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#EngClass: Conditional Sentences (REVISIT)

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Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’

Example:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”

“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.

There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.

Zero Conditional Sentences
Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)

E.g.:
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).

 

First Conditional Sentences
First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).

E.g.:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).

 

Second Conditional Sentences
Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).

E.g.:
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).

 

Third Conditional Sentences
Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:

If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).

E.g.:
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).

 

Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily).
A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).

Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF).
A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.

Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista).
A: Bisa. Bentuk  kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’

Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300).
A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 4 June, 2018.


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#EngClass: Conditional Clause Summary

Howdy fellas! Did you follow our other articles on Conditional sentences? Have a look at these 3 links. You’ll need them to understand this article.

Link 1: #EngClass: Conditional 1
Link 2: #EngClass: Conditional 2
Link 3: #EngClass: Conditional 3

Now fellas! We’ve discussed all 3 conditionals. Hayo! Siapa yang masih bingung kapan kita pake conditional yang mana? Fear not fellas! @EnglishTips4u comes to the rescue. This time, admin will summarize all 3 conditionals. Hang on tight!

OOT & curcol dikit. Waktu admin pertama belajar conditional, kepala puyeng bukan main. Diagram ini yang bantu admin ngerti.

Conditional

Conditional ada 3 tipe:

  1. (future – possible),
  2. (present – unreal),
  3. (past – unreal).

Conditional 1 (Future – possible)

Conditional 1 pernah kita bahas di sini: #EngClass: Conditional 1
Coba perhatikan diagram berikut.

Conditional 1

Conditional 1 menyatakan:

“Andai (sekarang) aku… Aku akan…”

Ada yang sudah buka link di atas? Bagaimana cara membuat kalimat conditional 1?

“main clause in Future Tense –> if clause in present tense” – @fitridiot

“kalimat conditional 1 : if + present tense + future tense bukan?” – @nani_a2

Dari diagram, pernyataan & rumus kalimat, jelas sekali kita pakai Conditional Clause Type 1 saat kita berandai/menyatakan:

Kalau sekarang begini, nanti akan jadi begitu.

Coba ubah kalimat berikut ke Bahasa Inggris:

“Kalau (sekarang) aku beli ini, aku gak akan punya cukup uang untuk nonton film di bioskop.‪”
Answer:

“If I buy this, I won’t have enough money to watch a movie at cinema.” – @VFaradhika

Remember fellas!

Conditional 1: Main clause in Future Tense + IF clause in Present Tense. It’s all here.

Moving on!

Conditional 2 (Present – unreal)

Conditional 2 pernah kita bahas di sini: #EngClass: Conditional 2
Coba perhatikan diagram berikut.

Conditional 2

Conditional 2 menyatakan:

Andai (sebelumnya) aku… Sekarang ini, aku seharusnya/bisa saja/mungkin akan/mungkin bisa…”

Ada yang sudah buka link di atas? Bagaimana cara membuat kalimat conditional 2?

“Conditional 2 : if + past tense, past future tense. right min?” – @nani_a2

“main clause w/ Would should might could+V1, if+V2 (past tense)” – @fitridiot

Fellas contributions:

“If I were you, I would study hard.” – @cipputt
“If I were in UK, I would go to Old Trafford.” – @endahism
“I would tell the truth about the condition if he gave me back my silly cat.” – @ontinuruljannah
“If I had enough money, I would buy that new shirt.” – @IndraKrwan
“If I were you, I would buy car.” – @deansari

Wanna know more about Conditional Type 2? Click this.

Next!

Conditional 3 (Past – unreal)

Conditional 3 pernah kita bahas di sini: #EngClass: Conditional 3
Coba perhatikan diagram berikut.

Conditional 3

Conditional 3 menyatakan:

Andai (dulu) aku… Sebelum ini, aku pasti sudah/ bisa saja/ seharusnya sudah/ mungkin sudah…

Ada yang sudah buka link #EngClass: Conditional 3? Bagaimana cara membuat kalimat conditional 3?

