Category Archives: writing

#GrammarTrivia: Noun + of Which

Hello, fellas. After learning about how to use expressions of quantity in relative clauses last week, today we are still going to have a session on another form of relative clauses. It is the use of noun + of which.

(More on expressions of quantity in relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/30/grammartrivia-expressions-of-quantity-in-relative-clauses/)

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the pattern has the same meaning of whose. In other words, both of them show possession. Noun + of which is used in a relative clause modifying a thing and more common in formal written English. It is preceded by a comma.

(More on whose: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/01/engclass-how-to-use-who-whom-and-whose/)

Example:

1) Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel. The title of the novel is Anna Karenina.

    Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel, the title of which is Anna Karenina.

2) The student bought a book. The price of the book was affordable.

     The student bought a book, the price of which was affordable.

3) They like Indonesian food. The taste of the food is spicy.

     They like Indonesian food, the taste of which is spicy.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 5, 2018

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#GrammarTrivia: Expressions of Quantity in Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. Today we are going to learn about expressions of quantity in relative clauses. An expression of quantity is used to express the number or amount of something. It may precede a noun whose number or amount it describes. Several examples of expressions of quantity are one, two, each, every, both, some, several, a few, a little, many, much, most, etc.

(More on expressions of quantity: https://englishtips4u.com/2017/03/05/engclass-expressions-of-quantity/)

In relative clauses, expressions of quantity with of come before the pronouns. However, the pronouns are only whom, which and whose. This pattern is preceded by a comma and more common in writing than speaking.

Examples:

1) There are 23 players in the German national team. Most of them are from Bayern Munich. (There are 23 players in the German national team, most of whom are from Bayern Munich.)

2) Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books. Two of them are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”. (Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books, two of which are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”.)

3) Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One of his works is “The Marriage of Figaro”. (Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of whose works is “The Marriage of Figaro”.)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Abridged Noun Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to learn about the abridgement of noun clauses. A noun clause is a clause used as the subject, object or complement of a sentence. It can begin with a question word (who, whom, what, which, where, when, whose, why or how), that, if or whether.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

Noun clauses beginning with one of the question words or whether can be abridged. However, the abridgement is only possible if these requirements are fulfilled:

1) The main clause and the noun clause have the same subject or the subject of the noun clause is the same as the object of the main clause; and

2) The noun clause contains a modal verb either can/could or should.

There are 3 steps in the abridgement of noun clauses:

1) Omit the subject;

2) Omit the modal verb; and

3) Change the verb into an infinitive.

Examples:

1) I know what I should do. (I know what to do.)

2) She told me when I should go. (She told me when to go.)

3) Students learn how they could write journals. (Students learn how to write journals.)

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Adjective Clauses as the Object of a Preposition

Hello, fellas. In everyday usage, the subject and verb of an adjective clause (relative clause) precede a preposition. On the other hand, to make it more formal, the clause is used as the object of the preposition.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, a preposition is a word used before its object (a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun), connecting it to another word. It usually shows a temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of a sentence. Examples of prepositions are about, at, by, for, from in, on, through, to, with, and without.

(More on prepositions: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/09/17/engclass-prepositions/)

If the preposition is followed by the adjective clause, pronouns to use are only whom or which. It is never followed by that or who.

Examples:

  • He is the man whom we talk about.

         He is the man about whom we talk.

  • The lecturer whom you should listen to is explaining course materials.

         The lecturer to whom you should listen is explaining course materials.

  • The view which we look at is breath-taking.

         The view at which we look is breath-taking.

  • Surabaya is the city which I live in.

         Surabaya is the city in which I live.

(in which has the same meaning as where)

Source:

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

GrammarBook.com, https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/probPrep.asp

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Reason

After discussing reduced relative clauses and reduced adverb clauses of time, today we are going to learn the reduction of adverb clauses of reason.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

Adverb clauses of reason are also called adverb clauses of cause and effect. They are introduced by conjunctions, such as because, now that, since, due to the fact that, and owing to the fact that. Like the other kinds of adverb clauses, they function as the dependent clause in a sentence.

