Hi, fellas, did you know that Oxford Dictionaries’ Word of the Year 2019 is ‘climate emergency?’
We face more and more weather and climate-related crisis every year, so it is natural that people all around the world are getting more curious about the term ‘climate emergency’ and decided to look it up on the dictionaries.
As defined by Oxford Dictionaries, climate emergency is “a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it.”
But what is ‘Word of the Year’ and how did this tradition start?
Word(s) of the Year refers to any of various assessments as to the most important word(s) or expression(s) during a specific year.
The first known version of this tradition is the German one, Wort des Jahres, which was started in 1971. The American Dialect Society is the oldest English version, started in 1991. By early 2000s, a lot of organisations began to announce their versions of Word(s) of the Year for various purposes and with various criteria for the assessment.
Oxford Dictionaries’ Word of the Year for the last five years are:
2015: Face with tears of joy emoji or laughing-crying emoji, the first emoji to have ever been selected.
2019: Climate emergency.
The American Dialect Society also chose the Word of the Decade, which is ‘web’ for 1990s, ‘to google’ for 2000s, and singular ‘they’ for 2010s. According to the Society, the Word of the 20th century is jazz and the Word of the Past Millennium is ‘she.’
Nowadays, a mobile phone has become a permanent part to our hands. We check our phones constantly even if there is no notification of incoming messages or calls or anything important on social medias. Do you also experience the same, fellas?
This article will discuss words related to mobile phones.
This is a common term for prepaid mobile phone service, where we purchase some amount to use the provider’s service. In Indonesian, the term ‘phone credit’ has the same meaning as ‘pulsa.’
(Mobile) data is what connects the phone to the internet when it is not connected to a Wi-Fi network.
Plans mean a package that might include a number of SMS, several minutes of phone calls, and some gigabits of mobile data that we purchase from the provider on a one-off occasion or on a regular basis.
Made Wirautama (@wirautama): In Indonesian we call it “paket data”.
4. 4G and 4.5G 4G means the fourth generation of mobile phone connection. It allows a mobile phone to connect to the internet with a relatively high download speed, which is 7-12 Mbps (megabits per second), and converts the phone to a mobile multimedia. 4.5G is an improved version of 4G with faster connection that could reach 14-21 Mbps. At the moment, we’re all excited for 5G, of course.
What is a 4K video? A video with 4K on it means that it was shoot with a lens with 3840 x 2160 pixels. It provides clearer, less fuzzy motions.
720p is currently the most common number to describe screen resolution. ‘P’ means progressive-scan and ‘720’ is the number of horizontal lines on the display. Higher screen resolutions are 1080p, 2160p (4K), and 8K.
HD stands for high definition, which is also another name for a video with 720p resolution. 1080p is full HD (FHD). 1440p is Quad HD (QHD). 2160p or 4K is Ultra HD (UHD).
A lite version is a ‘lighter’ version of an application. It typically takes smaller space of the phone memory, displays media with lower resolutions, and has limited features compared to the full version.
9. Beta version A beta version generally refers to a version of a piece of software that is made available for testing, typically by a limited number of users outside the company that is developing it, before its general release.
10. International roaming
The term refers to a feature that allows us to use the service of the provider in a foreign country where the service is not available. It usually costs more than the regular service.
It is not easy to learn a new language, fellas. Especially with the structure, grammar, and all the tenses. We could also find difficulties adding new words to our vocabulary. We have to know the meaning of the word, how to pronounce it correctly, and in what context it is used.
However, we can always try by learn and learn more. Here are some tips to help you improve your vocabulary:
Read and listen It might sound simple, fellas, but it is about building a habit. The more we try to find new words by reading English texts, watching the news, or listening to podcast, the more familiar we are with them.
Keep a journal
Writing a word down in a journal could help us memorise it better. You can also use any notes on your mobile phone if you feel more comfortable doing so.
Dictionary and thesaurus are handy
If you are still unsure about the difference between a dictionary and a thesaurus, you can simply think of a dictionary as a list of words in alphabetical order with their meanings and the pronunciation, while a thesaurus shows what words are synonymous or antonymous.
With technology nowadays, install a dictionary and a thesaurus app on your mobile phone to quickly help you when you find a new word.