Main clause with Would/Should/Could/Might + have + V3 + IF clause in Past Perfect Tense

Fellas contributions:

“If I had followed your TL earlier, I might have answered your question sooner.” – @dian_r_h
“I would have been angry to him if he had delivered my secret letter.” – @ryanmike13
“If you had come to the party last night, you would’ve met my boy.” – @sofyanlich
“If I had trained more, I might have been able to make it to the team.” – @masyoza
“If I had known you from the start, I might have accepted you to be my boyfriend.” – @ZarahChance
“If I had been a celebrity, I would have done a tour in Europe.” – @ZarahChance
“If I had learned the truth, I might have accepted that you’ve gone for long time.” – @hannathrs
“If I had followed @EnglishTips4U earlier, my english would have been better.” – @apriyannto
“If I had been ugly, I would have committed suicide.” – @Arnaka13

Have a look at this link for discussion and exercise on Conditional Clause 3.

Extra

There was also one question from a fella

“subject if clause dan subject main clause have to be the same atau engga min? :D” – @anafrich

Answer:

Not necessarily the same :) but do mind the tense of each clause :D
That’s a wrap fellas! I hope the article & diagrams help you understand the conditional clauses better.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 15, 2012

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#EngClass: Conditional 3

The topic of this article would be: Conditional 3. Are you ready?

Conditional sentences ada 3 tipe:

  1. (future – possible),
  2. (present – unreal),
  3. (past – unreal).

Kali ini kita bahas Conditional 3.

Conditional 3 menyatakan

“Andai (dulu) aku… Sebelum ini, aku pasti sudah/ bisa saja/ seharusnya sudah/ mungkin sudah…”

Kalimat ini menunjukkan pengandaian yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan. Bingung? Berikut contohnya:

  • “If I had had enough money, I would have flown to Australia last Christmas.”

Artinya:

  • “Kalau (dulu) uangku cukup, aku pasti sudah terbang ke Australia Natal tahun lalu.”

Resep Conditional 3:

Main clause with Would/Should/Could/Might + have + V3 + IF clause in Past Perfect Tense

Resep lain:

IF clause in Past Perfect Tense [comma] Main clause with Would/Should/Could/Might + have + V3

Masih bingung? Coba perhatikan contoh ini:

  • “If he had learned the truth, he might have cancelled the wedding.”

Artinya:

  • “Kalau dulu dia tahu kenyataannya, dia mungkin sudah membatalkan pernikahannya.”

Let’s try this:

  • If you (study) diligently, you (will) (pass) your exam.
    • Answer: “If you had studied diligently, you would have passed your exam.”
    • Artinya: Kalau dulu rajin belajar,(kemarin) kamu pasti sudah lulus ujian.

It’s not so hard after all, right? ;) Let’s do more exercise.

Practice

  1. If he (study) more, he (may) (get) a higher mark.
  2. If I (know) that you needed me, I (will) (come) at once.
  3. If she (save) her money, she (may) (be) able to go on a vacation aboard.
  4. If I (feel) better, I (can) (go) to the hospital with you.
  5. If they (have) time last holiday, they (will) (join) the tour to Disneyland.

Answer

  1. If he had studied more, he might have gotten a higher mark.
  2. If I had known that you needed me, I would have come at once.
  3. If she had saved her money, she might have been able to go on a vacation aboard
  4. If I had felt better, I could have gone to the hospital with you.
  5. If they had had time last holiday, they would have joined the tour to Disneyland.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 8, 2012

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#EngClass: Conditional 1

Di artikel ini kita akan berandai-andai. Yes, our topic is “Conditional.” Siapa saja yah yang pernah tanya?

Conditional sentences punya 2 bagian: klausa utama, klausa “if”. Masing-masing klausa punya Subject dan Verb sendiri.

Contoh:

  • “Andai aku punya banyak uang, Aku akan beli sebuah mobil.”
    • Penggalan kalimat yang berandai disebut klausa if (if clause) S: Aku V: Beli.
    • Penggalan kalimat yang akan terjadi bila “if clause” terjadi disebut klausa utama.

Conditional sentences ada 3 tipe:

  1. (future – possible),
  2. (present – unreal),
  3. (past – unreal).

Kali ini kita bahas Conditional 1.

Conditional 1 menyatakan

“Andai aku… Aku akan…”.

Kalimat ini mengandaikan sesuatu yang mungkin bisa terjadi di masa depan.

Contoh:

  • “Andai aku punya banyak uang (nanti), Aku akan beli sebuah mobil.”
  • “If I have a lot of money, I will buy a car.”