(More on adverb clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

The reduction of an adverb clause of reason to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. Omit the conjunction, so that it is not included in the adverbial phrase, and change the verb to its –ing form.

Example:

Because she lives far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.
Living far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.

Having + past participle means because.

Example:

Because I have read the novel, I want to give it to you.
Having read the novel, I want to give it to you.

It is also possible to change be in an adverb clause of reason to being.

Example:

Because she was sick, she did not attend the class.
Being sick, she did not attend the class.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Friday, August 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time

Hello, fellas. Last week we learned how to reduce relative clauses.

(More on reduced relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/)

In this session, we are still going to discuss the reduction of clauses. It is the reduction of adverb clauses of time.

(More on adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

In a sentence, an adverb clause functions as the dependent clause. It must be attached to the main clause or the independent clause (More on clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/26/engclass-clause/). An adverb clause of time begins with a conjunction, such as after, before, since, when, and while.

The reduction of an adverb clause of time to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time:

1) Omit the subject and be
Example:
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
While studying, I fell asleep.

2) If there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form
Example:
Jane has lived abroad since she pursued her education.
Jane has lived abroad since pursuing her education.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, August 2, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. How is it going? Today we are going to learn how to reduce relative clauses. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses with relative pronouns as subjects (who, which, or that) can be reduced to adjective phrases.

There are two ways in which a relative clause is changed to an adjective phrase:

1) If the relative clause contains be, omit the pronoun and be.
Relative clause: The research which was conducted by the students is published.
Adjective phrase: The research conducted by the students is published.

2) If there is no be in the relative clause, omit the pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
Relative clause: Students who conduct research should write in journals.
Adjective phrase: Students conducting research should write in journals.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 26, 2018

#EngGrammar: Active vs Passive (IELTS Writing Task 1 Process)

Hi, fellas. Last week we learned how to structure our writing about a process in IELTS Task 1 (More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/07/engtips-process-ielts-writing-task-1/). Today we will focus on when to use active voice or passive voice in such kind of writing.

1) Active Voice

Active voice is used to describe natural processes or events occurring autonomously in nature, where humans are not involved, such as rain and formation of clouds.

e.g.

task 1 rain

(http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/04/ielts-writing-task-1-water-cycle-essay.html)

Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.

2) Passive Voice

Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/06/26/engclass-the-passive/)

e.g.

task 1 bricks

(https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/988-process-by-which-bricks-are-manufactured-for-the-building-industry)

At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.

Sources:
Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 10, 2018

 

#EngTips: Process (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. To prepare for IELTS Writing Task 1, you do not only need to practice writing based on data, but also diagrams describing how a process occurs. Here is the outline of the task.

bee process

(Taken from https://essayforum.com/writing/honey-bees-life-cycle-57460/)

1) Introduction

Like the other types of IELTS Writing Task 1, the first paragraph constitutes an introduction. It comprises of the paraphrase of the questions and an overview.

a. Paraphrase of the questions

The first sentence tells what the diagram is all about. It can be made by paraphrasing the questions. For example, the question above can be changed into:

“The diagram illustrates the various stages in the life of a honey bee” (More on paraphrasing: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/05/24/engtips-paraphrasing/).

b. Overview

The overview states at least the number of stages. You can also add information on the duration of the process and how it starts and ends.

e.g. There are five stages in the development of the honey bee, from an egg to a mature adult insect. The life cycle takes between 34 and 36 days to complete.

2) Body Paragraphs

Body paragraphs are where the steps are described. Break the description into two paragraphs to make it more organised. Do not forget to include the initial and final steps mentioned in the overview, but describe them in more detail or in a different way.

e.g.

The life cycle of the honey bee starts when the female adult lays an egg. It typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.

During the third stage, the nymph grows in size and shed its skin three times. This moulting first takes place 5 days after the egg hatches, then 7 days later, and again other 9 days later. After a total of 30 to 31 days from the start of the cycle, the young adult honey bee emerges from its final moulting stage, and in the space of only 4 days, it reaches full maturity.

Sequence Words and Phrases

To show the order of a process, sequence words and phrases can be used.

