#Engvocab: Election

Hello fellas, how are you today? Fellas, on April 17, 2019, we in Indonesia hold a general election to determine the future members of House of Representative and the future president and vice president. Therefore, today, we are going to discuss vocabularies related to election.

An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. There are several vocabularies that we often hear or read in regards to election terms. Here they are:

1. Campaign
Means the things a candidate does to get elected (shaking hands, giving oration, etc.).
E.g.: “He took a campaign tour of West Java last week.”

2. Debate
Means to argue for or against something.
E.g.: “The topic of tonight’s presidential debate is national defense and security.”

3. Candidate
Means the person who is running in an election.
E.g.: “The Indonesia presidential election in 2019 has two pair of candidates.”

4. Politics
Means the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area.
E.g.: “I told her I was going into politics.”

5. Voter
Means the individual who is voting in an election.
E.g.: “Now the voters will decide.”

6. Ballot paper
Means a piece of paper or a small ball used in a secret voting.
E.g.: “Each person will get a ballot which should be kept confidential.”

7. Supporter
Means the individual who supports a candidate during an election.
E.g.: “All supporters in this campaign are so excited to meet the candidate.”

8. Political party
Means a group of people with similar political goals and opinions whose main purpose is to get candidates elected to public office.
E.g.: “Most of political parties in this election are optimistic about their candidates being elected.”

9. Democracy
Means a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.

E.g.: “Indonesia is one of the countries that adapts democracy as its system of government.”

10. Government
Means the governing body of a nation, state, or community.
E.g.: “The first MRT in our city was planned by the previous government.”

Thank you and see you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, April 10, 2019

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#ENGVOCAB: VOCABULARIES RELATED TO INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA

Hello fellas, how are you? how often do you surf the internet and social media? I am sure that most of you like spending time to check social media and surfing the internet. Today, we are discussing some words and phrases related to internet and social media. Here they are.


http://lime20.com/internet.php

1. To unplug
It means to disconnect and to relax by disengaging ourselves from activities that use internet connection.

E.g.: “Sometimes you need to learn to unplug and just enjoy the peace and quiet at home.”

2. Hot-spot
It refers to a place in public area where there is a computer system with an access point or an internet connection.

E.g.: “The airport was bright and spacious, with large shopping area and Wi-Fi hot-spot lounge.”

3. To multitask
To multitask means to do many things at the same time. 

E.g.: “An interpreter needs a quick, agile mind to multitask, because she or he needs to simultaneously listen to a concept or idea in one language, understand and process it, and translate it to another language.”

4. Down-time
It refers to the time when a computer is not working properly and cannot be used. This could also mean the time somebody needs to relax and recuperate after a hard work.

E.g.: “Once we are done with all the renovation, I am ready for some major down-time.”

5. Pulled to the internet
It means working hard using the internet or being dependent to the internet.

E.g.: “I wish I could do that but I am so pulled to the internet. I manage my own business and I can hardly spend a day without sending emails or checking my website.”

6. To pull the plug
When you pull the plug of something, it means that it no longer has a power source and will switch off.

E.g.: “I am considering just pulling the plug on the whole thing. I have been so busy with my work and I have not had time to be creative or even relax.”

7. Be on the same wavelength
It refers to the same things that have the same origins but can also be used for casual acquaintances. It has the same meaning as being in tune with somebody.

E.g.: “What makes the problem worse is that Howard and Tina are not on the same wavelength about how to deal with it.”

8. No filter
It is usually used to refer to a picture, which is of original quality and has not been edited or modified. The term is also used to refer to an uncensored conversation, usually between friends.

E.g.: “Miranda is my best friend. Sometimes when we are chatting, we can talk with no filter and we laugh at each other.”

9. On fleek
Something is on fleek if it looks perfect and on point.

E.g.: “Did you see what Jason was wearing today? His look is on fleek!”

10. To win the internet
The phrase is usually used as a reaction given by someone who either really likes or really dislikes your post.

E.g.: “This picture wins the internet today. Everything else is dummy.”

That’s all for today, fellas. Hopefully today’s session is useful for you. See you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, March 27, 2019

#EngTips: HOW TO KEEP A CONVERSATION GOING

Hello fellas, I’m happy to meet you again today. How are you today?

Fellas, as non-native speakers, have you ever felt stuck and confused in the middle of a conversation? Especially since the conversation is done in English.

Sometimes, when we meet with international friends, we must keep a conversation going to give them sufficient details about us. However, when we feel confused because we don’t know what to say, the conversation will stop.

