Category Archives: writing

#EngTips: Overview (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss the overview in IELTS Writing Task 1.

An overview is not a conclusion. A conclusion is a final judgement or opinion. On the other hand, an overview simply describes the main points. It summarizes the information depicted in the graph.

An overview can be put either right after the introduction or in the last paragraph. It does not matter where you place it as long as it is written in your report. However, it is recommended that the overview be put at the beginning because if you run out of time and do not write an overview at all, you will be unable to get a band 6 or higher for your task achievement.

To write an overview, you need to look at the most noticeable feature – what changes occurred from the beginning to the end. You do not need to state numbers because they are included in the specific details. Features like ‘overall change’, ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’, are mentioned without specific figures.

Example:

CO2

Overview:

Overall, it is clear that the UK produced the most emissions per capita of the 4 nations over the period although the levels fell slightly. The amount of CO2 emitted per person dropped more markedly in Sweden while levels rose in Italy and Portugal.

Sources:

Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)
Global Manpower, GUIDELINE IELTS WRITING TASK 1
IELTS buddy, IELTS Made Easy: Step-by-step guide to writing a Task 1
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Bayside, IELTS Academic Writing Task 1: band 9 sample, https://www.baysidecollege.com.au/task-1-sample/

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, April 12, 2019

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#EngTips: 3 Sentence Structures to Describe Trends (IELTS Writing Task 1)

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss one of key elements in IELTS Writing Task 1. It is a variety of sentence structures to describe trends.

To achieve a high score, you should learn to write sentences using different patterns. However, students tend to use only one of those. Consequently, their answer sounds ‘mechanical’. By varying how your sentences are structured, you can show your wide range of grammar.

It is essential that you get word forms right. Verbs can change into nouns and adverbs change into adjectives depending on the structure you choose.

The patterns are:

1) Noun + verb + adverb
Example: The consumption of oil rose steadily in 2008.

2) There + be + adjective + noun + in + noun
Example: There was a steady rise in the consumption of oil in 2008.

3) Time + saw/experienced/witnessed + adjective + noun + in + noun
Example: 2008 saw a steady rise in the consumption of oil.

Source:
IELTS buddy, IELTS Made Easy: Step-by-step guide to writing a Task 1

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 31, 2019

#EngTips: 3 Parts of a Paragraph

Hello, fellas. Are you are going to do academic writing? It is necessary that you learn the way of organizing your ideas because it is probably different from what you are accustomed to. At first, you can begin by learning a paragraph.

A paragraph is comprised of related sentences about a subject. It has three parts: a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence.

1) The Topic Sentence

The topic sentence is used to tell the topic of a paragraph. It is usually placed at the beginning. It is neither too general nor too specific.

Example: The mix of cultures in Hawaii make weddings there very special occasions.

2) The Supporting Sentences

The supporting sentences give details about what topic the paragraph is going to discuss.

Examples:
Certainly, Hawaiian clothing, music, and other Hawaiian customs play a big role. For example, the bride often wears a long white holoku (wedding dress), and the groom wears a long-sleeved white shirt and pants with a red sash around his waist. Both of them wear leis (necklaces made of flowers). The bride’s lei is traditionally made of white flowers such as pikake (jasmine), and the groom’s is made of green maile leaves. Another Hawaiian custom is the blowing of conch shell three times to begin the ceremony. Hawaiian music is played both during the ceremony and during the luau (Hawaiian barbecue feast) afterward. Other customs included in the festivities depend on the ethnic backgrounds of the couple. For instance, there may be noisy firecrackers, a Chinese way of keeping bad spirits away. There may be a display of Japanese origami, or there may be a pandango, a Filipino custom. During a pandango, the wedding guests tape money together and wrap it around the couple during their first dance together as husband and wife.

