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#EngVocab: Medical Conditions (2)

Today we will learn about some other words that are used to describe medical conditions.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/05/06/engvocab-medical-conditions/

Let’s start:

  1. Virulent: a disease or poison that is extremely severe or harmful in its effect.
    E.g. “The epidemic was caused by a particularly virulent germ.”
  2. Strangulated: an organ or other part inside the body has become tightly pressed, blocking the flow of blood or air through it.
    E.g. “He was suffering from a strangulated hernia.”
  3. Suspected: the doctors are not sure yet about the real medical conditions.
    E.g. “He has a suspected broken leg.”
  4. Sytemic: the disease is affecting the entire body.
    E.g. “My uncle has a systemic vascular disease.”
  5. Terminal: an incurable disease that will cause someone to die.
    E.g. “My grandpa has terminal lung cancer.”
  6. Refractory: the disease doesn’t respond to the treatment.
    E.g. “The dog has refractory parasite dermatitis.”
  7. Self-induced: a medical condition that you cause yourself.
    E.g. “The anorexics do self-induced vomiting.”
  8. Sporadic: a disease that occurs occasionally, rarely, without regularity.
    E.g. “They found a sporadic human infection with swine influenza.”
  9. Perforated: a hole in part of your body caused by an accident or disease.
    E.g. “A broken ribs perforated into his lung.”
  10. Psychosomatic: the disease is related to the mind-body interrelationship.
    E.g. “Children are just as susceptible to psychosomatic conditions as adults.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 13, 2018.

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#EngVocab: Medical Conditions

Today we will learn about some words that are used to describe medical conditions.
Medical conditions usually have some symptoms and signs.
Some words related to medical conditions:

  1. Acute: an illness that is short in duration, rapidly progressive, and in need of urgent care.
    E.g. “He’s suffering from an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract.”
  2. Advance: the disease is already ahead in development because it has already had some time to spread.
    E.g. “You may have an advanced cancer.”
  3. Asymptomatic: the disease show no physical signs of a medical problem.
    E.g. “It is commonly asymptomatic in anaemic patients.”
  4. Autoimmune: antibodies attack normal cells or substances that naturally present in the body.
    E.g. “The patient had been diagnosed with unclassified autoimmune disease.”
  5. Chronic: an illness that is characterized by long duration or frequent recurrence.
    E.g. “He was suffering from chronic bronchitis.”
  6. Congenital: a disease or physical abnormality present at birth.
    E.g. “He has a congenital heart defect.”
  7. Contagious: a disease that can spread from one person to another by direct or indirect contact.
    E.g. “The infection is highly contagious, so don’t let anyone else use your towel.”
  8. Degenerative: a disease that gradually gets worse, resulting in loss of function in the organs or tissues.
    E.g. “Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease due to the wear and tear of joint cartilage.”
  9. Epidemic: a widespread occurence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
    E.g. “Doctors are struggling to contain the epidemic.”
  10. Generalized: an infection that has entered the bloodstream, affecting most of the body.
    E.g. “She experienced an increase in generalized aches and pains.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 29, 2018.

#EngClass: Expressing Illness (2)

Today we will talk about expressing illnesses.
Illness means a disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2011/06/19/engclass-expressing-illness/
We use the word ‘illness’ to talk about times when we are in poor health, or are feeling generally unwell.
If a part of the body feel hurt or pain, we can use the word ‘ache’.
Ache means that your body suffer a continuous, prolonged dull pain.
To say that a part of your body is hurt, you can combine it with the word ‘ache’.

Some common words with ‘ache’:
1. Earache: pain in the ear.
E.g. “I’ve got a terrible earache and a sore throat.”
2. Backache, usually called ‘back pain’: pain in low or upper back.
E.g. “Poor posture for a period of time is worsening my backache.”
3. Bellyache: pain in the bowels.
E.g. “The bad water gave me bellyache.”

Other common illness:
1. Diarrhea: repeated bowel movement in which makes the body’s solid waste more liquid.
E.g. “My brother got severe diarrhea.”
2. Hemorrhage: an escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
E.g. “He sank into coma after suffering a brain hemorrhage.”
3. Acne: the occurence of inflamed or infected sebaceous glands in the skin.
E.g. “She had terrible acne when she was younger.”
4. Asthma: a medical condition (spasms in the broncho of the lungs) that makes breathing difficult.
E.g. “I think he’s having an asthma attack.”
5. Nausea: a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.
E.g. “He was overcome with nausea after eating some bad food.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 14, 2018.