Use the new words
Never be hesitant to practice by using the words in a written form or in a conversation. You can also ask your studying partner to correct you.
Group words that surround the same theme
Instead of listing the words one by one, try grouping them into the same theme. For example, if you love dining out, then collect words that are related to food and restaurant and cooking. So every time you learn a new word from this theme, it will be easier to remember.
Hi, fellas, how are you today? I hope your Monday went well.
Today, we are going to discuss the word ‘cast’ on #WOTD. What do you have in mind every time you read or hear this word, fellas?
For me, the word ‘cast’ is always associated with an actor or actress being chosen to play a specific role in a movie.
E.g.: “When I heard that Joaquin Phoenix was cast as the Joker, I really couldn’t wait to see the movie.”
However, aside of that meaning, there are also other meaning of the word ‘cast.’ Let’s start on how it functions as a verb.
The verb ‘to cast’ means to set or throw something aside, especially with force.
E.g.: “He cast the newspaper aside when he found a misleading article written about him.”
It can also mean to cause a light or a shadow to appear on a certain surface.
E.g.: “The morning sun cast an orange shade over the empty field.”
‘To cast’ can also mean to shape or to mould something (usually of metal) in its molten form and let it cool until it becomes solid.
E.g.: “The ring was cast in Mordor.”
If we ‘cast a look/glance/smile, etc.’ towards something, it means that we throw a look, a glance, a smile, etc. to a specific direction.
E.g.: “As she wasn’t prepared, she couldn’t help casting nervous glances towards her classmates during the quiz.”
There are also ‘to cast a vote,’ which means to vote, and ‘to cast a spell/curse,’ which means to put a spell or a curse on someone.
In past tense and participle tense, the word ‘cast’ retains its form. So, the past form, the participle form, and the passive form of ‘cast’ are still ‘cast.’
As a noun, ‘cast’ generally refers to an object made in a mould. For example, an accident just happened to someone causing his ankle to sprain, so he needs to wear a cast.
Hello fellas, how are you today? Fellas, on April 17, 2019, we in Indonesia hold a general election to determine the future members of House of Representative and the future president and vice president. Therefore, today, we are going to discuss vocabularies related to election.
An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. There are several vocabularies that we often hear or read in regards to election terms. Here they are:
1. Campaign Means the things a candidate does to get elected (shaking hands, giving oration, etc.). E.g.: “He took a campaign tour of West Java last week.”
2. Debate Means to argue for or against something. E.g.: “The topic of tonight’s presidential debate is national defense and security.”
3. Candidate Means the person who is running in an election. E.g.: “The Indonesia presidential election in 2019 has two pair of candidates.”
4. Politics Means the activities associated with the governance of a country or other area. E.g.: “I told her I was going into politics.”
5. Voter Means the individual who is voting in an election. E.g.: “Now the voters will decide.”
6. Ballot paper Means a piece of paper or a small ball used in a secret voting. E.g.: “Each person will get a ballot which should be kept confidential.”
7. Supporter Means the individual who supports a candidate during an election. E.g.: “All supporters in this campaign are so excited to meet the candidate.”
8. Political party Means a group of people with similar political goals and opinions whose main purpose is to get candidates elected to public office. E.g.: “Most of political parties in this election are optimistic about their candidates being elected.”
9. Democracy Means a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives.
E.g.: “Indonesia is one of the countries that adapts democracy as its system of government.”
10. Government Means the governing body of a nation, state, or community. E.g.: “The first MRT in our city was planned by the previous government.”
Hello fellas, how are you? how often do you surf the internet and social media? I am sure that most of you like spending time to check social media and surfing the internet. Today, we are discussing some words and phrases related to internet and social media. Here they are.
1. To unplug It means to disconnect and to relax by disengaging ourselves from activities that use internet connection.
E.g.: “Sometimes you need to learn to unplug and just enjoy the peace and quiet at home.”
2. Hot-spot It refers to a place in public area where there is a computer system with an access point or an internet connection.
E.g.: “The airport was bright and spacious, with large shopping area and Wi-Fi hot-spot lounge.”
3. To multitask To multitask means to do many things at the same time.
E.g.: “An interpreter needs a quick, agile mind to multitask, because she or he needs to simultaneously listen to a concept or idea in one language, understand and process it, and translate it to another language.”
