Tag Archives: adverb

#EngClass: Derivatives

Hello fellas, how was your day?

In this session we will discuss derivative which is a part of grammar in English language. There are several grammatical rules to apply when using English. Today, we will continue with ‘Derivatives.’

Derivatives are word that are derived from other words, which we call root words. Usually, derivatives are formed by adding an affix to the root words.
Let’s see the paragraph below:

At their first session, the lawyer asked Ed, “What things about this woman that attracted you?”
Ed replied, “Her forthrightness, straightforwardness, and frankness
.”

Fellas, did you find any derivatives from that paragraph?
From that paragraph, the words ‘forthrightness,’ ‘straightforwardness,’ and ‘frankness’ are derivatives. Derivatives can also be nouns that we could change into adjectives or adverbs if we add suffix at the end of the words. However, there are some derivatives that still retain their meaning.

1. To form noun derivatives, we add suffixes like -ness, -ty, -hood, -ian, -cy, -er, -or, -sion, -ment, -tion, -ant, -ce, etc.
E.g.: 
Happy – Happiness 
Child – Childhood

Dense – Density
Pregnant – Pregnancy
Good – Goodness

Comedy – Comedian
Assist – Assistance
Friend – Friendship 

2. To form adjective derivatives, we add suffixes like: -full, -less, -ish, -al, – cy, – ary, -able, -ous, -y, etc.
E.g.:
Blue – blueish
Boy – boyish
Help – helpless
Sun – sunny
Danger – dangerous

3. To form verb derivatives, we can add affixes like dis-, re-, -ize, a-, -fy. 
E.g.:
Like – dislike
Agree – disagree 
Check – recheck
Memory – memorize
Summary – summarize

4. Derivatives can also form ‘negative words’ or words that have the negative meaning of the root words. To form these derivatives, we add prefixes un-, in-, im-, etc.

E.g.:
complete – incomplete
happy – unhappy
direct – indirect
mortal – immortal

Sumber: Yulianto, Dian. (2018). Asyiknya Belajar Grammar Dari Kisah-Kisah Jenaka. Yogyakarta: DIVA press.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 23, 2019

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#EngClass: Time related adverb clause

Adverb clauses are subordinate clauses that show relationships between ideas related to time, cause and effect, contrast and condition.

 

Some common used time related adverb clauses:

  1.  After means after that moment. ‘After’ takes the present for future events and the past or past perfect for past events.
    • Example:
      • After she graduates, she will get a job.
  2. Before means before that moment. ‘Before’ takes after the simple past or the present.
    • Example:
      • l left before he came.
  3. When means at the moment, at that time. ‘When’ takes either the simple past or the present. The dependent clause changes tense in relation to the when clause.
    • Example:
      • When I got there, he had already left.

 

There are others time related adverb clauses like while as, by the time, since, until, etc. Okay, why don’t you try some exercises.

Practice:

1. We will finish after he ……….
comes
correct!
came

2. He was talking on the phone when I ……….
arrive
arrived
correct!

3. I will leave before he ……….
comes
correct!
came

4. When I was in Chicago, I ……….. the museums.
visit
visited
correct!

5. When it began to rain, I ………. under the tree.
stand
stood
correct!

6. I washed the dishes when my daughter ………. asleep.
fall
fell
correct!

7. When I ………. him tomorrow, I will ask him.
see
correct!
saw

 

Composed and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 16, 2016

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#EngClass: Adverbs of certainty

Dalam pembahasan sebelumnya kita mengetahui bahwa adverb merupakan kata keterangan. Fungsi adverb itu sendiri adalah untuk menjelaskan kata kerja.

  • Contoh:
    • “She sings beautifully.”

Terdapat beberapa jenis adverb, salah satunya adalah adverb of certainty yang akan kita bahas hari ini.

Pengertian adverb of certainty

Adverb of certainty menyatakan seberapa yakin atau pastinya kita terhadap suatu kejadian/tindakan. Adverb of certainty menjawab pertanyaan seperti, “Apa kamu yakin?” atau “Seberapa yakin?”