3) The Concluding Sentence

The concluding sentence is the summary or paraphrase of the main points. However, not all paragraphs need it. A paragraph standing alone needs a concluding sentence. On the other hand, a paragraph of a longer piece of writing does not always need one. You should begin the sentence with a conclusion signal such as:

All in all,
In brief,
In conclusion,
Indeed,
In short,
In summary,
To conclude,
To summarize,
To sum up,
It is clear that…
These examples show that…
You can see that…

Example: All in all, a Hawaiian wedding is truly a magical, multicultural event.

Source:
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 3, 2019

#EngTips: Opinion in IELTS Writing Task 2

Hello, fellas. Are you going to take the IELTS test? In this session we will learn how to answer one kind of questions in IELTS Writing Task 2. The question is about our opinion. Here is a sample question:

Space exploration is much too expensive and the money should be spent on more important things. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

An answer in IELTS Writing Task 2 is generally structured into 4-5 paragraphs. They are introduction, 2-3 body paragraphs and a conclusion.

1) Introduction

a. Paraphrasing the question
According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “paraphrase” means “to say (something that someone else has said or written) using different words”.

Example:
Several people believe that space research is a waste of money and the fund should be allocated on more urgent issues.

(More on paraphrasing: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/05/24/engtips-paraphrasing/)

b. Thesis statement
This statement is used to state whether you agree or disagree with an opinion.

Example: I disagree with the statement for two reasons.

(More on thesis statement: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/09/14/engclass-thesis-statement/)

2) Body Paragraphs
Each body paragraph is written to support your thesis statement. It is comprised of a topic sentence and some supporting sentences.

Example:
First of all, many of the technologies we take for granted today were originated thanks to space research. Take satellite technology, for example, which we depend on for broadcasting and weather forecasting. Without satellites, we would not be able to follow global events as they happen, nor give populations any warning of approaching storms. Space research has also led to the development of new lightweight materials that offer us heat protection and enable food preservation. Therefore, the challenge of sending human beings into space has often driven the development of new technologies that benefit our everyday lives.
Second, we cannot foresee the distant future, so we ought to develop the capability to escape from the earth. Gradually, we are learning how humans can survive for long periods in space and even travel to other planets in the future. If space exploration is halted, this valuable knowledge will never be acquired. It is true that environmental destruction is also a serious issue, but it is also true that we remain dependent on our environment if we never accept the challenge of exploring other worlds.

3) Conclusion
The concluding paragraph restates the thesis statement and summarizes the body paragraphs.

Example:
In conclusion, while we undoubtedly face serious problems on our own planet, it is imperative that we continue to explore space. This will promote further technological advances as well as provide a possible means of escape should earth become uninhabitable in future. Ideally, all nations should cooperate in the advancement of space research.

(More on writing an essay: https://englishtips4u.com/2017/02/05/engtips-tips-on-writing-essay/)

Sources:
IELTS Academic, IELTS Writing Task 2: Opinion Essay with Sample Answer, https://ielts-academic.com/2012/06/24/ielts-writing-task-2-opinion-essay-with-sample-answer/
Merriam-Webster Dictionary
Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, Introduction to Academic Writing: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 17, 2019

#EngTips: Complex Sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn the use of complex sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1.

In terms of IELTS Writing and Speaking, a band score is equally awarded for each of areas, one of which is grammatical range and accuracy. We need to use complex sentences if we aim to score Band 5 or above for grammar. A complex sentence can be made by joining two simple sentences using an –ing form. A comma is put before the –ing clause.

This kind of complex sentences can also be used to add more information about a trend or describe trends that hit a low, reach a peak or stabilise.

Examples:

  1. The number of households rose in Canada. It reached 11.8 million in 2004. (The number of households rose in Canada, reaching 11.8 million in 2004.)
  2. Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s. They showed a 20% improvement over the previous decade. (Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s, showing a 20% improvement over the previous decade.)

Sources:
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Anneli Williams, Collins English for Exams: Writing for IELTS

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun + of Which

Hello, fellas. After learning about how to use expressions of quantity in relative clauses last week, today we are still going to have a session on another form of relative clauses. It is the use of noun + of which.