Example:
“Did you have a good weekend?”
“Yes, I did. You?”
“Yeah, it was good.”

The conversation will stop because there is no natural way to continue it. A brief conversation with strangers are fine from time to time, but if it is someone we know, a longer chat will be expected.

Here is how to keep a conversation going:

1. Ask questions and start with 5W + 1H (What, Who, Where, When, Why, How). Avoid yes or no questions.


2. Answer the questions with elaborated details that will help you continue the conversations.

3. Try interesting topics such as family, hobbies, sports, movie, TV shows, culture, music, recent events, travelling, or interesting places in the city where you live. Avoid such topics as religion, politics, sex life, personal finance, or health issues.

Check this long conversation as an example:
James: “Hey, Rachel, how was your weekend?”
Rachel: “Pretty good! I went to a baseball game with my brother.”
James: “Really? What teams were playing?”

Rachel: “The Red Sox and The Yankees. We are huge Yankees fans!”
James: “Yeah? How was the game?”
Rachel: “Very exciting. It was tied until the last minutes, and then we won 2-1.”

You can see from the example that both persons tried to keep the conversation going. James asked questions and Rachel answered enthusiastically.

To have a good conversation in English with your international friends, a regular practice is necessary. That is all for today, fellas! If you have questions about this or previous sessions, don’t hesitate to mention us.

Hopefully today’s topic could help you brush up your English conversation skill. See you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, March 13,2019

Exclamatory Sentence

Hello, fellas, how are you doing?

Fellas, do you know what is this?

Burj Khalifa

That is Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE, “How amazing it is!

Did you notice the form that I used to compliment Burj Khalifa? Yes, I said, “How amazing it is!“. On that sentence, I used what we call exclamatory sentence, which is going to be our topic for today.

An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses about wonder or a feeling caused by something beautiful or stunning. Usually, the characteristic of an exclamatory sentence is it ends with an exclamation mark (!).

Check these sentences:
How small their house was!” (Betapa kecil rumah mereka!)

How oddly Justin behaved!” (Betapa aneh kelakuan Justin!)

What a surprising conclusion it was!” (Sungguh sebuah kesimpulan yang mengejutkan!)

To make an exclamatory sentence, we can use the following formula.

  • Formula 1:
    How + adjective + subject + auxiliary verb
    E.g.:

    How cheap these shoes are!
  • Formula 2:
    How + adverb + subject + verb
    E.g.:
    How oddly Justin behaved!
  • Formula 3:

  How + adjective + noun + subject + verb

E.g.:

What expensive bags you have!”

Fellas, sometimes, we can remove some word on an exclamatory sentence to make the sentence even better.

E.g.: “What a charming girl!” instead of “What a charming girl she is!” “What beautiful hair!” instead of “What beautiful hair you have!

An exclamatory sentence can also be written as a declarative sentence (which we will discuss next time).

E.g.: “There is the plane now!” (Itu pesawatnya sudah mendarat!)

There is your bus coming!” (Itu dia busnya tiba!)

Fellas, that is all for today, thank you so much for your patience and see you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 30, 2019

#EngClass: Derivatives

Hello fellas, how was your day?

In this session we will discuss derivative which is a part of grammar in English language. There are several grammatical rules to apply when using English. Today, we will continue with ‘Derivatives.’

Derivatives are word that are derived from other words, which we call root words. Usually, derivatives are formed by adding an affix to the root words.
Let’s see the paragraph below:

At their first session, the lawyer asked Ed, “What things about this woman that attracted you?”
Ed replied, “Her forthrightness, straightforwardness, and frankness
.”

Fellas, did you find any derivatives from that paragraph?
From that paragraph, the words ‘forthrightness,’ ‘straightforwardness,’ and ‘frankness’ are derivatives. Derivatives can also be nouns that we could change into adjectives or adverbs if we add suffix at the end of the words. However, there are some derivatives that still retain their meaning.

1. To form noun derivatives, we add suffixes like -ness, -ty, -hood, -ian, -cy, -er, -or, -sion, -ment, -tion, -ant, -ce, etc.
E.g.: 
Happy – Happiness 
Child – Childhood

Dense – Density
Pregnant – Pregnancy
Good – Goodness

Comedy – Comedian
Assist – Assistance
Friend – Friendship 

2. To form adjective derivatives, we add suffixes like: -full, -less, -ish, -al, – cy, – ary, -able, -ous, -y, etc.
E.g.:
Blue – blueish
Boy – boyish
Help – helpless
Sun – sunny
Danger – dangerous

3. To form verb derivatives, we can add affixes like dis-, re-, -ize, a-, -fy. 
E.g.:
Like – dislike
Agree – disagree 
Check – recheck
Memory – memorize
Summary – summarize

4. Derivatives can also form ‘negative words’ or words that have the negative meaning of the root words. To form these derivatives, we add prefixes un-, in-, im-, etc.