#EngClass: Superlative Adjectives

Today we will learn about superlative adjectives.
Superlative adjectives are used to compare three or more nouns.

The form of superlative adjectives:
1. For one syllable word: “The + Adj + -est”.
E.g.
a. Fast –> fastest.
b. Great –> greatest.
c. Soft –> softest.

  1. For two syllables word ending with -y: “The + Adj (-y changes to -i) + -est”.
    E.g.
    a. Pretty –> prettiest.
    b. Easy –> easiest.
    c. Busy –> busiest.

  2. For two syllables (not ending with -y): “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Complex –> the most complex.
    b. Famous –> the most famous.
    c. Clever –> the most clever.

  3. For three or more syllables: “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Dangerous –> the most dangerous.
    b. Difficult –> the most difficult.
    c. Popular –> the most popular.

Some adjectives have irregular forms when made into superlative adjectives.
E.g.
a. Bad –> worst.
b. Good –> best.
c. Far –> farthest.
d. Little –> least.
e. Much –> most.
f. Some –> most.
g. Many –> most.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 1, 2018.

#IOTW: Idioms Related to Transportation and Travel

Hello, fellas! How’s your weekend?
Let’s discuss idioms related to transportation and travel! Here we go! #IOTW
On the same boat: sharing a particular experience or circumstance with someone else. 

E.g.: “You’re not the only one who failed to get the concert ticket. We’re on the same boat!” 

Jump on the bandwagon: to join or follow something once it is successful or popular. 

E.g.: “I heard Black Panther movie is phenomenal, but I’m not going to jump on the bandwagon and watch it. Superhero movie isn’t my cup of tea.”

Paddle one’s own canoe: to be able to act independently. 

E.g.: “Since I turned 25 this year, mom expected me to paddle my own canoe.”

Backseat driver: someone who tells the others how to do things. 

E.g.: “I don’t need a backseat driver on this project. Stop pestering me with all your advice.”

Hit the road: to leave, especially on a road trip.

E.g.: “Let’s hit the road before dawn.”
Itchy feet: the need to leave or to travel. 

E.g.: “Seeing the picture of a beach really gives me the itchy feet.”

Sail through (something): to complete something quickly and with ease. 

E.g.: “My thesis sailed through the professor with no debate.”

A third/fifth wheel: An unwanted or unnecessary person. 

E.g.: “Ann invited me to go to the movies, but if she also invited her boyfriend, I wouldn’t be joining. I would feel like a third wheel there.”
That wraps up our session, fellas! See you on another session.

Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 24, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs (2)

Today we will continue to learn more about animal phrasal verbs.
You can review the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/03/05/engvocab-animal-phrasal-verbs/

Here we go:

  1. Fish out: take or pull something out, especially after searching it for some time.
    E.g. “She fished out a tissue from her bag.”

  2. Ferret out: to discover something (such as information) by careful searching.
    E.g. “The team is trying to ferret out missing details.”

  3. Fish for: look for or try to get something.
    E.g. “I will fish for an idea.”

  4. Rabbit on: talk for a long time about something that is not important nor interesting.
    E.g. “My mother rabbiting on my brother’s attitude all day.”

  5. Hawk around: try and persuade people to buy or accept something.
    E.g. “They are hawking around the market to promote the food.”

  6. Crow about: to brag about something.
    E.g. “He’s always crowing about his latest triumph.”

  7. Cock up: something done badly or inefficiently.
    E.g. “His secretary cocked up his travelling schedule and he’s furious about it.”

  8. Hound out: to force someone out of something or some place, often because other people are constanly criticizing them.
    E.g. “He was hounded of his job because people disapproved his views.”

  9. Fawn on: try to win favor by flattering; praise someone too much and give them a lot of attention.
    E.g. “The relatives fawned on the rich old man.”

  10. Squirrel away: to hide or store something in order to use it in the future.
    E.g. “She had money squirreled away in various bank accounts.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 18, 2018.

#GrammarTrivia: Brackets

Hello, fellas! How’s your day?

Today we will talk about “brackets.” Here we go! 

Brackets are symbols mainly used as separator for additional information to a sentence or a main content. If we remove the brackets, the sentence would still make good sense. There are two main types of brackets: round () and square []. British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) define them differently.
BrE: (  ) = round brackets or brackets

AmE: (  ) = parentheses

BrE: [  ] = square brackets

AmE: [  ] = brackets

Round brackets or parentheses are used to add extra information to a sentence.