Kenapa conditional 1 disebut (future – possible)? Karena sesuatu yang kita harap terjadi di masa depan, mungkin saja terjadi. Maksudnya?

Contoh:

  • Siapa tau nanti aku punya banyak uang? Aku bisa aja punya bnyk uang di masa depan. Kalau terjadi, aku akan beli mobil.

Resep Conditional 1:

Main clause in Future Tense + IF clause in Present Tense

Contoh:

  • “He will make good grades IF he studies well.”
    • note: if clause diikuti present tense.

Resep lain Conditional 1:

IF clause in Present Tense [comma] Main clause in Future Tense

Contoh:

  • “IF he studies well, he will make good grades.”
    • note: if clause diikuti present tense.

Ayo kita coba:

  • “If she (work) hard, she (succeed).”
    • ubah verb di dalam tanda kurung
    • Answer: “If she works hard, she will succeed.”
      • Artinya: Kalau dia kerja keras, dia akan sukses.
      • note: if clause diikuti present tense

Alright! Let’s do the following exercises ;) Ready?

Practice

  1. If I (find) the key, I (give) it to you.
  2. If the weather (be) warm next Sunday, we (go) to Bandung.
  3. If father (turn) off the light, we (have) to sleep right away.
  4. If he (fail) the last test, he (have) to repeat the course.
  5. If I (have) time tomorrow, I (go) to the exhibition with you.
  6. If I (see) Jason, I (give) him your message.
  7. If the manager (call), I (speak) to him.
  8. If you (save) your money, you (be) able to go on a vacation.
  9. If he (arrive) on time, his teacher (not, get) angry with him.
  10. If it (get) colder, I (put) my jacket on.

Answer

  1. If I find the key, I will give it to you.
  2. If the weather is warm next Sunday, we will go to Bandung.
  3. If father turns off the light, we will have to sleep right away.
  4. If he fails the last test, he will have to repeat the course.
  5. If I have time tomorrow, I will go to the exhibition with you.
  6. If I see Jason, I will give him your message.
  7. If the manager calls, I will speak to him.
  8. If you save your money, you will be able to go on a vacation.
  9. If he arrives on time, his teacher will not get angry with him.
  10. If it gets colder, I will put my jacket on.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, June 6, 2012

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#EngClass: Conditional 2

Sebelum fellas baca bahasan di bawah ini, ada baiknya intip bahasan #EngClass: Conditional 1 dulu ya :)

Sambil baca bahasan #EngClass: Conditional 1, ayo coba jawab beberapa pertanyaan berikut:

  1. Apa topik dari link yang barusan admin sebut?
  2. Kenapa Conditional 1 disebut (Future – Possible)?
  3. Apa resep kalimat Conditional 1?

If you can answer all three questions correctly, I reckon you’re all ready for this article. Let’s start! This time, we’ll discuss Conditional 2.

Conditional sentences punya 2 bagian: klausa utama, klausa “if”. Masing2 klausa punya Subject dan Verb sendiri. Apa maksudnya “masing2 klausa punya Subject dan Verb sendiri”? Coba cek di bahasan #EngClass: Conditional 1.

Conditional sentences ada 3 tipe:

  1. (future – possible),
  2. (present – unreal),
  3. (past – unreal).

Kali ini kita bahas Conditional 2.

Conditional 2 menyatakan

“Andai aku… Sekarang ini, aku seharusnya/bisa saja/mungkin akan/mungkin bisa…”

Kalimat ini menunjukkan pengandaian yang tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan. Bingung? Berikut contohnya:

  • “Andai aku giat belajar, aku pasti akan lulus ujian.”
  • “If I studied diligently, I would pass the test.”
  • Tapi gak belajar, lulus?

Kenapa Conditional 2 disebut (present – unreal)? Karena kondisi yang diandaikan, tidak sesuai dengan kenyataan.

Contoh:

  • “Andai aku belajar” menunjukkan aku gak belajar, sedangkan ujian sudah terjadi. Jadi gak mungkin belajar lagi biar lulus, kan?

Resep Conditional 2:

Main clause with Would/Should/Could/Might + V1 + IF clause in Simple Past Tense

Contoh:

  • “He would make good grades IF he studied hard.”

