4u on Saturday, October 1, 2016


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#EngKnowledge: Saint Valentine

Do you celebrate Valentine’s Day? Do you know the history behind the celebration? We’ll talk about it in this session.

Basically, Valentine’s Day is a commemoration of the death of St. Valentine. I gathered that there were two people with the name of ‘St. Valentine’ who died on February 14. Hence, there is a confusion about which Valentine it is that we commemorate. The first Saint Valentine was a Roman priest. The second was a bishop of Terni.

Not only the person, but the reason of death of St. Valentine is also confusing. A story says that he died after defying Emperor Claudius II who forbade his soldiers to marry. St. Valentine did not obey his king’s order and held some marriages in secret. The Emperor found out and St. Valentine was sent to jail. There, he fell in love with the daughter of a warden. Before the execution, he sent a letter to her with a closing remark “from your valentine.”

Another story says that St. Valentine cured a blind girl so that she could see again. The girl then fell in love with St. Valentine. Both stories came from Emperor Claudius II era (268-270) and ends with the death of St. Valentine on February 14.


Compiled and written by @iismail21 for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 14, 2016

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#EngKnowledge: New Year’s Resolutions

Good evening, fellas! We’re on the verge of a new year. One thing that people usually do before the New Year is… making resolutions!

Do you make resolutions, fellas? (by the time the session ended, from 107 votes, only 37% said they made NY’s resolutions).

To welcome 2016, tonight we’ll talk about New Year’s resolutions. Please share your resolutions, I’ll RT later.

A CBS News poll in 2013 found that 68 percent of Americans don’t make New Year’s resolutions. People under the age of 30 were more likely than older folks to make resolutions, but only about half of resolution-makers keep their promises.

If you think New Year’s resolutions are just some traditions made by people in 20th century, you are wrong. It is believed that the Babylonians were the first to make New Year’s resolutions around 4,000 years ago. New Year didn’t start on Jan 1st at that time but in mid-March. March was a logical time period for the New Year because spring begins and crops are planted. The ancient Babylonians made promises to their gods that they would return borrowed objects and pay their debts.

The practice carried over into Roman times with worshippers offering resolutions of good conduct to the Janus.


Janus, the god of beginnings and endings.

Today, the only thing that has changed (for some) is that, rather than making promises to gods, we make promises to ourselves.

A professor of psychology at DePaul University in Chicago said that you ought to share your resolutions to others. Because when you keep your resolutions a secret, no one is goig to check up on you. So, tell us your resolutions!

cracking engineering services exam, learning French, Arabic and Spanish languages and achieving good body language etc etc.

graduate, meet the right guy and make parents happy and proud to meeew! hahaha

be better and not wasting time and money anymore:’D

these are my resolutions : being graduated from college, could realize my business plan , helping more people


Compiled by @FaridArdian for @EnglishTips4U on Dec, 30, 2015.

#EngKnowledge: History of superhero films

Avangers: Age of Ultron (2015)

Superhero film focuses on the actions of individuals with superhuman abilities dedicating their life to protect the public.

Most superhero films are based on comic books, though there are always exceptions. RoboCop, Unbreakable, The Incredibles, and Hancock are examples of films that were made original for the big screen. Whilst Green Hornet is an example of a film based on a radio series.

The history of superhero films went back to the 1940s, after the boom of superhero comic books. Before they came to the big screen, they were adapted to TV series aired on Saturdays, originally aimed for children.

Beginning with Mandrake the Magician (1939), it was then followed by big names like Batman (1944).

Top: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) | Bottom Left: Batman (1944) | Bottom Right: Superman (1978)

Between 1950-60, the comic industry faced a decline. (Decline = penurunan) But it didn’t stop the theatrical release of Adventures of Superman, starring George Reeves.

A big change happened in the 1970s after the success of sci-fi/fantasy film Star Wars. Studios began to release the first major big-budget superhero feature film, with advance technology (for that time).

More success stories happened in 1980s, with films like Superman II (1980), Robocop (1987), and Batman (1989). And the 1990s saw the peak of superhero films with more varieties in titles and themes.

Top Left: The Crow (1994) | Top Right: Star Wars OT | Bottom Left: Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995) | Bottom Right: Spawn (1997)

You might remember Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990) or the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie (1995), if you are old enough to watch it.

In 1994, The Crow set a record as the first independent comic superhero to be made a franchise. The film added elements of action to a superhero film, with a darker and more violent story. Unfortunately, here’s a tragic story behind the making of The Crow; the lead actor Brandon Lee died during the shooting process.

The Crow’s success subsequently led to more films by ‘smaller’ comic producers, like Spawn (1997) by Image Comics.