Adverb of certainty sendiri terdiri dari beberapa jenis, yaitu:

  1. Certainly dan definitely yang menyatakan kepastian.
    • Contoh:
      • “I will definitely come to your party next week.”
      • “The problem can certainly be solved.”
  2. Undoubtedly (baca: an-da-u-ted-li) yang menyatakan kepastian yang tidak diragukan lagi.
    • Contoh:
      • “She is undoubtedly the worst cook in the world.”
  3. Clearly dan obviously yang menyatakan kepastian yang jelas terlihat atau terbukti.
    • Contoh:
      • “This is clearly his handwriting. How can anyone read it?”
  4. Probably, maybe, dan perhaps yang menyatakan ketidakyakinan atau keraguan.
    • Contoh:
      • Q: “Will she come?”
      • A: “Maybe. I’m not sure.”

Penggunaan adverb of certainty

Setelah mengetahui maksud dari adverb ini, lantas bagaimanakah kita menggunakannya untuk memberntuk sebuah kalimat?

Adverbs seperti certainly, definitely, undoubtedly, clearly, obviously dan probably pada umumnya diposisikan di tengah kalimat. Ada beberapa jenis peletakan adverb ini di dalam sebuah kalimat, antara lain

  1. Peletakkan setelah to be (… to be + adverb).
    • Contoh:
      • “It is undoubtedly going to rain. It’s so dark outside.”
  2. Peletakkan setelah auxiliary verb (… auxiliary + adverb).
    • Contoh:
      • “It will probably rain later this evening.”
  3. Peletakan yang diikuti dengan noun phrase (… adverb + noun phrase).
    • Contoh:
      • “Today is definitely the gloomiest day ever.”
  4. Peletakan yang diikuti dengan verb (… adverb + verb).
    • Contoh:
      • “It will certainly rain today.”
  5. Maybe dan perhaps umumnya diletakkan di depan klausa.
    • Contoh:
      • Maybe it won’t rain.”
      • Perhaps the weather will improve later.”

 

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, February 29, 2012

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#EngClass: Adverbial clause

Adverbial clause merupakan anak kalimat (clause) yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adverb (kata keterangan). Adverbial clause dapat menyatakan waktu, tempat, pertentangan, keadaan, tujuan/hasil, dan sebab-akibat.

Penggunaan adverbial clause selalu diawali dengan subordinating conjunction (misal: ‘after,’ ‘because,’ ‘although’.) Karena merupakan anak kalimat, maka jangan lupa bahwa adverbial clause juga memiliki subjek dan predikat.

Pengelompokan adverbial clause biasanya ditentukan dari conjunction (kata penghubung) yang mendahuluinya. Jenis-jenis adverbial clause antara lain: clause of time, clause of place, clause of contrast, clause of manner, clause of purpose and result, clause of cause and effect, dan clause of condition.

Clause of time

Clause of time menunjukkan waktu, conjunction yang digunakan antara lainafter,’ ‘before,’ ‘when,’ ‘since,’ ‘while,’ ‘as.’

Contoh:

  • “I will sign the check before you leave.”
  • “You may begin after you are ready.”
  • “Marina saw an accident while she was walking home.”

Clause of place

Clause of place menunjukkan tempat, conjunction yang digunakan antara lain ‘where,’ ‘nowhere,’ ‘anywhere,’ ‘wherever,’ ‘everywhere.’

Contoh:

  • “The bodyguard stood where he was positioned.”
  • “You can go wherever you like.”
  • “Where there is a will, there is a way.”

Clause of contrast

Clause of contrast menunjukkan pertentangan antara dua kejadian atau peristiwa yang saling berhubungan. Conjunction yang digunakan dalam clause of contrast ini antara lain although,’ ‘though,’ ‘even though,’ ‘whereas,’ ‘even if,’ ‘in spite of.’

Contoh:

  • “Although Mr. Joko is poor, he is happy.”
  • “Even though school is hard, I will never give up.”

Clause of manner

Clause of manner menunjukkan cara suatu pekerjaan dilakukan atau bagaimana suatu peristiwa dapat terjadi. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of manner ini antara lain as,’ ‘how,’ ‘like,’ ‘in that,’ ‘the way.’