E.g.:
complete – incomplete
happy – unhappy
direct – indirect
mortal – immortal

Sumber: Yulianto, Dian. (2018). Asyiknya Belajar Grammar Dari Kisah-Kisah Jenaka. Yogyakarta: DIVA press.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 23, 2019

#EngClass: The Imperative (2)

Hi fellas, Today we will discuss the imperative and how to use it on sentences.

Fellas, Imperative is a type of sentence that gives instructions or expresses a command. Sometimes, an imperative sentence also expresses a direction, a request, an order or a suggestion. Imperative sentences usually end with an exclamation mark or a period. Check this paragraph and find imperative sentences on this paragraph:

In a second-grade elementary class, an English teacher asked her students to count in English. “Lisa, can you count up to five in English for me?” Lisa said “Yes, Miss. One, two, three, four, five.” The teacher said “Very good. Now Melisa, please continue.

When the teacher asked Melisa to continue counting, she said “Please continue”. It is the imperative.

  1. Imperative sentences can also express prohibition or warning. They can end with either an exclamation mark and period. E.g.:
  • Do not use the lift in the event of fire“.
  • Don’t go there!”
  • Don’t tell anyone that I was here“.
  • Don’t be late!

2. Imperative sentences can also express an instruction. E.g.:

  • Enjoy your meal“.
  • Do start“.
  • Stop talking and open your books“.
  • Ask him, will you? “Write to me, will you?

3. We can write imperative sentence without a subject.

E.g : “Open your mouth and say “Aaah”.

4. We can also write imperative sentence to remind one or more people. E.g :

  • Come on, boys, you’re late”.
  • Come on, Lisa, I’m waiting”.

5. We can also write imperative sentences to make suggestions. Usually, we use “Let’s” in the beginning of sentence. Remember that “let’s” is a contraction of “let us”, which means the pronoun is already plural. E.g :

  • Let’s visit India next month”.
  • Please, let’s just go to cinema tonight, shall we?”.

6. We can also use imperative sentences to give instructions.

E.g : “First, prepare some hot water. Pour the white coffee into a cup. Add some milk and stir the coffee”.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 16, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressions of Quantity in Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. Today we are going to learn about expressions of quantity in relative clauses. An expression of quantity is used to express the number or amount of something. It may precede a noun whose number or amount it describes. Several examples of expressions of quantity are one, two, each, every, both, some, several, a few, a little, many, much, most, etc.

(More on expressions of quantity: https://englishtips4u.com/2017/03/05/engclass-expressions-of-quantity/)

In relative clauses, expressions of quantity with of come before the pronouns. However, the pronouns are only whom, which and whose. This pattern is preceded by a comma and more common in writing than speaking.

Examples:

1) There are 23 players in the German national team. Most of them are from Bayern Munich. (There are 23 players in the German national team, most of whom are from Bayern Munich.)

2) Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books. Two of them are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”. (Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books, two of which are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”.)

3) Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One of his works is “The Marriage of Figaro”. (Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of whose works is “The Marriage of Figaro”.)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Abridged Noun Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to learn about the abridgement of noun clauses. A noun clause is a clause used as the subject, object or complement of a sentence. It can begin with a question word (who, whom, what, which, where, when, whose, why or how), that, if or whether.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

Noun clauses beginning with one of the question words or whether can be abridged. However, the abridgement is only possible if these requirements are fulfilled:

1) The main clause and the noun clause have the same subject or the subject of the noun clause is the same as the object of the main clause; and

2) The noun clause contains a modal verb either can/could or should.

There are 3 steps in the abridgement of noun clauses:

1) Omit the subject;

2) Omit the modal verb; and

3) Change the verb into an infinitive.

Examples:

1) I know what I should do. (I know what to do.)

2) She told me when I should go. (She told me when to go.)

3) Students learn how they could write journals. (Students learn how to write journals.)