E.g.: “Lake Toba (Indonesia: Danau Toba) is the largest volcanic lake in the world and is in Sumatra, Indonesia.” 
Round brackets or parentheses are used to indicate plural or singular nouns.

E.g.: “My new shelf need book(s).”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to add a personal comment.

E.g.: “Kuta Beach is the most beautiful beach in Bali. (I prefer Sanur Beach  to Kuta Beach.)”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to define abbreviations.

E.g.: “The link above will take you to a PDF (Portable Document Format) version.”

Square brackets are used to modify another person’s words, especially when we want to make it clear that the modification has been made by us, not by the original writer. 

E.g.: 

The witness said: “He [the policeman] hit me.”
Square brackets are used to add information.

E.g.: “The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina].”
Square brackets are used to add missing words.

E.g.: “It is [a] good question.” 
Square brackets are used to modify a direct quotation.

E.g.:

He “love[s] driving.” (The original words were “I love driving.”)
That’s all for today, fellas! I hope it’ll be useful for you. Good night!
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, March 10, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about animal phrasal verbs.
Do you know which phrasal verbs contain animal names in them?

Let’s start:
1. Pig out: eating a large amount of food.
E.g. “I’m starving! Let’s pig out.”

  1. Horse around: fool around in a rough and noisy way.
    E.g. “I horse around quite a lot, just to keep me from getting bored.”

  2. Beaver away: to work in a very active and energetic way.
    E.g. “He’s been beavering away at the accounts all morning.”

  3. Chicken out: decide not to do something because of fear.
    E.g. “Unfortunately, many people chickened out at the last moment.”

  4. Wolf down: consume something with great speed.
    E.g. “Don’t wolf down your food. Eat slower.”

  5. Leech off: take advantage of someone for personal gain.
    E.g. “He never seems to notice when people leech him off.”

  6. Duck out: leave suddenly without telling anyone.
    E.g. “I will duck out of the office early if I can.”

  7. Monkey around: doing something random and unplanned to waste time.
    E.g. “Don’t monkey around here. I need to clean up the place!”

  8. Clam up: become silent (when shy or nervous), do not want to talk about a particular subject.
    E.g. “He always clams up when we ask him about his family.”

  9. Rat on: betray on someone, break an agreement.
    E.g. “Rat on me, I will let you have nothing.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 4, 2018.

#EngVocab: Business Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about business phrasal verbs.

A phrasal verbs is a verb that is made up of a main verb together with an adverb or a preposition, or both (according to Oxford Dictionary).

The phrasal verb can have a different meaning than the verb itself.

Some commonly use business phrasal verbs are listed bellow:
1. Note down: to write a piece of information that one wants to remember.
E.g. “I note down everything the teacher said.”

  1. Branch out: to start doing something new or different from normal work or activities.
    E.g. “From car retail, the company has decided to branch out into car leasing.”

  2. Close down: ending the operations of something (esp. a place of business).
    E.g. “The company closed down because the combination of internal and external factors.”

  3. Fill out: complete a form with necessary information.
    E.g. “Please fill out your purchasing order and send it to vendor.”

  4. Step down: withdraw or resign from an important position or office.
    E.g. “She reluctantly agreed to step down as managing director.”

  5. Sort out: organizing or put things in order or in their correct place.
    E.g. “They gave the expert a free hand to sort out the problem.”

  6. Take over: assuming control of something, like buy out the ownership of a company.
    E.g. “His greatest wish was for his daughter to take over the business.”

  7. Hand in: to give something to an authority or responsible person.
    E.g. “I want you to hand in this homework by Friday.”

  8. Fall through: the plan or agreement fails to happen or didn’t work out for some reasons.
    E.g. “There is still a risk that the whole deal will fall through.”

  9. Carry out: perform a task, do a research or investigation to complete something.
    E.g. “We need to carry out a proper evaluation of the new system.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 18, 2018.

#EngClass: Noun Clause

Today we will learn about noun clause.
Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that can fill the position of noun phrases.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that can function as:
1. A subject
E.g. “What he says is probably true.”
2. An object
E.g. “I will try whatever I can do.”
3. A complement
E.g. “He strummed his guitar when he talked to me.”

Other words that we can use to form noun clauses:
1. Question words, examples:
a. Who
E.g. “Miracles are to those who believe in them.”
b. Why
E.g. “I have no idea why he is hostile to me.”
c. Where
E.g. “He indicated to me where I should sit with a a nod of his head.”
Etc.