• The First Stage

First,

In the first stage,

At/In the beginning

,The first stage is when…

The process begins/starts/commences when…

The process begins with + <noun/noun phrase>

• Middle Stages

Next,

Then,

Before

After

After this/that,

Afterwards, 

In the following stage, 

In the stage after/following this,

In the stage that follows,

• The Last Stage

Finally,

Ultimately,

Eventually,

The last/final stage is when…

The process ends when…

The process ends with + <noun/noun phrase>

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Ielts-simon.com, IELTS Writing Task 1: life cycle essay, http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2013/01/ielts-writing-task-1-life-cycle-essay.html

Lin Lougheed, Barron’s Writing for the IELTS

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 3, 2018

 

#EngGrammar: Tenses for IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.

1) Past Tenses

a. Past Simple Tense

This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.

e.g. In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.

b. Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.

e.g. By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.

2) Present Simple Tense

Present simple tense is used to describe a process.

e.g. The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears. 

3) Future Tense

a. Simple Future Tense

Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.

e.g. The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.

b. Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.

e.g. The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.

In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. be likely to, be predicted to, be projected to, and be going to.

e.g.

The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.

By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers: Self-study grammar reference and practice

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2016/09/ielts-writing-task-1-separate-line-graphs-answer.html

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2013/01/ielts-writing-task-1-life-cycle-essay.html

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#EngTips: Numbers and Percentages in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. How is it going? Today we will talk about IELTS Writing Task 1. As we know, we must usually write an article based on data given in the test. Due to the fact that the data are expressed in numbers or percentages, it is essential that we know other ways of expressing them.

1) Fractions

Sometimes, data in IELTS Writing Task 1 are expressed in percentages. To avoid repetition, percentages can be replaced by fractions.

75%= three quarters

67%= two thirds

50%= a half

33%= a third

25%= a quarter

20%= a fifth

e.g.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only 20% was allocated on education.

75% of global expenditure was spent on food in 1990, while only a fifth was allocated on education.

If the percentage is, for example 51% or 23%, we can use approximations (approximately, around, almost, about, nearly, just above/over, just below/under, a little/slightly more than or a little/slightly less than)

e.g.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to 31% in 2004.

The proportion of foreign students experienced an increase from 25% to just below a third in 2004.

2) Comparisons using half, twice, three times etc. with as many/much…as

e.g.

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won 32 gold medals, while Japan won 16 gold medals

In the 2004 Olympic Games, China won twice as many gold medals as Japan. 

3) double, treble, quadruple etc.

e.g.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it rose to 60 in 1998.

The number of businesswomen was 20 in 1994 and it trebled four years later.

4) twofold, threefold etc.

e.g.

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it increased to 45%

In 1998, the proportion of unemployed people was 15%. 2 years later, it saw a threefold increase

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: Graph Review (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#EngTips: Paraphrasing

Hi, Fellas. How is it going? Today’s discussion is about one important element of writing. It is paraphrasing. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “paraphrase” means “to say (something that someone else has said or written) using different words”. It is essential that we understand paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism and prepare for IELTS test.

There are several methods of paraphrasing. Here they are:

Using Synonyms

This is probably the most commonly used method. Words can be replaced by their synonyms with no change in meaning. Remember, you do not need to change all words in a sentence.

e.g.:

  • Parents should teach their children to cooperate.
  • Parents should educate their kids to collaborate.

Changing Active Voice into Passive Voice, or Vice Versa

This method cannot be used for all kinds of sentences because only transitive sentences (sentences containing objects) can be changed into passive voice.

e.g.:

  • Deforestation causes global warming. (active voice)
  • Global warming is caused by deforestation. (passive voice)

Nominalization

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, nominalization is “the process of making a noun from a verb or adjective”.

e.g.:

  • The price of oil rises. [rise (verb)]
  • There is a rise in the price of oil. [rise (noun)]

Incorporating Data

This is a method of paraphrasing related to numbers.

e.g.:

  • From 1990 to 2000, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.
  • In ten years, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.
  • In a decade, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.