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Adjective Clauses as the Object of a Preposition

Hello, fellas. In everyday usage, the subject and verb of an adjective clause (relative clause) precede a preposition. On the other hand, to make it more formal, the clause is used as the object of the preposition.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, a preposition is a word used before its object (a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun), connecting it to another word. It usually shows a temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of a sentence. Examples of prepositions are about, at, by, for, from in, on, through, to, with, and without.

(More on prepositions: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/09/17/engclass-prepositions/)

If the preposition is followed by the adjective clause, pronouns to use are only whom or which. It is never followed by that or who.

Examples:

  • He is the man whom we talk about.

         He is the man about whom we talk.

  • The lecturer whom you should listen to is explaining course materials.

         The lecturer to whom you should listen is explaining course materials.

  • The view which we look at is breath-taking.

         The view at which we look is breath-taking.

  • Surabaya is the city which I live in.

         Surabaya is the city in which I live.

(in which has the same meaning as where)

Source:

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

GrammarBook.com, https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/probPrep.asp

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Reason

After discussing reduced relative clauses and reduced adverb clauses of time, today we are going to learn the reduction of adverb clauses of reason.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

Adverb clauses of reason are also called adverb clauses of cause and effect. They are introduced by conjunctions, such as because, now that, since, due to the fact that, and owing to the fact that. Like the other kinds of adverb clauses, they function as the dependent clause in a sentence.

(More on adverb clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

The reduction of an adverb clause of reason to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. Omit the conjunction, so that it is not included in the adverbial phrase, and change the verb to its –ing form.

Example:

Because she lives far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.
Living far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.

Having + past participle means because.

Example:

Because I have read the novel, I want to give it to you.
Having read the novel, I want to give it to you.

It is also possible to change be in an adverb clause of reason to being.

Example:

Because she was sick, she did not attend the class.
Being sick, she did not attend the class.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Friday, August 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time

Hello, fellas. Last week we learned how to reduce relative clauses.

(More on reduced relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/)

In this session, we are still going to discuss the reduction of clauses. It is the reduction of adverb clauses of time.

(More on adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

In a sentence, an adverb clause functions as the dependent clause. It must be attached to the main clause or the independent clause (More on clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/26/engclass-clause/). An adverb clause of time begins with a conjunction, such as after, before, since, when, and while.

The reduction of an adverb clause of time to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time:

1) Omit the subject and be
Example:
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
While studying, I fell asleep.

2) If there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form
Example:
Jane has lived abroad since she pursued her education.
Jane has lived abroad since pursuing her education.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, August 2, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. How is it going? Today we are going to learn how to reduce relative clauses. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses with relative pronouns as subjects (who, which, or that) can be reduced to adjective phrases.

There are two ways in which a relative clause is changed to an adjective phrase:

1) If the relative clause contains be, omit the pronoun and be.
Relative clause: The research which was conducted by the students is published.
Adjective phrase: The research conducted by the students is published.

2) If there is no be in the relative clause, omit the pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
Relative clause: Students who conduct research should write in journals.
Adjective phrase: Students conducting research should write in journals.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Double Comparatives

Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives “The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.

Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).

(More on comparisons: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/20/engclass-degrees-of-comparison/comment-page-1/)

Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.

There are three structures of double comparatives:

1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.

2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.

3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 19, 2018

 

#EngGrammar: Active vs Passive (IELTS Writing Task 1 Process)

Hi, Fellas. Last week we learned how to structure our writing about a process in IELTS Task 1. In case you missed the session, you can read the article in this link. Today we will focus on when to use active voice or passive voice in such kind of writing.

Active Voice

Active voice is used to describe natural processes or events occurring autonomously in nature, where humans are not involved, such as rain and formation of clouds. For example

task 1 rain

(Source: http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/04/ielts-writing-task-1-water-cycle-essay.html)

Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.

Passive Voice

Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it. As an illustration,

task 1 bricks

(Source: https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/988-process-by-which-bricks-are-manufactured-for-the-building-industry)

At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.

Sources:

  • Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
  • Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers
    IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
  • Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 10, 2018


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#EngTips: Process (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, Fellas. To prepare for IELTS Writing Task 1, you do not only need to practice writing based on data, but also diagrams describing how a process occurs. Here is the outline of the task.

bee process

(Source: https://essayforum.com/writing/honey-bees-life-cycle-57460/)

Introduction

Similar to the other types of IELTS Writing Task 1, the first paragraph constitutes an introduction. It comprises of the paraphrase of the questions and an overview.

a. Paraphrase of the questions

The first sentence tells what the diagram is all about. It can be made by paraphrasing the questions. For example, the question above can be changed into:

  • The diagram illustrates the various stages in the life of a honey bee” 

If you want to know more about paraphrasing, you can read the article by followint this link .

b. Overview

The overview states at least the number of stages. You can also add information on the duration of the process and how it starts and ends.

