#EngGrammar: Modifiers

#EngGrammar: Modifiers

What is modifier in English grammar? A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that function as adjectives or adverbs to provide additional information about another word or word group.

Modifiers can play the roles of adjectives or adverbs. Modifiers in English include adjectives, adverbs, demonstratives, possessive, determiners, prepositional phrases, degree modifiers, and intensifiers.

There are two kinds of modifiers, they are premodifiers and postmodifiers. Modifiers that appear before the head are called premodifiers. Modifiers that appear after the head are called postmodifiers.

Modifiers As Adjectives

When a modifier is an adjective, it modifies a noun or a pronoun. In the examples below, the modifiers are shaded, and the words being modified are bold.

For example:

  • Johnson caught a small mackerel.

In that sentence, the adjective small modifies the noun mackerel.

  • Johnson caught another one.

In that sentence, the adjective another modifies the pronoun one.

Modifiers As Adverbs

When a modifier is an adverb, it modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.

For example:

  • Michael accidentally caught a small whelp.

In that sentence, the adverb accidentally modifies the verb caught.

  • Michael caught an incredibly small mackerel.

In that sentence, the adverb incredibly modifies the adjective small.

  • Michael supposedly accidentally caught a small whelp.

In that sentence, the adverb supposedly modifies the adverb accidentally.

A Modifier Can Be a Phrase or a Clause

We shouldn’t forget that phrases and clauses can play the roles of adjectives and adverbs too.

For example:

  • George caught a mackerel smaller than a watch.

This is an adjective phrase modifying the noun mackerel.

  • George caught a mackerel of tiny proportions.

This is a prepositional phrase functioning as an adjective. It modifies the noun mackerel.

  • George caught a mackerel which was smaller than a watch.

This is an adjective clause modifying mackerel.

  • When alone, George tried to catch mackerel.

This is an adverbial phrase of time that modifies the verb tried.

  • When we left him alone, George set up his rod to catch mackerel.

This is an adverbial clause of time that modifies the verb set up.

Source:

Simaibang, Baginda. 2018. English Grammar for Foreign Learners. Palembang: CV Citra Books Indonesia

Compiled and written by @nurulhasanahmoslem at @EnglishTips4U on April 20, 2019

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#ENGCLASS: How to Plan a Lesson


         The term “lesson” is popularly considered to be a unified set of activities that cover a period of classroom time, usually ranging from forty to ninety minutes. These classroom time units are administratively significant for teachers because they represent “steps” along a curriculum before which and after which you have a hiatus (of a day or more) in which to evaluate and prepare for the next lesson.

Format of a Lesson Plan

While variations are plenty, seasoned teachers generally agree on what the essential elements of a lesson plan should be

  • Goal (s)

We should be able to identify an overall purpose or goal that we will attempt to accomplish by the end of the class period. In the sample lesson plan, “understanding telephone conversation” generally identifies the lesson topic.

  • Objectives

It is very important to state explicitly what you want students to gain from the lesson. Explicit statements here help you to

  1. Be sure that you indeed know what it is you want to accomplish,
  2. Preserve the unity of your lesson,
  3. Predetermine whether or not you are trying to accomplish too much, and
  4. Evaluate students’ success at the end of, or after, the lesson.

Objectives are most clearly captured in terms of stating what students will do. However, many language objectives are not overtly observable. Try to avoid vague, unverifiable statements like these:

  • Students will learn about the passive voice.
  • Students will practice some listening exercies.
  • Students will do the passage some listening pasty.
  • Materials and Equipment

It may seems a trivial matter to list materials needed, but good planing includes knowing what you need to take with you or to arrange to have in classroom.

  • Procedures

At this point, lessons clearly have tremendous variation.

We have to  think in terms of making sure your plan is included.

Evaluation     

Next, how can you determine whether your objective have been accomplished?

  • Extra-Class Work

Sometimes misnamed “homework” (students don’t neccessarily to extra = class work only at home), something. Whether you are teaching in an EFL or ESL  situation, you can almost always find applications or extentions of classroom

Source:

Douglas, H. Brown. 2001. Teaching by Principles and Interactive Approach to Language pedagogy

Compiled and written by @nurulhasanahmoslem for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 6, 2019