Adding Information

To paraphrase using this approach, it is better for you to add information which has already become general knowledge.

e.g.:

  • Many Indonesian scholars study in London, Paris, and Berlin.
  • Many Indonesian scholars study in European cities.

Joining Sentences Using Conjunction

Conjunction is a part of speech connecting words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, for instance: and, but, because, although, etc.

e.g.:

  • Students learn English. They want to pursue their education abroad.
  • Students learn English because they want to pursue their education abroad.

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 24, 2018

#EngVocab: Adjectives That Describe Personalities (3)

Hi, fellas! How are you?

We meet again in another series of adjectives that could describe someone’s personality. For the first and second installment of this topic, please visit: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/07/13/engvocab-adjectives-that-describes-personality/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/03/12/engvocab-adjectives-that-describe-personalities-2/

Daft = silly, foolish (informal use).
“There is nothing daft about my fondness for Daft Punk. Their music suits my taste.”

Daft Punk.jpg
Daft Punk (pic from grammy.com)

Deranged = mad, insane.
“Police managed to stop that deranged gunman before he could shoot anyone.”

Debonair = from old French ‘de bon aire,’ meaning stylish, charming, and confident. Usually used to describe a man.
“Many who have met Nicholas Saputra described the actor as debonair.”

Dapper = Neat, well-dressed. Also used to describe a man.
“The Academy Awards were crowded by charming ladies and dapper gentlemen.”

Eloquent = fluent and persuasive in speaking or writing.
“She is quite an eloquent young lady. She would make a good public speaker.”

Enchanting = delightfully charming or attractive.
“Unlike her casual daily appearance, she became an enchanting lady on her wedding day.”

Expressive = effectively conveying thoughts or feelings.
“Emilia is such an expressive person. We could know how she feels by looking at her face.”

Emilia clarke
Emilia Clarke (pic from pinterest).

Fair = in accordance with rules or standards.
“If you should become a leader, be a fair one.”

Faithful = loyal, devoted.
“Her late husband was a faithful person. He always spent his free time with the family.”

Fearless = bold, brave.
“Naomi Campbell is a fierce, fearless woman. No wonder she has the longest running career as a supermodel.”

Flirtatious = behaving in such a way to suggest a playful attraction.
“Who was the flirtatious guy you were talking to? He seemed to make you uncomfortable.”

Frank = open, honest, and direct in speech or writing, especially when dealing with unpalatable matters.
“Is she always so frank, even though not so many people agree with her?”

Funky = modern and stylish in an unconventional or striking way.
“Lady Gaga is funky and quirky, in an extraordinary way.”

Lady Gaga.jpg
Lady Gaga (pic from pinterest).

 

There they go, fellas! As ever, the best way to practice and memorise new vocabularies is by using them a lot. Start incorporating these new words in your daily conversation. Check your dictionaries often to understand the context better.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 9 April, 2018.


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#GrammarTrivia: Brackets

Hello, fellas! How’s your day?

Today we will talk about “brackets.” Here we go! 

Brackets are symbols mainly used as separator for additional information to a sentence or a main content. If we remove the brackets, the sentence would still make good sense. There are two main types of brackets: round () and square []. British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) define them differently.
BrE: (  ) = round brackets or brackets

AmE: (  ) = parentheses

BrE: [  ] = square brackets

AmE: [  ] = brackets

Round brackets or parentheses are used to add extra information to a sentence.

E.g.: “Lake Toba (Indonesia: Danau Toba) is the largest volcanic lake in the world and is in Sumatra, Indonesia.” 
Round brackets or parentheses are used to indicate plural or singular nouns.

E.g.: “My new shelf need book(s).”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to add a personal comment.

E.g.: “Kuta Beach is the most beautiful beach in Bali. (I prefer Sanur Beach  to Kuta Beach.)”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to define abbreviations.

E.g.: “The link above will take you to a PDF (Portable Document Format) version.”

Square brackets are used to modify another person’s words, especially when we want to make it clear that the modification has been made by us, not by the original writer. 

E.g.: 

The witness said: “He [the policeman] hit me.”
Square brackets are used to add information.