4. Down-time It refers to the time when a computer is not working properly and cannot be used. This could also mean the time somebody needs to relax and recuperate after a hard work.
E.g.: “Once we are done with all the renovation, I am ready for some major down-time.”
5. Pulled to the internet It means working hard using the internet or being dependent to the internet.
E.g.: “I wish I could do that but I am so pulled to the internet. I manage my own business and I can hardly spend a day without sending emails or checking my website.”
6. To pull the plug When you pull the plug of something, it means that it no longer has a power source and will switch off.
E.g.: “I am considering just pulling the plug on the whole thing. I have been so busy with my work and I have not had time to be creative or even relax.”
7. Be on the same wavelength It refers to the same things that have the same origins but can also be used for casual acquaintances. It has the same meaning as being in tune with somebody.
E.g.: “What makes the problem worse is that Howard and Tina are not on the same wavelength about how to deal with it.”
8. No filter It is usually used to refer to a picture, which is of original quality and has not been edited or modified. The term is also used to refer to an uncensored conversation, usually between friends.
E.g.: “Miranda is my best friend. Sometimes when we are chatting, we can talk with no filter and we laugh at each other.”
9. On fleek Something is on fleek if it looks perfect and on point.
E.g.: “Did you see what Jason was wearing today? His look is on fleek!”
10. To win the internet The phrase is usually used as a reaction given by someone who either really likes or really dislikes your post.
E.g.: “This picture wins the internet today. Everything else is dummy.”
That’s all for today, fellas. Hopefully today’s session is useful for you. See you tomorrow!
You can review the first lesson here. You can review the second lesson here. You can review the third lesson here.
Here are some examples of blending words:
Globish (global + English). Meaning: a simplified version of English used by non-native speakers, consisting of the most common words and phrases only.
Medicare (medical + care). Meaning: maintenance and restoration of health by the treatment and prevention of disease especially by trained and licensed professionals (as in medicine, dentistry, clinical psychology, and public health).
Urinalysis: (urine + analysis). Meaning: analysis of urine by physical, chemical, and microscopical means to test for the presence of disease, drugs, etc.
Hi-tech (high + technology). Meaning: resembling or making use of highly advanced technology or devices.
Transistor (transfer + resistor). Meaning: a small electrical device containing a semiconductor, used in televisions, radios, etc.
Vash (volcanic + ash). Meaning: very small solid particles ejected from a volcano during an eruption which have intermediate axes measuring 2 mm or less.
Workfare: (work + welfare). Meaning: a welfare system that requires those receiving benefits to perform some work or to participate in job training.
Mediclaim (medical + claim). Meaning: medical bill submitted to health insurance carriers and other insurance providers for services rendered to patients by providers of care. When you go to the doctor, hospital or other provider, your service generates a bill.
Skylab (sky + laboratory). Meaning: a space station used for scientific, research and development, medical and/or dental testing, experimentation and/or research.
Vegeburger (vegetable + burger). Meaning: a patty resembling a hamburger but made with vegetable protein, soybeans, etc., instead of meat.
Lecdem (lecture + demonstration). Meaning: presentation of an example of what the lecturer is discoursing about.
Infotech (information + technology). Meaning: The hardware, software, and associated technology and businesses that are composed or related to the practice and business of information technology.
“I feel so great because today is the last day of exam, and of course I’ll be free from my lectures.” – @FathiaRD
This evening we are going to talk about injuries. Do you know what kind of
injuries we usually have? Bruise? Sprain?
“Hamstring, football fans must be familiar with this injury haha.. It is a muscle strain injuries. It happens when the athletes do acceleration rapidly that can torn their muscle, or maybe overused their knee.” – @Albet_isla
‘Cut.’ Meaning: a wound that is caused by incision of sharp edged
things, such as a knife.
‘Don’t touch my hand. I’ve just had a paper cut.’
‘Fracture.’ Meaning: one kind of injuries that is caused by the cracking/breaking of your bones.
‘He got an arm fracture from falling down the stairs.’
‘Bruise.’ Meaning: a bluish/purplish color on your skin led by the bursting of your blood vessels.