Top: Men in Black (1997) | Bottom: Unbreakable (2000)

Men in Black (1997) set record as the first MARVEL product to win an Oscar for Best Makeup. In the 2000s, there was an increased interest in superhero films, with MARVEL becoming a top name for superhero films. Many can’t get over Tobey Maguire’s role as Spider-man (2002), one of the biggest blockbuster ever. I personally like Andrew Garfield better, but to each of their own.


  • To each of their own. Meaning: semua punya pendapat masing-masing
  • Can’t get over. Meaning: tidak bisa melupakan
  • Blockbuster. Meaning: istilah untuk film yang sukses meraih pemasukan tinggi.

Aside from those mentioned above, there are also more interesting alternative styles of superhero films, like Unbreakable (2000).

Why do superhero films become more popular in the 2000s? Expert says it has something to do with social-political climate. 9/11 and the following wars made people crave for a hero to save the day. Films made a great escape for them.

The 2010s saw many successful reboots of successful superhero series.


  • Reboot. Meaning: Pembuatan ulang.
  • Crave. Meaning: mendambakan.

Top: The Dark Knight (2008) | Bottom: Spider-man (2002)

Who can forget Heath Ledger’s role as Joker in The Dark Knight (2008)? Sadly, apart from giving him an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor, the role also led him to his death. The Dark Knight set record as the most Oscar-nominated superhero film ever, with 8 nominations.

How is the future like for superhero films? Well, it seems exciting.

To compete with MARVEL, DC Comics prepared a film universe, started with Man of Steel & the sequel Batman v. Superman (2016).

Question: What’s your favourite superhero film?

batman, superman, the avengers – @arie90skid

Gatotkaca :D the original superhero of Indonesia – @AsriEsti

Question: How about superhero film from Indonesia? – @purwamel

Wiro Sableng. :) – @Kido26

I remember seeing a local comic series called @NusantaRanger . Hopefully one day Indonesia can make its own big budget superhero films.

But some of you might remember this TV series! :D

Saras 008 (1998 – 2000)


  • Wikipedia,
  • screenrant.com,
  • IMDB,
  • comicvine.com


Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 29 March 2015


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#EngKnowledge: The history of ‘baby’

‘Baby’ is an endearing term people use to call their husband/wife, boyfriend/girlfriend in the English language. Almost every love song will have the word ‘baby’ or ‘babe’ in it. Have you ever wondered where did the term came from?

‘Baby’ and ‘babe’ first came up around year 1400s in England, used to describe ‘a human child.’

People started to use the term to describe a romantic partner in America around 19th century. At first, men used ‘baby’ to call each other without any romantic feeling to it. (How time has changed!) That was in 1835.

In 1911, Oxford English Dictionary began to list ‘babe’ with romantic connotation. The word didn’t show up again until 1960s, in a letter by General H. M. Naglee. Starting in 1915, ‘baby’ began to be used to describe an attractive woman. But only in 1975 that ‘baby’ began to used to describe attractive men. Notice how the meaning had changed rapidly from 1835 to 1975 alone.

Nowadays, there are different variety of the word. ‘Bae’ is commonly used as an Internet slang. ‘Bae’ itself is short for ‘before anyone else.’

Katherine Connor Martin, head of US dictionaries in Oxford English Dictionaries, explained the different terms people had used to call their loved ones throughout the ages.

Words like ‘honey’ and ‘sugar’ began to be used in early 20th century. Whilst ‘cinnamon’ and ‘honeysop’ were popular even between 1400-1500s. Even ‘lamb chop’ was commonly used in 1960s. Hm… I love you, dear lamb chop.

Embedded image permalink
(Image courtesy mymoonbargumbet.com)

According to Connor Martin, American English played a big role in spreading the use of ‘baby,’ especially through pop music.

Today, ‘baby’ is used to describe both a human child and someone attractive. Whilst ‘babe’ is exclusively for someone attractive. Even in Indonesian language, we often see ‘beb’ being adsorbed in our daily life.

Is there any endearment term you’d like to share with us?

“Sweety pumpkin! 😅” – @higuanief
“cutie pie ^^” – @fathiaee
“mok. If u hvnt heard of it. Haha” – @baozizilu

Source: New York Magazine’s The Cut

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4u on Sunday, December 14, 2014

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#EngKnowledge: Short history of May Day

May 1st, is an annual holiday where we celebrate Labor Day or International Workers’ Day, also known as May Day. Do you know what May Day means and the history behind it? This time, let me share some knowledge and facts about this day.

Are you currently working, fellas? How many hours do you work in a day? 8 hours? Where did this rule come from?