Example:

  • There are five stages in the development of the honey bee, from an egg to a mature adult insect. The life cycle takes between 34 and 36 days to complete.”

2) Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs are where the steps are described. Break the description into two paragraphs to make it more organised. Do not forget to include the initial and final steps mentioned in the overview, but describe them in more detail or in a different way.

Example:

The life cycle of the honey bee starts when the female adult lays an egg. It typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.

During the third stage, the nymph grows in size and shed its skin three times. This moulting first takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days later, and again other 9 days later. After a total of 30 to 31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey bee emerges from its final moulting stage, and in the space of only 4 days, it reaches full maturity.

Sequence Words and Phrases

To show the order of a process, sequence words and phrases can be used.

  1. The First Stage
    • Example:
      • “First,”
      • “In the first stage,”
      • “At/In the beginning,”
      • “The first stage is when…”
      • “The process begins/starts/commences when…”
      • “The process begins with” + <noun/noun phrase>
  2. Middle Stages
    • Ecample:
      • “Next,”
      • “Then,”
      • “Before,”
      • “After,”
      • “After this/that,”
      • “Afterwards,”
      • “In the following stage,”
      • “In the stage after/following this,”
      • “In the stage that follows,”
  3. The Last Stage
    • Exanple;
      • “Finally,”
      • “Ultimately,”
      • “Eventually,”
      • “The last/final stage is when…”
      • “The process ends when”
      • “The process ends with” + <noun/noun phrase>

Sources:

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 3, 2018


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#EngGrammar: Tenses for IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, Fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.

Past Tenses

  1. Past Simple Tense. This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.
    • Example:
      • “In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.”
  2. Past Perfect Tense. Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.
    • Example:
      • “By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.”

Present Simple Tense

Present simple tense is used to describe a process.

Example:

  • The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.

Future Tense

  1. Simple Future Tense. Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.
    • Example:
      • “The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.”
  2. Future Perfect Tense. Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.
    • Example:
      • The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.”

In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. “be likely to,” “be predicted to,” “be projected to,” and “be going to.”

Example:

  • “The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.”
  • “By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.”

Sources:

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018.


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#EngKnowledge: Noah Webster

Fellas, do you know why Americans use honor instead of honour, color instead of colour and center instead of centre? The spelling stems from the work of one of the most influential figures in the development of American English, Noah Webster.

Noah Webster Jr. was born in West Hartford, Connecticut, on October 16, 1758. His father, Noah Webster Sr., was a descendant of John Webster, the Connecticut Governor. His mother, Mercy Steele Webster, was a descendant of William Bradford, the Plymouth County Governor.

Despite being well known for his work in the field of language, Webster studied at Yale Law School. His study began in 1774. Due to serving in the American Revolution, he was graduated four years later. Having been unable to find a work as a lawyer, he finally taught in a school in Goshen, New York.

While teaching, he was dissatisfied inasmuch as texts for children did not reflect the American culture. He said, “Let us then seize the present moment, and establish a national language, as well as a national government”. His first dictionary, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language, was published in 1806. Webster argued that Americans should simplify their spelling by matching letters more closely with phonemes. He expected to standardize American English for Americans spelled, pronounced and used English words differently.

Webster’s most famous masterpiece, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was published in two volumes in 1828 and contained 70,000 entries. It took 18 years to complete the dictionary. In order to know the origin of words, he learned 26 languages, including Old English, German, Greek, Latin, Italian, Spanish, French, Hebrew, Arabic and Sanskrit. It sold more copies than any English book, except the Bible. Later, George and Charles Merriam purchased the right to publish the dictionary and it became what we know today as the Merriam-Webster dictionary.

Sources:
Wikipedia, Noah Webster, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noah_Webster
Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Noah Webster, https://www.britannica.com/print/article/638653
Elyse Graham, Noah Webster, American identity, and the simplified spelling movement, https://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2018/05/07/noah-webster-american-identity-simplified-spelling-movement/
Garden of Praise, Noah Webster, https://gardenofpraise.com/ibdnoahw.htm
The Atlantic, Noah Webster, Father of the American Dictionary, Was Unemployable, https://www.theatlantic.com/entertainment/archive/2012/10/noah-webster-father-american-dictionary-was-unemployable/322508/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 21, 2018