  1. Pronouns, examples:
    a. Which
    E.g. “I read the information on the label before deciding which jam to buy.”
    b. That
    E.g. “He knew that she did not wish him to go.”
    c. Whenever
    E.g. “Whenever I have a cold I get a nosebleed.”
    d. Wherever
    E.g. “Wherever they went they were closely followed by security men.”
    Etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

#EngTips: Capitalization (2)

Hey, fellas! We meet again. How was your day?
On last week session, we discussed capitalization. Find the recap here: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/13/engtips-capitalization/
Today, we will continue to discuss the rules of capitalization. Here we go! #EngTips
1. Do not capitalize compass directions (south, etc.) that aren’t being used as a name.

E.g.: “We’re leaving West Java and heading north this month.” #EngTips
2. Do not capitalize earth’s landscape (e.g.: river, hill, sea) that aren’t being used as a name, especially when the term is used descriptively. #EngTips

E.g.: 

Semeru mountain

Toba lake
2. … However, if the earth’s landscape is being used as a name and being an actual part of a proper noun, it needs to be capitalized. #EngTips

E.g.: 

Mount Krakatau

Sahara Desert

Jimbaran Beach
3. Do not capitalize occupation before full names. However, titles replacing one’s first name are capitalized. #EngTips

E.g.:

“The soccer team was trained by coach James.”

“Here comes Doctor Smith.”
4. Do not capitalize the first item in a list followed by a colon. #EngTips

E.g.: “You need to buy: apples, grapes, and mangos.”
5. Do not capitalize coordinating conjunction (and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so) unless it is first or last word in a title. #EngTips

E.g.: “So Quiet on the Canine Front is a 1930 comedy short film.”

“There are ten movies in Abbot and Costello series.”
6. Do not capitalize an article (a, an, the) unless it is first or last word in a title. #EngTips

E.g.: “The Atlantis Interceptors was influenced by Mad Max.”
That’s all I can share for today, fellas. I hope it could be useful for you.
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, 27 January, 2018.

#EngClass: Clause

Do you know that a sentence consists of one or more clauses?

Clause means:
1. A group of words containing a subject and a predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence (according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
Note: You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/09/01/engclass-sentences/ and here https://englishtips4u.com/2017/05/22/engclass-complex-sentences/

  1. A particular and a separate article, stipulation, or proviso in a treaty, bill, or contract (according to Google Dictionary).

There are two kinds of clauses:
1. Main/independent clause: a clause that can stand alone as a complete, simple sentence; contains a subject and a predicate.
E.g. “He laughed.”

  1. Subordinate/dependent clause: a clause that can not form a sentence by itself.
    E.g. “Justice must be done even if the sky falls.”

There are three types of dependent clause:

a. Adjective/relative clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adjective within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/

b. Noun clause: a dependent clause that functions as a noun within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

c. Adverb clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adverb within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/

There are seven types of adverb clause:

i. Clause of time: adverb clause to indicate when something happens.
The conjunctions: “after”, “before”, “since”, etc.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2016/10/16/engclass-time-related-adverb-clause/

ii. Clause of place: adverb clause to indicate the place where the action happens.
The conjunctions: “where”, “anywhere”, “nowhere”, etc.

iii. Clause of contrast/concession: adverb clause to indicate ideas or actions that are not expected.
The conjunctions: “although”, “in spite of”, “even if”, etc.

iv. Clause of manner: adverb clause to indicate how an action happens.
The conjunctions: “as”, “how”, “like”, etc.

v. Clause of purpose and result: adverb clause to indicate purpose.
The conjunctions: “so that”, “in case”, “in order that”, etc.

vi. Clause of cause and effect: adverb clause to indicate why something happens.
The conjuntions: “because”, “due to”, “therefore”, etc.

vii. Clause of condition: adverb clause to indicate the circumstances of the action.
The conjunctions: “if”, “unless”, “if only”, etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 21, 2018.

#EngTrivia: “Happy” vs “Glad”

Do you know the difference between “happy” and “glad”?

“Happy” and “glad” are both adjectives.

We use them when we want to express pleasure.

The meaning of those words are almost the same but they are different in the term of usage.
“Happy” indicates a stronger feeling than “glad”.

“Happy” is more accented and positive, deeper felt.

“Happy” means:

  1. Feeling or showing pleasure or contentment.

a. having a sense of confidence in or satisfaction with (a person, arrangement, or situation).

E.g. “We are happy to announce the engagement of our daughter.”
b. satisfied with the quality or standard of.

E.g. “I had a very happy childhood.”
c. willing to do something.