Well, here’s the history…

  • May Day is originally a pagan holiday, which is an ancient Northern Hemisphere spring festival.
  • But in relation to Labor Day, it is held in commemoration of four workers executed for struggling for an 8-hour day.
  • On 1 May 1886, a strike demanding an 8 hour day in Chicago started. 400,000 workers from different backgrounds were involved.
  • The eight-hour movement began a century before that, 1806. In that era workers worked 19 to 20 hours a day. Imagine that!
  • Two days after 1 May 1886, a mass meeting was held. After a police attack and a bomb, 8 men were captured and stood trial.
  • Although there was no proof that the 8 men threw the bomb, and the defense was not allowed to present evidence, 7 were sentenced to death.
  • 1 was sentenced to 15 years in prison. After a massive international campaign for their release, 2 were sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • The day before the executions, 1 committed suicide. On 11 November 1887 Parsons, Engel, Spies and Fischer were hanged.
  • 600,000 workers came to their funeral. The campaign to free the other 3 workers continued. They were eventually set free.
  • Later evidence showed that the bomb may have been thrown by a police agent, as a way to discredit the labour movement.
  • 1904, the International Socialist Conference meeting in Amsterdam declared 1 May as the legal establishment of the 8-hour day.
  • In Indonesia Labor Day has been celebrated since 1920. But it was prohibited during Soeharto era. In 2014 it has become a public holiday.
  • Well, that’s the end of our tonight. Remember, it never hurts to learn some history. It even brings us many advantages! :)
  • Learning history makes you appreciate life & give thanks to those who lived before you & sacrificed so you can enjoy what you have today. :)

Sources: A short history of May DayInternational Workers’ Day and Hari Buruh on Wikipedia

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 1, 2014

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#EngClass: British English (3) – British English History

Hey fellas, ready for tonight’s session? I must warn you though, tonight’s session needs a lot more of your contribution ;)

Sadly it’s not a quiz, it’s not a game, but it’s not hard either. Don’t need to be scared or shy. It’s more like a relaxing English club discussion kind of thing but online for tonight and what we’re discussing tonight is….

Where did British English or even English Language itself come from?

Is it from Britain? Is it only created by England? Is it from somewhere else? How did it get up to we talk or type like this? So, let’s start! Tell us what you think, apa yang ada di benakmu atau pikiranmu.


So, here are some of your answers for the first question we’re starting on

 “Latin & french?” – @gadsya

 “England.” – @chachaicho

 “UK maybe.” – @gitaKuswara

 “Turkey, some 9000 yrs ago.” – @TaniaNataya:

 “Originally the first come from Celts people, so it form from Celtic, and get some influence Roman, France, Germany n Scotland.” – @Liia1116

 “It’s god’s will hahaha, Anglo-Saxon?” – @rezapongo

 ” I once read from a source (forget what was it) that English didn’t come from England/UK but Turkey..” – @alltimelfcfan

 “English is West Germanic language that was first spoken in England. …i got that from wikipedia lol.” – @syifa21

 “English originated from west Germany language (Anglo-Frisian dialects)that was brought by Germany invaders to Britain.” –@SatrioTeguh

 “The pioneer tribe of English language is Anglia, Saxon, Frisia, and Frank from Eastern Europe.” – @Hendry_Andreas

 “ada lg! English has 3stages, OLD, MIDDLE and MODERN. ” – @angelaamoy

 “As I know Britain once used French for few hundreds years. A possibility it was adapted from French.” – @HadiSyuja

 “English is classified West-Germany language fmly. Its combined from local languages that used by Norway & Denmark people” – @tieput

 “The first English that was used back then, was an old English from 3 ethnics, such as  German. But mostly the two ethnics influenced the English (old Eng), then mixed with Celtic language.” – @AriAGafur

 “min, I think English language has the same root with many European countries such as Germany, French, and Nederland.” – @Heni_HT

So, what do fellas think now we have these answers from you? Any other thoughts?

The reason admin brought it up tonight like this is to make this topic open and to let any opinion come from you and practising your English. Why? Have you noticed that nowadays, any history seemed unreal anymore to a lot of people? Many new findings with new technology. Moreover, some parts of history was believed to be changed or not as it is for any kind of reason it has.

As admin knows, the history of English language itself is hardly brought up even in English language studies or lessons, and from what admin read, as admin don’t really master on this subject although the curiosity grew bigger now, it seemed that English is a member of the Germanic family of languages.

