Tag Archives: clause

#EngTrivia: Restrictive and Non-restrictive clause

In this article, we will talk about restrictive and non-restrictive clause; also known as defining and non-defining clause. What exactly are they?

They are types of relative clause which define a noun. They usually contain relative pronouns such as who, which, that, where, and when. For examples:

  1. “The cake which I bought from Breadtalk was delicious.”
  2. “This is the dress which I wore last week.”
  3. “I will go to the beach with Rina, who was my school mate, this weekend.”

From the examples, I would say sentences number 1 and 2 contain restrictive clauses while sentence number 3 contains a non-restrictive clause . Why?

Let’s start from number 1. What if ‘which I bought from Breadtalk’ is removed from the sentence? It will be ‘The cake was delicious.’ Then try to remove ‘which I wore last week,’ the sentence will turn to ‘This is the dress.’ The meaning of the sentence changed, didn’t it?

which I bought from Breadtalk’ and ‘which I wore last week’ are restrictive clauses because they add an important information. They explain and define the cake and the clothes we talk about. That is why it is also called defining clause.

How about sentence number 3? Read the sentence and avoid ‘who was my school mate.’ It will be ‘I will go to the beach with Rina this weekend.’

The sentence still have the same meaning because the clause we removed is just an additional explanation of the object, Rina. And that is why ‘who was my school mate’ is called non-restrictive clause.


Now I will give you some samples and you should determine it whether the sentences below contain restrictive or non-restrictive clause.

  1. My eldest son, who is 27, is studying in Australia.
  2. Her aunt who lives in Sulawesi visited her last week.
  3. I found your book on the bench which is in the park you visited yesterday.
  4. He wrote the review of Up, the movie which I have just watched, and posted it in his blog.


  1. It contains non-restrictive clause: who is 27
  2. It contains restrictive clause: who lives in Sulawesi
  3. It contains restrictive clause: where in the park you visited yesterday
  4. It contains non-restrictive clause: the movie which I have just watched

In a simpler way, non-restrictive clauses are always separated by commas while restrictive clauses are not.

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, January 17, 2017

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#EngClass: Adverbial clause

Adverbial clause merupakan anak kalimat (clause) yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adverb (kata keterangan). Adverbial clause dapat menyatakan waktu, tempat, pertentangan, keadaan, tujuan/hasil, dan sebab-akibat.

Penggunaan adverbial clause selalu diawali dengan subordinating conjunction (misal: ‘after,’ ‘because,’ ‘although’.) Karena merupakan anak kalimat, maka jangan lupa bahwa adverbial clause juga memiliki subjek dan predikat.

Pengelompokan adverbial clause biasanya ditentukan dari conjunction (kata penghubung) yang mendahuluinya. Jenis-jenis adverbial clause antara lain: clause of time, clause of place, clause of contrast, clause of manner, clause of purpose and result, clause of cause and effect, dan clause of condition.

Clause of time

Clause of time menunjukkan waktu, conjunction yang digunakan antara lainafter,’ ‘before,’ ‘when,’ ‘since,’ ‘while,’ ‘as.’


  • “I will sign the check before you leave.”
  • “You may begin after you are ready.”
  • “Marina saw an accident while she was walking home.”

Clause of place

Clause of place menunjukkan tempat, conjunction yang digunakan antara lain ‘where,’ ‘nowhere,’ ‘anywhere,’ ‘wherever,’ ‘everywhere.’


  • “The bodyguard stood where he was positioned.”
  • “You can go wherever you like.”
  • “Where there is a will, there is a way.”

Clause of contrast

Clause of contrast menunjukkan pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling berhubungan. Conjunction yang digunakan dalam clause of contrast ini antara lain although,’ ‘though,’ ‘even though,’ ‘whereas,’ ‘even if,’ ‘in spite of.’


  • “Although Mr. Joko is poor, he is happy.”
  • “Even though school is hard, I will never give up.”

Clause of manner

Clause of manner menunjukkan cara suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau bagaimana suatu peristiwa dapat terjadi. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of manner ini antara lain as,’ ‘how,’ ‘like,’ ‘in that,’ ‘the way.’


  • “Tomi did it the way I told him.”
  • “Leoni acts like she’s a child.”

Clause of purpose and result

Clause of purpose and result menunjukkan hubungan antara maksud/tujuan dan hasil. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of purpose and result antara lain(in order) that,’ ‘so that,’ ‘in the hope that,’ ‘in case.’


  • “They are saving their money so that they may take a long vacation next year.”
  • “It was so hot that we didn’t go out.”

Clause of cause and effect

Clause of cause and effect menunjukkan hubungan sebab dan akibat. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of cause and effect antara lain because,’ ‘because of,’ ‘due to,’ ‘since,’ ‘therefore.’


  • “He didn’t go in because he was late.”
  • “Since I didn’t have enough money to go on vacation, I stayed home.”

Clause of condition

Clause of condition menunjukkan adanya kemungkinan atau persyaratan antara dua kejadian yang berhubungan. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of condition antara lain ‘if,’ ‘unless,’ ‘in case,’ ‘provided (that),’ ‘if only,’ ‘suppose (that).’


  • In case you can’t find the document, give me a call.
  • Provided you are old enough, you can apply for the job.

Compiled and written by @ChatrineYK at @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, October 13, 2011

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