‘I’ve just accidentally knocked my knee. I hope it wouldn’t cause any bruise.’
‘Splinter.’ Meaning: a small and thin break on your skin. I think in
Bahasa it is known for ‘goresan.’
‘In spite of a cut, you can get a splinter if you use the knife carelessly.’
‘Sunburn.’ Meaning: a reddening skin (inflamation) because of the overexposure of ultraviolet.
‘I was told that Aloe vera is used to treat sunburn.’
‘Whiplash.’ Meaning: asuddent jolt, e.g., on the neck, limbs, or arms, which cause an injury.
‘I experienced whiplash on my knee when I was started
yoga for the very first time.’
‘Bite.’ Meaning: a kind of injuries that formed if you were bitten by someone or animals, such as dogs, cats, or maybe snakes.
‘The dog’s bite left a mark for a quite long time.’
‘Sting.’ Meaning: a wound that is form by (usually) a sharp object that pierce through your skin, such as needles.
Hi, Fellas, how’s your day? I hope you have a great one, especially, it’s weekend!
Alright, this evening I would like to talk about some vocabulary that is related to ‘dislike.’ Before I start, I want to know whether you know the other words to express ‘disllke.’ Who knows it will be one of the words I am going to share to you.
1). ‘Can’t stand.’ Meaning: to not like something/someone very much.
Hi, hello, fellas! How was your Eid al-Fitr holiday? Eid Mubarak for all of you who celebrated it.
While we are still in the festivities, I’d like to share some words related to Eid al-Fitr tradition in Indonesia.
Mudik (Ina) = Homecoming trip (Eng)
A trip to our hometown that we usually do at the end of Ramadan.
Bermaaf-maafan (Ina) = forgiving one another (Eng)
It is believed that we should celebrate Eid al-Fitr with a clean mind, body, and soul, and forgiving one another is one way to achieve it.
Kemacetan panjang (Ina) = traffic congestion (Eng)
It is not exactly a tradition, but traffic congestion happens almost every year during homecoming. Luckily, the traffic and road condition have improved a lot this year.
Silaturahmi (Ina) = amity, tight friendship (Eng)
Refers to a close bond between two human beings who might or might not be related by blood.
Halalbihalal (Ina) = Gathering to ask for forgiveness (Eng)
An occasion when family or close friends gather to catch up with each other and ask/give forgiveness.
Ketupat (Ina) = Steamed rice cake wrapped in diamond-shaped palm leaves (Eng)
Similarly, we also have lontong (Ina) = steamed rice cake wrapped in banana leaves (Eng). Phew, quite a mouthful, isn’t it?
Opor ayam (Ina) = chicken braised in coconut milk (Eng)
One of the most popular dishes served during Eid al-Fitr celebration.
Rendang (Ina) = rendang (Eng)
This widely popular dish has been recognized by its own name, even when we are speaking English. We can also refer to it as meat simmered in spices and coconut milk.
Hi, fellas, how was your Monday? I was shook when I realized that we are halfway through 2018.
Does anyone recognize the word ‘shook’ that I used on the previous sentence? Have you ever read it before?
@catheramirez: ‘Surprise,’ ‘I can’t believe it.’
Q: @nadirantsy: Does shook have the same meaning with shocked? Same context? A:Yes, but I think we should limit ‘shook’ to a relaxed, playful context. We don’t use it to express our sadness when hearing a bad news, for example.
‘Shook’ is one of the popular internet terms that we are going to discuss tonight. As languages are ever-evolving, these internet terms are actual English words whose meanings have changed over the years.
Here are some popular internet terms that are still used as of mid-2018:
Bamboozled From the verb ‘to bamboozle’ (informal). It means to fool or cheat someone. It also means to confuse or perplex.
E.g.: “I’m bamboozled by the amount of retweets to my Twitter post.”
Boi/boye A cute way to spell ‘boy.’ Usually used to a male dog.
E.g.: “Oh, you’re such a good boiiiiii…”
Burn A reaction we gave when somebody has just been talked back to.
A: “Without the ugly in this world, there would be nothing beautiful.”
B: “Thank you for your sacrifice.”
Canceled ‘To cancel’ used to describe that an event would not take place OR a force negated another, but nowadays, netizen use ‘canceled’ to describe a dismissed or rejected person or idea.