E.g.: “The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina].”
Square brackets are used to add missing words.

E.g.: “It is [a] good question.” 
Square brackets are used to modify a direct quotation.

E.g.:

He “love[s] driving.” (The original words were “I love driving.”)
That’s all for today, fellas! I hope it’ll be useful for you. Good night!
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, March 10, 2018.

#EngTips: Capitalization (2)

Hey, fellas! We meet again. How was your day?
On last week session, we discussed capitalization. Find the recap here: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/13/engtips-capitalization/
Today, we will continue to discuss the rules of capitalization. Here we go! #EngTips
1. Do not capitalize compass directions (south, etc.) that aren’t being used as a name.

E.g.: “We’re leaving West Java and heading north this month.” #EngTips
2. Do not capitalize earth’s landscape (e.g.: river, hill, sea) that aren’t being used as a name, especially when the term is used descriptively. #EngTips

E.g.: 

Semeru mountain

Toba lake
2. … However, if the earth’s landscape is being used as a name and being an actual part of a proper noun, it needs to be capitalized. #EngTips

E.g.: 

Mount Krakatau

Sahara Desert

Jimbaran Beach
3. Do not capitalize occupation before full names. However, titles replacing one’s first name are capitalized. #EngTips

E.g.:

“The soccer team was trained by coach James.”

“Here comes Doctor Smith.”
4. Do not capitalize the first item in a list followed by a colon. #EngTips

E.g.: “You need to buy: apples, grapes, and mangos.”
5. Do not capitalize coordinating conjunction (and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so) unless it is first or last word in a title. #EngTips

E.g.: “So Quiet on the Canine Front is a 1930 comedy short film.”

“There are ten movies in Abbot and Costello series.”
6. Do not capitalize an article (a, an, the) unless it is first or last word in a title. #EngTips

E.g.: “The Atlantis Interceptors was influenced by Mad Max.”
That’s all I can share for today, fellas. I hope it could be useful for you.
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, 27 January, 2018.

#EngTips: Capitalization

Hello, fellas! How’s your weekend?
Today’s session discusses the capitalization rules. Capitalization is the action of writing a word with uppercase for the first letter and lowercase for the remaining letters.

Let’s check some rules of capitalization below. #EngTips
1. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. #EngTips

E.g.: “I’m happy that you gave me a huge bouquet of roses. Jim, you really pull out all the stops.”
2. Capitalize the first-person singular pronoun, I. #EngTips

E.g.:

“I want to eat an apple.”

“Where did I put the book?”
3. Capitalize people’s name. #EngTips

E.g.: “Christopher Nolan is an excellent director, screenwriter, and producer.”
4. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of the cities, countries, geological location). #EngTips

E.g.:

“She’s from Maluku, Indonesia.”

“We’ve been to Northern California for a holiday.”
5. Capitalize the proper nouns (historical event, political parties, religion and religious term, races, nationality, languages). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.”

“There are many Asians living in America.”

“Thank, God!”
6. Capitalize days of the week, month, holiday. However, do not capitalize the names of seasons (spring, summer, fall, autumn, winter). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Today is Saturday, December 13, 2018.”

“Out of all season, I love spring the most!”
7. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of newspaper, journal, company, and brand name). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Most newspaper have an online edition, including the New York Times.”

“The current trend of South Korean idols is to wear Balenciaga shoes.”
8. Capitalize a formal title when it is used as a form of address. #EngTips

E.g.:

“Thank you for your help, Doctor!”

“Let’s visit Grandfather today.”
That wraps up our session, fellas! See you on another interesting session.
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, Januari 13, 2018.

#EngTips: Giving examples (revisit)

We actually have talked about this topic, but it was years ago. If you missed the session, you can read it through this link (https://englishtips4u.com/2011/06/29/engtips-giving-examples/).

It was a short session though. So, today I would like to discuss more about ‘giving example.’

Example is something that is used to support an idea, argument, or opinion. We can mention anything, as long as it is related to the topic, such as events, names, research findings, places, etc.