Contoh:

  • “Tomi did it the way I told him.”
  • “Leoni acts like she’s a child.”

Clause of purpose and result

Clause of purpose and result menunjukkan hubungan antara maksud/tujuan dan hasil. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of purpose and result antara lain(in order) that,’ ‘so that,’ ‘in the hope that,’ ‘in case.’

Contoh:

  • “They are saving their money so that they may take a long vacation next year.”
  • “It was so hot that we didn’t go out.”

Clause of cause and effect

Clause of cause and effect menunjukkan hubungan sebab dan akibat. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of cause and effect antara lain because,’ ‘because of,’ ‘due to,’ ‘since,’ ‘therefore.’

Contoh:

  • “He didn’t go in because he was late.”
  • “Since I didn’t have enough money to go on vacation, I stayed home.”

Clause of condition

Clause of condition menunjukkan adanya kemungkinan atau persyaratan antara dua kejadian yang berhubungan. Conjunction yang digunakan pada clause of condition antara lain ‘if,’ ‘unless,’ ‘in case,’ ‘provided (that),’ ‘if only,’ ‘suppose (that).’

Contoh:

  • In case you can’t find the document, give me a call.
  • Provided you are old enough, you can apply for the job.

Compiled and written by @ChatrineYK at @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, October 13, 2011

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#EngClass: Adverb

Adverb dalam Bahasa Indonesia disebut sebagai kata keterangan atau tambahan. Salah satu contoh adverb adalah kata “slowly” dalam kalimat “I walk slowly.

Secara garis besar ada 2 fungsi utama adverb, yaitu:

Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah clause (klausa)

Informasi yang dimaksud adalah keterangan mengenai waktu atau tempat dari suatu tindakan. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai adverbial.

  • Contoh:
    • I walk slowly.”
    • Adverb slowly” menambahkan informasi pada klausa I walk.

Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah kata lain

Keterangan pada sebuah kata yang dimaksud adalah adjective (kata sifat) atau pun adverb lain. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai modifier.

  • Contoh:
    • “Extremely slowly.”
    • Adverb extremely” menambahkan informasi pada adverb slowly.

Berdasarkan artinya, terdapat beberapa jenis adverb. Berikut ini adalah 5 jenis adverb yang paling umum digunakan beserta contohnya:

  1. Adverb of manner. Artinya: keterangan menunjukkan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan, seperti well, badly, how, quickly, slowly, hard, fast, etc.
    • Contoh: 
      • “He plays the piano well.”
  2. Adverb of place. Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan suatu tempat, misalnya up, there, here, above, upstairs, anywhere, somewhere, etc. 
    • Contoh:
      • “The book can be anywhere.”
  3. Adverb of time.  Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan waktu, seperti then, now, soon, recently, afterwards, today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc 
    • Contoh:
      • “She will finish her homework soon.”
  4. Adverb of degree. Artinya: kata keterangan untuk menunjukkan tingkatan atau intensitas, seperti very, so, too, really, quite, much, extremely, etc.
    •  Contoh:
      • “I really love you.”
  5. Adverb of frequency. Artinya:  keterangan yang menujukkan frekuensi atau seberapa sering sesuatu dilakukan, misalnya never, always, often, sometimes, generally, etc.
    • Contoh:
      • “I always play football twice a week.”

Adverb dapat ditempatkan di depan, tengah, atau belakang dalam sebuah kalimatBerikut ini adalah aturan peletakan dari masing-masing posisi adverb dalam sebuah kalimat:

  1. Untuk posisi di depan, letakkan adverb sebelum S (Subject) kalimat.
    • Contoh:
      • Usually I play football twice a week.”
  2. Untuk posisi di tengah, adverb dapat digunakan sesudah auxiliary yang pertama (be) atau sebelum verb (kata kerja).
    • Contoh:
      • “She is never late.”
  3. Untuk posisi di belakang, adverb diletakkan pada akhir clause.
    • Contoh:
      • “He plays the piano well.”

 

Compiled and written by  for  Tuesday, August 2, 2011

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