E.g.: “If you don’t like my doggos, you will be canceled.”
Cringe and cringey ‘To cringe’ is to experience an inward shiver upon seeing or hearing something embarrassing. ‘Cringey’ is used as an adjective to describe something that causes somebody to cringe.
E.g.: “I cringed so hard when I watched her lip-synced performance. It was so cringey.”
Deceased It was used to politely say that someone has passed away, but now, it is used to describe that something is really cool or awesome or funny that it takes our lives away.
E.g.: “OMG, my brother bought me tickets to a Rich Brian’s concert! I’m deceased!”
Doggo Basically, it’s a cute way to say ‘dog.’
E.g.: “I just saw a super adorable, squishy, fluffy doggo.” insert crying face emojis
Extra Something is ‘extra’ if it is done in an exaggerated, over-the-top way.
E.g.: “Rihanna’s outfit at the 2018’s Met Gala is so extra.”
Epic comeback It used to describe a spectacular return of an artist, most of the time musicians, after a long hiatus. Now, it also means a witty (sometimes harsh) response to an insult.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.
Feels All emotions mixed up: sadness, joy, envy, love, etc.
E.g.: “TVXQ’s comeback gave me all the feels.”
HMU Stands for ‘hit me up,’ which means ‘contact me.’
E.g.: “HMU the next time you visit the city.”
Humblebrag The act of bragging while appearing humble; the art of false modesty.
E.g.: “Who knew that constant vacations and holidays could be this exhausting?”
Lit It used to describe the state of being drunk, but it is now used to express that something is exceptionally good.
E.g.: “The latest Arctic Monkey’s album was so lit it set my headphones on fire.”
A noob is a person who is inexperienced in a particular sphere or activity, especially computing or the use of the Internet. It came from the word ‘newbie.’ However, ‘newbie’ has a more positive connotation while ‘noob’ is intended as an insult.
A: “Hey guys, I’m kinda new here.“
B: “LOL, noob.”
Overproud A reaction we gave when our nation or something originated from our nation is being talked about in a positive way.
A: “Did you know that an instant noodle brand from Indonesia was marketed worldwide?”
B: “Are you being overproud right now?”
Pwned A gaming-style spelling of ‘owned,’ meaning being defeated badly.
E.g.: “Oh, snap, I was just pwned!”
Salty Upset, angry, or bitter, after being made fun of or embarrassed. It can also be used to say that someone is mad.
E.g.: “Gosh, stop being so salty! You broke up with him; now it’s time to move on!”
Savage Being ‘savage’ is saying or doing something harsh without a regard to the consequences.
A: “You’re so fat Thanos will have to snap his fingers twice.”
B: “Yeah, I’m fat, but you’re ugly. At least I can go on a diet.”
C: “Oooh, that was savage!”
Shady and throwing shade Shady = suspicious
Throwing shade = talking bad about something or someone, without naming (but the audience knows anyway).
E.g.: “I think her last Instagram post was a shade thrown to me. I don’t know why she’s so shady.”
Shook Originally, the word has a more serious connotation, as it means ’emotionally or physically disturbed.’ Nowadays, netizen use it as a playful way to say ‘surprised.’
E.g.: “She broke up with him? I’m shook!”
Stoked It means being excited or euphoric.
E.g.: “When they told me I was on the team, I was stoked.”
Tea A gossip or personal information belonging to someone else. The phrase ‘spill the tea’ is used the same way as ‘spill the bean’ is used, that is ‘to reveal an information that is supposed to be a secret.
E.g.: “The tea is exceptionally good today.”
Woke Supposedly has the same meaning as ‘awaken,’ which is being enlightened, always in the know of everything that is happening in the world, more than anyone else.
E.g.: “I never consume any products coming from animals anymore. I guess I can say I’m woke.”
As what we always suggest, avoid using slang or internet terms in a formal interaction. If you befriend your employer or boss on social media, for example, both of you are still expected to converse formally. Any school assignments, essays, job applications, letter of recommendations, or business emails should be free from these terms either.
@kaonashily: instantly I feel ‘gaul’ knowing these ‘nowadays’ words.