In other words, an examples act as an evidence to prove an idea. We can also explain something by giving examples. There are some well-known phrases everyone may use in order to give examples. They are ‘for example,’ ‘for instance,’ ‘such as’ and ‘e.g.’

For example.’

This phrase is generally demonstrated, whether in spoken or written expression. We can say as well as write ‘for example’ while giving a further supports of our opinion.

However, in the case of written communication, this phrase might give the audience ‘less formal’ sense. So, if you are working on formal documents, such as business letters or academic essays, you can put ‘for instance’ instead of ‘for example.’

For instance.’

In the same way, we can also apply it in both written and spoken communication. However, as I mentioned in the previous tweet, people tend to used it in a formal condition. For alternatives, you could use ‘to illustrate’ or ‘as (an) illustration.’

Such as.’

I, personally, think this is the most flexible phrase. We can say or write it in both formal and casual communication. Cambridge Dictionary said ‘such as’ is more formal than ‘like.’ So, if you want to simply give some examples in your speech or essay, you can choose ‘such as.’

e.g.’

It is abbreviation of Latin, exempli gratia, which has the same meaning of ‘for example.’

‘e.g.’ is used in written expression only. Though I read an article about Latin as an academic language, I suspect it is used in academic purpose only. Moreover, I often saw ‘e.g.’ in news articles, study-related writings or academic papers.


Source: http://www.learnersdictionary.com/qa/is-there-a-difference-between-for-example-and-for-instance

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/so-and-such/such-as

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 28, 2017.


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^MD

#EngClass: Participial adjective (3)

One of our followers asked the question above on Twitter. Do you have a similar question? Do you get confused as to when you should use present or past participle adjective? Kalau kamu masih tulis/bilang: “I’m interesting” saat mau menyatakan “Saya tertarik,” yuk baca lagi artikel ini sampai selesai.

Participle adjectives are verbs, often ends in -ing and -ed, which are used as adjectives.  There are two types of participles: present participles (v-ing) and past participles (v2). Example:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

Bored

Relaxing

Relaxed

Tiring

Tired

Confusing

Confused

Exciting

Excited

We use present particular adjectives (v-ing) to talk about person, thing, or situation which caused the feeling. Example:

  • “I am boring.”
    • “Aku membosankan, aku menimbulkan rasa bosan.”
  • “They are confusing.”
    • “Mereka membingungkan, mereka menimbulkan kebingungan.”
  • “The book is exciting.”
    • “Bukunya menarik. Bukunya membuat orang tertarik.”

We use past participle adjectives (v2) to talk about how someone feels. Example:

  • “I am bored.”
    • “Aku merasa bosan. Yang kurasakan adalah bosan.”
  • “They are confused.”
    • “Mereka kebingungan. Yang mereka rasakan adalah bingung.”
  • “She is very excited.”
    • “Dia sangat bersemangat. Yang dia rasakan adalah semangat.”

If we were to compare the two side by side:

Present participle

Past participle

Penyebab perasaan

Perasaan yang dirasa

[Me- -kan]

[ter-], [ke- -an]

Entertaining

Entertained

Menghibur

Merasa terhibur

More examples:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

(Membosankan)

Bored

(Merasa bosan)

Relaxing

(Membuat santai)

Relaxed

(Merasa santai)

Tiring

(Melelahkan)

Tired

(Merasa lelah)

Confusing

(Membingungkan)

Confused

(Merasa bingung)

Exciting

(Menarik)

Excited

(Merasa tertarik)

So, what do you think? I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you still have any question, feel free to leave a comment down below, or you can also mention us on twitter.

How about having a short quiz to see how well you understand the explanation given above? Look at these sentences and choose the correct answer.

  1. I was really (boring/bored) during the lecture. It was really (boring/bored).
  2. I bought a really (interesting/interested) book last night. If you’re (interesting/interested), I can lend it to you.
  3. I heard an (alarming/alarmed) noise last night, and it kept me (alarming/alarmed) all night.

Answer:

  1. bored; boring.
  2. interesting; interested.
  3. alarming; alarmed.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, March 22, 2017

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^MQ