(More on expressions of quantity in relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/30/grammartrivia-expressions-of-quantity-in-relative-clauses/)

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the pattern has the same meaning of whose. In other words, both of them show possession. Noun + of which is used in a relative clause modifying a thing and more common in formal written English. It is preceded by a comma.

(More on whose: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/01/engclass-how-to-use-who-whom-and-whose/)

Example:

1) Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel. The title of the novel is Anna Karenina.

    Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel, the title of which is Anna Karenina.

2) The student bought a book. The price of the book was affordable.

     The student bought a book, the price of which was affordable.

3) They like Indonesian food. The taste of the food is spicy.

     They like Indonesian food, the taste of which is spicy.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 5, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressions of Quantity in Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. Today we are going to learn about expressions of quantity in relative clauses. An expression of quantity is used to express the number or amount of something. It may precede a noun whose number or amount it describes. Several examples of expressions of quantity are one, two, each, every, both, some, several, a few, a little, many, much, most, etc.

(More on expressions of quantity: https://englishtips4u.com/2017/03/05/engclass-expressions-of-quantity/)

In relative clauses, expressions of quantity with of come before the pronouns. However, the pronouns are only whom, which and whose. This pattern is preceded by a comma and more common in writing than speaking.

Examples:

1) There are 23 players in the German national team. Most of them are from Bayern Munich. (There are 23 players in the German national team, most of whom are from Bayern Munich.)

2) Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books. Two of them are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”. (Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books, two of which are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”.)

3) Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One of his works is “The Marriage of Figaro”. (Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of whose works is “The Marriage of Figaro”.)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Abridged Noun Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to learn about the abridgement of noun clauses. A noun clause is a clause used as the subject, object or complement of a sentence. It can begin with a question word (who, whom, what, which, where, when, whose, why or how), that, if or whether.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

Noun clauses beginning with one of the question words or whether can be abridged. However, the abridgement is only possible if these requirements are fulfilled:

1) The main clause and the noun clause have the same subject or the subject of the noun clause is the same as the object of the main clause; and

2) The noun clause contains a modal verb either can/could or should.

There are 3 steps in the abridgement of noun clauses:

1) Omit the subject;

2) Omit the modal verb; and

3) Change the verb into an infinitive.

Examples:

1) I know what I should do. (I know what to do.)

2) She told me when I should go. (She told me when to go.)

3) Students learn how they could write journals. (Students learn how to write journals.)

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Adjective Clauses as the Object of a Preposition

Hello, fellas. In everyday usage, the subject and verb of an adjective clause (relative clause) precede a preposition. On the other hand, to make it more formal, the clause is used as the object of the preposition.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, a preposition is a word used before its object (a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun), connecting it to another word. It usually shows a temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of a sentence. Examples of prepositions are about, at, by, for, from in, on, through, to, with, and without.

(More on prepositions: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/09/17/engclass-prepositions/)

If the preposition is followed by the adjective clause, pronouns to use are only whom or which. It is never followed by that or who.

Examples:

  • He is the man whom we talk about.

         He is the man about whom we talk.

  • The lecturer whom you should listen to is explaining course materials.

         The lecturer to whom you should listen is explaining course materials.

  • The view which we look at is breath-taking.

         The view at which we look is breath-taking.

  • Surabaya is the city which I live in.

         Surabaya is the city in which I live.

(in which has the same meaning as where)

Source:

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

GrammarBook.com, https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/probPrep.asp

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Reason

After discussing reduced relative clauses and reduced adverb clauses of time, today we are going to learn the reduction of adverb clauses of reason.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

Adverb clauses of reason are also called adverb clauses of cause and effect. They are introduced by conjunctions, such as because, now that, since, due to the fact that, and owing to the fact that. Like the other kinds of adverb clauses, they function as the dependent clause in a sentence.

(More on adverb clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

The reduction of an adverb clause of reason to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. Omit the conjunction, so that it is not included in the adverbial phrase, and change the verb to its –ing form.