@babygraace: I think salty isn’t just used when someone is being made fun or embarrassed. E.g.: omg some people that watch my car vlogs literally get salty at me because I don’t put both my hands on the wheel!
Q: @sakurayujin: What about ‘shooketh?’ A: Even more surprised than ‘shook.’
Have you ever heard or used the word ‘portmanteau?’
A portmanteau (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/) or portmanteau word is a blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their sounds are combined into a new word. A portmanteau is also called blending word. For initial information of blending words, check out https://englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
There are many portmanteau words that have been widely used, such as ‘smog’ (from ‘smoke’ + ‘fog’), ‘netizen’ (from ‘internet’ + ‘citizen’), or ‘workaholic’ (from ‘work’ + ‘alcoholic’).
If we categorize them, we will find that there are portmanteau words for:
A new breed is usually named with a portmanteau word.
A ‘liger’ is the offspring of a male lion and a female tiger.
Popular culture. E.g.:
– ‘Brangelina’ is a portmanteau of Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie’s name.
– ‘Bromance’ is a portmanteau of ‘brother’ and ‘romance,’ usually used to describe a tight friendship between two men.
– ‘Motorcycle,’ from ‘motorized’ + ‘bicycle.’
– ‘Taxicab,’ from ‘taxi’ + ‘cabriolet’ (a type of horse carriage). Now, taxicab is more commonly known as simply ‘taxi’ or ‘cab.’
– ‘Brunch,’ from ‘breakfast’ + ‘lunch.’
– ‘Cronut,’ from ‘croissant’ + ‘doughnut.
General use. E.g.:
– ‘Brexit,’ from ‘Britain’ + ‘exit.’
– ‘Hangry,’ from ‘hungry’ + ‘angry.’
Internet and computing. E.g.:
– ‘Email,’ from ‘electronic’ + ‘mail.’
– ‘Internet,’ from ‘international’ + ‘network.’
– ‘Skype,’ from ‘sky’ + ‘peer-to-peer.’
– ‘Pinterest,’ from ‘pin’ + ‘interest.’
– ‘Microsoft,’ from ‘microcomputer’ + ‘software.’
@Rnfadillaa: I just knewwww netizen means internet citizen. Thanksss @EnglishTips4U. @laptamy: How about Frienemy? Is it a portmanteau too? Yes, ‘frenemy’ comes from ‘friend’ + ‘enemy,’ used to describe someone with whom we have a love-hate relationship.
“There is nothing daft about my fondness for Daft Punk. Their music suits my taste.”
Daft Punk (pic from grammy.com)
Deranged: mad, insane.
“Police managed to stop that deranged gunman before he could shoot anyone.”
Debonair: from old French ‘de bon aire,’ meaning stylish, charming, and confident. Usually used to describe a man.
“Many who have met Nicholas Saputra described the actor as debonair.”
Dapper: Neat, well-dressed. Also used to describe a man.
“The Academy Awards were crowded by charming ladies and dapper gentlemen.”
Eloquent: fluent and persuasive in speaking or writing.
“She is quite an eloquent young lady. She would make a good public speaker.”
Enchanting: delightfully charming or attractive.
“Unlike her casual daily appearance, she became an enchanting lady on her wedding day.”
Expressive = effectively conveying thoughts or feelings.
“Emilia is such an expressive person. We could know how she feels by looking at her face.”
Emilia Clarke (pic from pinterest).
Fair: in accordance with rules or standards.
“If you should become a leader, be a fair one.”
Faithful: loyal, devoted.
“Her late husband was a faithful person. He always spent his free time with the family.”
Fearless: bold, brave.
“Naomi Campbell is a fierce, fearless woman. No wonder she has the longest running career as a supermodel.”
Flirtatious: behaving in such a way to suggest a playful attraction.
“Who was the flirtatious guy you were talking to? He seemed to make you uncomfortable.”
Frank: open, honest, and direct in speech or writing, especially when dealing with unpalatable matters.
“Is she always so frank, even though not so many people agree with her?”
Funky: modern and stylish in an unconventional or striking way.
“Lady Gaga is funky and quirky, in an extraordinary way.”
There they go, Fellas! As ever, the best way to practice and memorise new vocabularies is by using them a lot. Start incorporating these new words in your daily conversation. Check your dictionaries often to understand the context better.