Tag Archives: archaic

#EngVocab: Other ways to say ‘Old’

We have collected seven words – among many – that you can use to describe old things. Here they are:

  1. Ancient. Meaning: dating from very long ago¹.
    • Example:
      • “These ancient ruins were once a glorious palace.”
  2. Antique. Meaning: made in typical of earlier time and valued for its age²Antique is commonly used to describe a piece of porcelain ware or furniture which is valued for its beauty and rarity.
    • Example:
      • “That antique mirror is probably worth over ten thousand dollars.”
  3. Archaic. Meaning: extremely old as seeming to belong to an earlier period². It also means no longer current or applicable³.
    • Example:
      • “The archaic notion that a woman’s place is in the home now begins to disappear.”
  4. Venerable. Meaning: impressive by reason of age². You can also use venerable to describe a person who deserves respect because he is old and wise.
    • Example:
      • “He gave a visit to the venerable temple of Borobudur last summer.”
      • “A venerable wizard with white hair, long beard, and pointy hat climbs up the stage.”
  5. Obsolete. Meaning: no longer in use³. Something that is obsolete is no longer needed because a better thing now exists.
    • Example:
      • “In 1998, an estimated 20 million computers became obsolete every year.” (Forbes)
  6. Superannuated. Meaning: too old to be useful².
    • Example:
      • “People no longer store food in that superannuated silo.”
  7. Outdated. Meaning: no longer valid or fashionable²Outdated has the closest meaning with kadaluarsa in Bahasa Indonesia.
    • Example:
      • “I suggest you contact the office, because the information on the website is outdated.”

There you go, fellas. Old is a very general term so you can use those adjectives to describe an old thing more specifically.

Source:

  1. Collins English Dictionary
  2. WordNet 3.0
  3. American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language

 

Compiled and written by @fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, August 18, 2016

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#EngVocab: British English (4) –Archaic English pronouns

Still continuing on the topic of British English, have you heard about the word ‘thee’ or ‘thou’?

Yea i have. Thee means you. – @cony_fibri

I have! Esp. In holy bible. – @yoshiaozh

Besides bible,Qoran,and other holly books of religion,you can also find example in shakespearian’s poet/poetry. Ex.Sonnet 18 – @SingMardhika7

While discussing previous topics on British English, some of our followers asked about words that were used during Shakespeare times or in the Bible. We will talk about them in this post.

Words such as ‘thee’ and ‘thou’ are usually called Archaic English pronouns. It was stated “The English words ‘thou, thee, thy and thine’ are translated from an emphatic Greek and Hebrew personal pronoun, stressing the identity of the one being addressed to the exclusion of all others.”

These words have been dropped out of the main dialects of Modern English, which is why we don’t use it anymore. These pronouns are now hardly used or no longer used as often as it was.

The following are tables listing the archaic personal pronouns and verb endings which usually follow them. These tables were taken from different sources.

A. By A. Davies, R. Lipton, D. Richoux et al.:

B. By Richard Anthony:

C. By Daniel R. Tobias:

It was rumoured that ‘thou’ and ‘thee’ were for familiar conversation, and ‘you’ and ‘ye’ were considered formal. This was untrue except during two centuries, roughly 1450-1650, including Shakespeare’s time where the previously plural ‘you’ was used in the singular for politeness and respect, while ‘thou’ and ‘thee’ were used for general conversation or even rudeness. Some sources even stated that people in that era were punished for addressing people with wrong pronoun.

Eventually, the politer pronoun ‘you’ drove out nearly all uses of ‘thee’ and ‘thou’; and these terms survived mostly in poetry and religion. The plural ‘you’ was then reinvented in some dialects as ‘y’all,’ ‘youse guys,’ ‘yunz,’ etc.

Several groups of people continue to use these pronouns today as part of their daily speech (although with different grammar), such as those in Yorkshire, Cumbria, East Midlands, and some rural areas of Western England.

Some examples to express the importance of “thou, thee, thy and thine” (from the Bible)

  • John 14:9, “Have I been so long time with YOU, and yet hast THOU not known me?”
    • ‘You’ refers to the crowd, but ‘thou’ specifically addresses only one man, Philip.
  • 1 Corinthians 8:9-12, “…this liberty of YOURS….If any man see THEE which hast knowledge… through THY knowledge…but when YE sin.”
    • The plural forms ‘yours’ and ‘ye’ refer to the liberty and sin of all believers in Christ as a whole, but the singular forms ‘thee’ and ‘thy’ refer only to those individual believers that find themselves in this particular circumstance.

This marks the end of this post on archaic personal pronouns. Should you have any question, feel free to drop a comment below or mention us on twitter.

 

Compiled and written by @daedonghae at @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday; November 13, 2012

 

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