Example:

Because she lives far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.
Living far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.

Having + past participle means because.

Example:

Because I have read the novel, I want to give it to you.
Having read the novel, I want to give it to you.

It is also possible to change be in an adverb clause of reason to being.

Example:

Because she was sick, she did not attend the class.
Being sick, she did not attend the class.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Friday, August 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time

Hello, fellas. Last week we learned how to reduce relative clauses.

(More on reduced relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/)

In this session, we are still going to discuss the reduction of clauses. It is the reduction of adverb clauses of time.

(More on adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

In a sentence, an adverb clause functions as the dependent clause. It must be attached to the main clause or the independent clause (More on clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/26/engclass-clause/). An adverb clause of time begins with a conjunction, such as after, before, since, when, and while.

The reduction of an adverb clause of time to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time:

1) Omit the subject and be
Example:
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
While studying, I fell asleep.

2) If there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form
Example:
Jane has lived abroad since she pursued her education.
Jane has lived abroad since pursuing her education.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, August 2, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. How is it going? Today we are going to learn how to reduce relative clauses. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses with relative pronouns as subjects (who, which, or that) can be reduced to adjective phrases.

There are two ways in which a relative clause is changed to an adjective phrase:

1) If the relative clause contains be, omit the pronoun and be.
Relative clause: The research which was conducted by the students is published.
Adjective phrase: The research conducted by the students is published.

2) If there is no be in the relative clause, omit the pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
Relative clause: Students who conduct research should write in journals.
Adjective phrase: Students conducting research should write in journals.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 26, 2018

#EngGrammar: Tenses for IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, Fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.

Past Tenses

  1. Past Simple Tense. This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.
    • Example:
      • “In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.”
  2. Past Perfect Tense. Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.
    • Example:
      • “By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.”

Present Simple Tense

Present simple tense is used to describe a process.

Example:

  • The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.

Future Tense

  1. Simple Future Tense. Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.
    • Example:
      • “The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.”
  2. Future Perfect Tense. Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.
    • Example:
      • The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.”

In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. “be likely to,” “be predicted to,” “be projected to,” and “be going to.”

Example:

  • “The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.”
  • “By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.”

Sources:

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018.


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^MD

#EngTips: Paraphrasing

Hi, Fellas. How is it going? Today’s discussion is about one important element of writing, which is paraphrasing. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “paraphrase” means “to say (something that someone else has said or written) using different words.” It is essential that we understand paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism and prepare for IELTS test.

There are several methods of paraphrasing, they are:

Using synonyms

This is probably the most commonly used method. Words can be replaced by their synonyms with no change in meaning. Remember, you do not need to change all words in a sentence.

Example:

  • “Parents should teach their children to cooperate.”
  • “Parents should educate their kids to collaborate.”

Changing active voice into passive voice, or vice versa

This method cannot be used for all kinds of sentences because only transitive sentences (sentences containing objects) can be changed into passive voice.

Example:

  • “Deforestation causes global warming.” (active voice)
  • “Global warming is caused by deforestation.” (passive voice)

Nominalization

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, nominalization is “the process of making a noun from a verb or adjective”.

Example:

  • “The price of oil rises.” [rise (verb)]
  • “There is a rise in the price of oil.” [rise (noun)]

Incorporating Data

This is a method of paraphrasing related to numbers.

Example:

  • “From 1990 to 2000, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.”
  • “In ten years, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.”
  • “In a decade, the population of Indonesia increased significantly.”

Adding Information

In order to paraphrase by using this approach, it is better if you add information, which is general.

Example:

  • “Many Indonesian scholars study in London, Paris, and Berlin.”
  • “Many Indonesian scholars study in European cities.:

Joining Sentences Using Conjunction

Conjunction is a part of speech connecting words, phrases, clauses, or sentences, for instance, “and,” “but,” “because,” “although,” etc.

Example:

  • “Students learn English. They want to pursue their education abroad.”
  • “Students learn English because they want to pursue their education abroad.”

