Hey, fellas! It’s good to see you again. How are you today?
Today’s session discusses the use of ‘hence’ and ‘thus.’ Both ‘hence’ and ‘thus’ are conjunctive adverbs. In Bahasa Indonesia, ‘hence’ means ‘oleh sebab itu,’ while ‘thus’ means ‘dengan demikian.’
‘Hence’ and ‘thus’ have the same basic meaning. However, there is a slight difference among them. Let’s take a look at each definition and how it used in the sentence.
This word means:
- as a consequence, for this reason.
- in the future (used after period of time).
- from here.
‘Hence’ usually refers to the future.
- “The situation is getting complicated. Hence, we will have to proceed with caution.”
There are some meanings of this words, which includes:
- in this or that manner.
- to this degree or extent.
- because of this or that.
- as an example.
‘Thus’ refers to the past and is often used to indicate a conclusion. ‘Thus’ is often used after a period (.).
- “She didn’t listen to the news. Thus, she was unaware of the storm.”
‘Thus’ is often used after a semicolon (;).
- “He was starving; thus, he was desperate enough to scavenge for crumbs.”
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, June 3, 2017.
Hey, fellas! Today, I want to talk about yet another usage case where two words look interchangeable but are actually not. The words are ‘that’ and ‘which’. Both words are used to introduce a particular clause in a sentence.
The usage rule is actually simple: In a restrictive clause, use ‘that’. In a non-restrictive clause, use ‘which’. You can read more about restrictive and non-restrictive clause here.
Pay attention to this sentence:
- Dave’s wall art that I bought yesterday is my favorite.
- Dave’s wall art, which I bought yesterday, is my favorite.
The first sentence implies that Dave has created more than one wall art, but my favorite is the one that I bought yesterday. ‘That I bought yesterday’ is a necessary information. This is what we call restrictive clause. Therefore, we use ‘that‘ to introduce the clause. Without the clause, we don’t know which wall art of Dave’s that I’m talking about, since Dave has created more than one artwork.
In the second sentence, I’m saying that Dave’s wall art is my favorite. I’m probably comparing it with other people’s artworks that aren’t Dave’s. And I happened to purchase the wall art just yesterday. ‘Which I bought yesterday‘ is just an additional information. Even if I remove the clause, the sentence is still complete. This is what we call non-restrictive clause. We use ‘which’ to introduce this clause.
There you go, fellas. I hope it clears the confusion regarding the usage of ‘that’ and ‘which’.
Compiled and written by @Fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, February 16, 2017
‘Conjunction’ is a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.
Types of conjunction
There are three types of conjuction:
- Coordinating conjunctions: ‘for,’ ‘and,’ ‘nor,’ ‘but,’ ‘or,’ ‘yet,’ ‘so.’
- Correlative conjunctions: ‘either… or…,’ ‘neither… nor…,’ ‘not only… but also…,’ ‘both… and…’
- Common subordinating conjunctions: ‘after,’ ‘before,’ ‘although,’ ‘though,’ ‘even though,’ ‘as much as,’ ‘as long as,’ ‘as soon as,’ ‘because,’ ‘since,’ ‘so that,’ ‘in order that,’ ‘if,’ ‘even if,’ ‘that,’ ‘unless,’ ‘until,’ ‘whether,’ ‘while.’
Conjunctions and their meanings
- ‘Although’/’even though.’ Meaning: it doesn’t matter or make a difference.
- “Although/Even though I have the money, I won’t buy the shoes.”
- ‘And.’ Meaning: non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s); in addition; extra; plus.
- “I enjoy tea and cookies when I eat a snack.”
- ‘Because.’ Meaning: the reason is…
- “I got wet because I forgot my umbrella.”
- ‘But.’ Meaning: a contrast or exception.
- “They gamble but they don’t smoke.”
- ‘Or.’ Meaning: an alternative item or idea.
- ‘I can’t decide if I want an apple or a banana with my yogurt.”
- ‘For.’ Meaning: is almost like because or since; it introduces, in a formal tone, a reason.
- “He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking since high school.”
- ‘Nor.’ Meaning: an alternative negative idea or though.
- “Brian did not like singing, nor did he like dancing.”
- ‘Yet.’ Meaning: a contrary but logical idea will follow
- “Shelly is a quite yet very outgoing girl.”
- ‘So.’ Meaning: suggest that a consequence will follow
- “He hate to drink milk, so he try to drink soy for breakfast.”
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 2, 2016