(Source: pic.twitter.com/9DwvyXVE)

We can see that Germanic is a branch of the Indo-European language family, but there were developments later stating it is not from Anglo Saxon and some research of science resulted with Turkey as origin. (It’s not much but here’s one of them http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-19368988 … @annjara_ )

It seemed that English itself has developed for years indeed, became a powerful language. England or as we know Inggris, which is part of UK of Britain, became really powerful and managed to make it a universal language.

“Sometime in history, when French colonized England, French was nobler than English (which was spoken by low class people only). It’s then spoken around the globe. I followed History of English Language class back then and it was interesting such a long a history of a language, influenced with politics.” – @iniuni:


“But since the Anglo-Saxon was invading England, i think, the most trusted development is that Germany is the origin. It can be proved from the literary works. The Shakespearean Sonnet was adapted from the Sonnet of Petrarch-Germany. So that, Germany has an important rule in developing the English language especially for the literary work.” – @puteriwidya:


“ProtoEnglish: Wst Grmnc Tribs livd, Trded, Fought Roman Emp. people who spoke latin before they arrived in Britain. So, some vocabs f Latin language entered these Germanic people (Anglo, saxon, etc) language before their arrival in Britain.

OldEnglish: The Germanic invaders dominated the people of Britain who spoke Celtic language. The Lang. that the invders uttered in Britain aftr the Celtic lang ws neglected calld Anglo-Saxon or Old English Lang. Old Eng ws strongly Influnced by North Germanic Language that was used by Norsemen or Viking. Old Eng. period ended when Normans who spoke French Dialect Conquered Britain.

MidEng: The Norman High ranking people used Anglo-Norman Lang but the lower class people used English or Anglo-saxon. Normans had a great influences in the development of English Lang at that time and producing the Middle English Language.” –  @SatrioTeguh


“And I don’t know what exactly the difference between England and Great Britain is. Aren’t they just the same? Unfortunately, they are not the same. In fact, England is now part of Great Britain which means England is a province of Great Britain the country.” –  @iancurly2992:

As I stated before, England is the province of the country Great Britain, sama halnya Bali adalah propinsi dalam negara Indonesia. Can you imagine what great power England has as a province/county to conquer the world and spread this English language.

“No it’s county, di UK propinsi dibilang county not country instead of province.” –  @biantoro_wisnu



“Well it can be from Turkey knowing that before the new settlers come, anglo-saxon, Britain wasn’t unpopulated. There were the forest dwellers about 8500 bc. Maybe they spoke the old english which was from Turkey, since there was nobody wrote anything down and the information just comes fossils, bones metal or relics. Thats my opinion.” –  @annjara_

 “Great Britain=England+Wales+Scotland,while England+Wales+Scotland+North Ireland=UK(utd kingdom). as far as I know, the official name of the country is “United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.””- @Heni_HT


“They have now become Commonwealth countries where most of them get benefits from Britain itself such as in education.” – @andretrih

“the UK flag is a combination between English, Scottish, & old Irish flag. – GB flag: + merah dan dasar putih = England, x putih dan dasar biru=Scotland, x merah dasar putih=old Irish.” –  @greg_ario

” After middle English period, the period from 1500 to about 1650 is called Early Modern English period. It was the period when Shakespeare was born, the first English dictionary and English newspaper were published.” – @nakamuralia:

Here’s a link about the differences of GB and UK coming from a school website: http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/britain.html … Hopefully you all won’t be confused on GB and UK and England anymore now hehe

So if the question is where did British English came from? It is from English and England, yet why there’s British in front of it? British English seemed to come about due to the many version of English there are now, well, they conquer big places don’t they?

@SatrioTeguh: If you wanna know more about th history of Eng. Lang., you can read this book, A History of Th English Language by N.F. Blake


Maybe English should have come up with a different name now? Hehehe well enjoy your day fellas!

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday – Wednesday, September 4 & 5, 2012.



#USSlang: Historical dictionary of American slang

Kali ini topik kita adalah bahasa slang Amerika yang dipakai sewaktu zaman dulu. Coba yuk diliat seperti apa dan tahun berapa kata tersebut digunakan.