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 24, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

^MD

#GrammarTrivia: Brackets

Hello, fellas! How’s your day? Today we will talk about “brackets.” Here we go!

Brackets are symbols mainly used as separator for additional information to a sentence or a main content. If we remove the brackets, the sentence would still make good sense. There are two main types of brackets, they are round () and square [].

British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) define them differently.

  • (  ), BrE: round brackets or brackets, AmE: parentheses
  • [  ], BrE: square brackets, AmE: brackets

Round brackets or parentheses are used to:

  1. add extra information to a sentence.
    • Example:
      • “Lake Toba (Indonesia: Danau Toba) is the largest volcanic lake in Sumatera as well as the world.”
  2. indicate plural or singular nouns.
    •  Example:
      • “My new shelf need book(s).”
  3. add a personal comment.
    • Example:
      • “Kuta Beach is the most beautiful beach in Bali (I prefer Sanur Beach  to Kuta Beach).
  4.  define abbreviations.
    • Example:
      • “The link above will take you to a PDF (Portable Document Format) version.”

Square brackets are used to

  1. modify another person’s words, especially when we want to make it clear that the modification has been made by us, not by the original writer.
    • Example:
      • The witness said: “He [the policeman] hit me.”
  2. add information.
    • Example:
      • “The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina].”
  3. add missing words.
    • Example:
      • “It is [a] good question.”
  4. modify a direct quotation.
    • Example:
      • He “love[s] driving.” (The original words were “I love driving.”)

That’s all for today, fellas! I hope it’ll be useful for you. Good night!
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, March 10, 2018.


RELAATED POST(S):

^MD

#EngTips: Capitalization

Hello, fellas! How’s your weekend? Today’s session will discuss some rules that are related to capitalization. Capitalization is the action of writing a word with uppercase for the first letter and lowercase for the remaining letters. Let’s check some rules of capitalization below.

  1. Capitalize the first word of every sentence.
    • Example:
      • I’m happy you gave me a huge bouquet of roses. Jim, you really pull out all the stops.”
  2. Capitalize the first-person singular pronoun, I.
    • Example:
      • I want to eat apple.”
      • “Where did I put the book?”
  3. Capitalize people’s name.
    • Example:
      • “Christopher Nolan is an excellent director, screenwriter, and producer.”
  4. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of the cities, countries, geological location).
    • Example:
      • “She’s from Maluku, Indonesia.”
      • “We’ve been in Northern California for a holiday.”
  5. Capitalize the proper nouns (historical event, political parties, religion and religious term, races, nationality, languages).
    • Example:
      • “Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.”
      • “There are many Asians living in America.”
      • “Thank, God!”
  6. Capitalize days of the week, month, holiday. However, do not capitalize the names of seasons (spring, summer, fall, autumn, winter).
    • Example:
      • “Today is Saturday, December 13, 2018.”
      • “Out of all season, I love spring the most!”
  7. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of newspaper, journal, company, and brand name).
    • Example:
      • “Most newspaper have an online edition, including the New York Times.”
      • “The current trend of South Korean idols is to wear Balenciaga shoes.”
  8. Capitalize a formal title when it is used as a form of address.
    • Example:
      • “Thank you for your help, Doctor!”
      • “Let’s visit Grandfather today.”

That wraps up our session, Fellas! See you on another interesting session.
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, Januari 13, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

^MD

#EngTips: Giving examples (revisit)

We actually have talked about this topic, but it was years ago. If you missed the session, you can read it through this link (https://englishtips4u.com/2011/06/29/engtips-giving-examples/).

It was a short session though. So, today I would like to discuss more about ‘giving example.’

Example is something that is used to support an idea, argument, or opinion. We can mention anything, as long as it is related to the topic, such as events, names, research findings, places, etc.

In other words, an examples act as an evidence to prove an idea. We can also explain something by giving examples. There are some well-known phrases everyone may use in order to give examples. They are ‘for example,’ ‘for instance,’ ‘such as’ and ‘e.g.’