Resep lain Conditional 2:

IF clause in Simple Past Tense [comma] Main clause with Would/Should/Could/Might + V1

Contoh:

  • “If he studied hard, he would make good grades.”

Catatan Penting:

  1. If clause Conditional 2 selalu diikuti verb Past Tense, kecuali “to be”. Gunakan “were” untuk if clause Conditional 2.
  2. Would – akan (will), Should – seharusnya (shall), Could – bisa (can), Might – mungkin (may).
  3. Main clause menggunakan Would/Should/Could/Might dan selalu diikuti Verb 1.

Ayo kita coba:

  • “If I (have) enough money, I (will, fly) to Europe.”
    • buat kalimat conditional 2 dan ubah verb di dalam tanda kurung.
    • Answer: “If I had enough money, I would fly to Europe.”
      • Artinya: Kalau aku punya cukup uang, aku akan ke Eropa.
      • if clause diikuti past tense

Ayo kita coba 1 lagi:

  • “If I (to be) there, I (can, carry) those boxes for you.”
    • buat kalimat conditional 2 dan ubah verb di dalam tanda kurung.
    • Answer: “If I were there, I could carry those boxes for you.”
      • Artinya: Kalau aku di sana, aku bisa mengangkat kotak-kotak untukmu.

Alright! Let’s do the following exercises ;) Ready?

Practice

  1. If my mother (to be) here, she (will, know) what to do.
  2. If they (work) harder, they (shall, get) better salaries.
  3. If this naughty student (know) more grammar, he (may, be) in next grade.
  4. If you (take) the noon-train, you (will, get to) Jogja about 4pm.
  5. If today (to be) Saturday, I (will not, have) to work.

Answer

  1. If my mother were here, she would know what to do.
  2. If they worked harder, they should get better salaries.
  3. If this naughty student knew more grammar, he might be in next grade.
  4. If you took the noon-train, you would get to Jogja about 4pm.
  5. If today were Saturday, I would not have to work.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, June 13, 2012

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#EngClass: Conditional sentences

First thing First. Dalam sebuah conditional sentence terdapat 2 clause (klausa) atau bentuk dasar kalimat, yaitu: if clause dan result clause.

Contoh:

If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”

  • If I have more money” = if clause.
  • I’ll buy a car” = result clause.

Ada 4 jenis conditional sentence, masing-masing dengan fungsi yang berbeda, yaitu: zero, first, second, dan third conditional.

1. Zero conditional

Zero conditional digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang selalu benar (seperti contohnya kebenaran ilmiah). Struktur:

if clause (present simple), result clause (present simple)

Contoh:

  • If we heat ice, it melts.
  • Arti kalimat: “Jika kita menghangatkan es, es akan mencair.”
  • Hal ini merupakan sebuah kepastian yang tidak bisa diragukan.

2. First conditional

First conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang benar terjadi saat ini atau di masa depan (true in the present or future). Struktur:

if clause (present simple), result clause (will/can + V1)

Contoh: 

  • If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: “Jika di masa depan saya punya lebih banyak uang, sangat mungkin sekali saya akan membeli mobil.”

3. Second conditional

Second conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau berlawanan dengan kenyataan saat ini (untrue in the present). Struktur:

if clause (past simple), result clause (would/could + V1)

Contoh:

  • If I had more money, I’d buy a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: Kalau saja saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya akan membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya saya tidak punya uang lebih.

4. Third conditional

Third conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau berlawanan dengan kenyataan di masa lalu (untrue in the past). Struktur:

if clause (past perfect), result clause (would have/could have + V3)

Contoh:

  • If I had more money, I could have bought a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: Kalau saja dulu saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya bisa saja membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya, dulu saya tidak punya uang lebih, maka saya tidak bisa membeli mobil.

Baiklah, sekian penjelasan. Admin akan memberi beberapa contoh kalimat lain (nomor sesuai dengan urutan jenis conditional sentence di atas).

  1. If you don’t eat, you’ll die. – If you don’t try, you will never know.
  2. If I meet the girl I like, I’ll ask her out. – If I do good at school, I will be happy
  3. If I had the guts, I’d ask her out. – If I had wings, I could fly.
  4. If I had had the guts, I would have asked her out. – If we had won, we would have brought the prizes.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, July 25, 2011

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