  1. Dust. Arti: Membunuh (thn 1940).
    • Contoh:
      • “I could have you dusted (off) tomorrow.”
  2. Low. Arti: Sedih, depresi (thn 1740).
    • Contoh:
      • “I am feeling really low right now.”
  3. Umph. Arti: Semangat (thn 1930).
    • Contoh:
      • “Couldn’t you get a little more umph into this ad campaign?”
  4. Dotty. Arti: Gila, crazy (thn 1880).
    • Contoh:
      • “I hope he’s not as dotty as your father.”
  5. Flame. Arti: Pacar (1640).
    • Contoh:
      • “Andrew has dozens of old flames but has never been burned.”
  6. Coals. Arti: Abu rokok (thn 1980).
    • Contoh:
      • “Hey, don’t flip your coals on the tablecloth!”
  7. Stupe. Arti: Orang bodoh (thn 1820).
    • Contoh:
      • “Don’t tell that stupe anything, he will not listen.”
  8. Breeze. Arti: Sesuatu yg mudah (thn 1920).
    • Contoh:
      • “Cooking this food is a breeze!”
  9. Clam up. Arti: menutup mulut (thn 1910).
    • Contoh:
      • “When I asked him where he got the money, he clammed up.
  10. Grease. Arti: membunuh (thn 1950).
    • Contoh:
      • “Shut up or I’ll grease him!”

Compiled and written by @Patipatigulipat at @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, July 24, 2012

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#EngClass: The History of English vocabulary

Cerita ini admin kutip dari Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary dan admin bagikan agar lebih banyak orang yang tahu.

Bahasa Inggris adalah salah satu bahasa di dunia yang paling kaya vocabulary (kosakata). Hal ini dilatarbelakangi oleh sejarah yang panjang. Bahasa Inggris pada kala itu tidak seperti bahasa yang kita kenal saat ini.

Bahasa Inggris yang kita gunakan dan ketahui saat ini adalah “modern English.” Selama berabad-abad, Bahasa Inggris telah menyerap kata-kata yang berasal dari berbagai bahasa. Mari kita lihat lini masa sejarahnya.

1. Anglo-Saxon.

Bahasa Inggris berkembang dari Anglo-Saxon, atau juga dikenal sebagai “Old English,” yang dibawa oleh suku-suku dari Jerman. Suku-suku dari Jerman itu adalah Angles, Saxons, dan Jutes, yang datang pada abad 5 Masehi. Dari mereka pula “England” mendapat namanya.

England berasal dari “the land of the Angles” (tanah orang Angles). Para penyerbu dari Jerman ini menyumbangkan banyak kosakata. Beberapa kata yang berasal dari masa Anglo-Saxon antara lain: man, breed, eat, shire, woman, work, house.

2. Latin.

Di akhir abad 6, sekelompok biarawan datang sebagai utusan dari Roma, Italia, untuk memperkuat agama Kristen di Inggris. Pada saat itu, kata-kata yang diserap dari Bahasa Latin ke Bahasa Inggris kebanyakan adalah yang berhubungan dengan agama dan pembelajaran. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Latin antara lain: school, pope, candle, minister, verse, mass.

3. Old Norse.

Pada abad 9 dan 10, datang penyerbu dari Skandinavia dan menguasai sebagian besar wilayah di bagian timur Inggris. Banyak kata sehari-hari dalam “modern Inggris” diambil dari Old Norse, yang masih ada hubungannya dengan Anglo-Saxon. Banyak nama tempat berakhiran dengan “-by” yang dalam Bahasa Old Norse sendiri artinya adalah “desa”, mIsalnya Whitby. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Old Norse antara lain: sky, call, dirt, leg, take.

4. French (Bahasa Perancis).

Ketika Inggris ditaklukkan oleh Bangsa Norman dari utara Perancis pada 1066, Bahasa Perancis menjadi bahasa kaum penguasa. Banyak kata dalam “modern English” yang menjelaskan tentang sistem pemerintahan dan hukum, serta masak-memasak berasal dari Bahasa Perancis pada saat itu. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari Bahasa Perancis antara lain: sovereign, govern, braise, mutton, court, advise, veal.

5. Latin dan Greek (Yunani).

Banyak kata dari Bahasa Latin masuk ke dalam Bahasa Inggris melalui Bahasa Perancis. Namun Abad Renaisans pada abad 15 dan 16 membuat orang begitu tertarik pada pembelajaran klasik atau kuno. Kata-kata dari Bahasa Latin dan Yunani ramai digunakan. Beberapa kata yang berasal dari Bahasa Latin dan Yunani antara lain: physics, architecture, compute, educate, radius, history.

6. Worldwide (dari seluruh dunia).

Bahasa Latin dan Yunani masih digunakan sebagai sumber kata baru, terutama berhubungan dengan ilmu pengetahuan. English speaker (pengguna Bahasa Inggris) sekarang mengambil kata dari berbagai sumber di bahasa lain, untuk menjelaskan fenomena yang tidak ada dalam Bahasa Inggris. Beberapa kata dalam Bahasa Inggris yang berasal dari seluruh dunia antara lain: telephone, tea, tattoo, futon, video, sauna.


Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on Friday, January 7, 2012

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