For example.’

This phrase is generally demonstrated, whether in spoken or written expression. We can say as well as write ‘for example’ while giving a further supports of our opinion.

However, in the case of written communication, this phrase might give the audience ‘less formal’ sense. So, if you are working on formal documents, such as business letters or academic essays, you can put ‘for instance’ instead of ‘for example.’

For instance.’

In the same way, we can also apply it in both written and spoken communication. However, as I mentioned in the previous tweet, people tend to used it in a formal condition. For alternatives, you could use ‘to illustrate’ or ‘as (an) illustration.’

Such as.’

I, personally, think this is the most flexible phrase. We can say or write it in both formal and casual communication. Cambridge Dictionary said ‘such as’ is more formal than ‘like.’ So, if you want to simply give some examples in your speech or essay, you can choose ‘such as.’

e.g.’

It is abbreviation of Latin, exempli gratia, which has the same meaning of ‘for example.’

‘e.g.’ is used in written expression only. Though I read an article about Latin as an academic language, I suspect it is used in academic purpose only. Moreover, I often saw ‘e.g.’ in news articles, study-related writings or academic papers.


Source: http://www.learnersdictionary.com/qa/is-there-a-difference-between-for-example-and-for-instance

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/so-and-such/such-as

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 28, 2017.


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^MD

#EngClass: Participial adjective (3)

One of our followers asked the question above on Twitter. Do you have a similar question? Do you get confused as to when you should use present or past participle adjective? Kalau kamu masih tulis/bilang: “I’m interesting” saat mau menyatakan “Saya tertarik,” yuk baca lagi artikel ini sampai selesai.

Participle adjectives are verbs, often ends in -ing and -ed, which are used as adjectives.  There are two types of participles: present participles (v-ing) and past participles (v2). Example:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

Bored

Relaxing

Relaxed

Tiring

Tired

Confusing

Confused

Exciting

Excited

We use present particular adjectives (v-ing) to talk about person, thing, or situation which caused the feeling. Example:

  • “I am boring.”
    • “Aku membosankan, aku menimbulkan rasa bosan.”
  • “They are confusing.”
    • “Mereka membingungkan, mereka menimbulkan kebingungan.”
  • “The book is exciting.”
    • “Bukunya menarik. Bukunya membuat orang tertarik.”

We use past participle adjectives (v2) to talk about how someone feels. Example:

  • “I am bored.”
    • “Aku merasa bosan. Yang kurasakan adalah bosan.”
  • “They are confused.”
    • “Mereka kebingungan. Yang mereka rasakan adalah bingung.”
  • “She is very excited.”
    • “Dia sangat bersemangat. Yang dia rasakan adalah semangat.”

If we were to compare the two side by side:

Present participle

Past participle

Penyebab perasaan

Perasaan yang dirasa

[Me- -kan]

[ter-], [ke- -an]

Entertaining

Entertained

Menghibur

Merasa terhibur

More examples:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

(Membosankan)

Bored

(Merasa bosan)

Relaxing

(Membuat santai)

Relaxed

(Merasa santai)

Tiring

(Melelahkan)

Tired

(Merasa lelah)

Confusing

(Membingungkan)

Confused

(Merasa bingung)

Exciting

(Menarik)

Excited

(Merasa tertarik)

So, what do you think? I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you still have any question, feel free to leave a comment down below, or you can also mention us on twitter.

How about having a short quiz to see how well you understand the explanation given above? Look at these sentences and choose the correct answer.

  1. I was really (boring/bored) during the lecture. It was really (boring/bored).
  2. I bought a really (interesting/interested) book last night. If you’re (interesting/interested), I can lend it to you.
  3. I heard an (alarming/alarmed) noise last night, and it kept me (alarming/alarmed) all night.

Answer:

  1. bored; boring.
  2. interesting; interested.
  3. alarming; alarmed.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, March 22, 2017

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