E.g. “I’d be happy to help you.”
d. used in greetings.

E.g. “Happy new year, my best friend.”
2. Fortunate and convenient.

E.g. “I’m happy to have known you.”

(According to Google Translate Dictionary)
“Glad” is more formal than “happy”. We usually use “glad” in writing business letters or emails.

“Glad” is generally the opposite of sad and gloomy.

“Glad” means “pleased; delighted” (according to Google Translate Dictionary)

E.g. “I am glad to hear that you have passed the examination with a good record.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 7, 2018.

#EngTips: Capitalization

Hello, fellas! How’s your weekend?
Today’s session discusses the capitalization rules. Capitalization is the action of writing a word with uppercase for the first letter and lowercase for the remaining letters.

Let’s check some rules of capitalization below. #EngTips
1. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. #EngTips

E.g.: “I’m happy that you gave me a huge bouquet of roses. Jim, you really pull out all the stops.”
2. Capitalize the first-person singular pronoun, I. #EngTips

E.g.:

“I want to eat an apple.”

“Where did I put the book?”
3. Capitalize people’s name. #EngTips

E.g.: “Christopher Nolan is an excellent director, screenwriter, and producer.”
4. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of the cities, countries, geological location). #EngTips

E.g.:

“She’s from Maluku, Indonesia.”

“We’ve been to Northern California for a holiday.”
5. Capitalize the proper nouns (historical event, political parties, religion and religious term, races, nationality, languages). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.”

“There are many Asians living in America.”

“Thank, God!”
6. Capitalize days of the week, month, holiday. However, do not capitalize the names of seasons (spring, summer, fall, autumn, winter). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Today is Saturday, December 13, 2018.”

“Out of all season, I love spring the most!”
7. Capitalize the proper nouns (names of newspaper, journal, company, and brand name). #EngTips

E.g.:

“Most newspaper have an online edition, including the New York Times.”

“The current trend of South Korean idols is to wear Balenciaga shoes.”
8. Capitalize a formal title when it is used as a form of address. #EngTips

E.g.:

“Thank you for your help, Doctor!”

“Let’s visit Grandfather today.”
That wraps up our session, fellas! See you on another interesting session.
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, Januari 13, 2018.

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Happy’

Do you know what other words to describe ‘happy’?

Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘happy’.

  1. Cheery: bright, optimistic.

E.g. “She gave me a cheery smile.”
2. Jovial: in a good spirit.

E.g. “Grandma was plump and jovial.”
3. Gleeful: delighted, full of joy.

E.g. “The park was full of gleeful children playing on sleds.”
4. Content: happy, satisfied.

E.g. “He seems to be getting more content as he gets older.”
5. Blissful: extremely happy.

E.g. “We spent three blissful weeks away from work.”
6. Radiant: obviously very happy.

E.g. “She announced, with a radiant smile, that she was going to have a baby.”
7. Jubilant: expressing great joy.

E.g. “The government has cancelled agricultural taxes, all the farmers are jubilant.”
8. Exuberant: full of energy, excitement.

E.g. “When the two travellers entered the hut, the old couple beamed with genuine exuberant happiness.”
9. Gratify: please, satisfy.

E.g. “Always do right. This will gratify some and astonish the rest – Mark Twain.”
10. Exultant: triumphantly happy.

E.g. “The exultant crowds were dancing in the street.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 24, 2017.

#EngClass: Expressing Conditions

Today we will learn about express conditions.

We can explain a condition by expressing factual implications, hypothetical situations and their consequences.

There are many ways to express conditions. 

Here’s some examples of common words we can use to expressing conditions.
1. If: used to define a condition or supposition.

E.g. “Get out of the kitchen if you can’t stand the heat.”
2. In case: as a provision  against something.

E.g. “I’m worried about washing that shirt in case it shrinks.”
3. Unless: except the condition that.

E.g. “Don’t call me unless it is a real emergency.”
4. So that: indicates purpose.

E.g. “Please speak up so that the people at the back of the room can hear you.”
5. Whether: expressing a doubt or choice.

E.g. “I really don’t know whether to be happy or sad here today.”
6. Otherwise: in circumstances different from those present.

E.g. “Shut the window, otherwise it’ll get too cold in here.
7. Or else: used to define another option or possibility.

E.g. “The book must be here, or else you’ve lost it.”
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 29, 2017.

#EngClass: Appositive Phrase

Today we will learn about appositive phrase.
An appositive is a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause that follows another noun to explain or identifiy it.

The noun identifies a person, place, thing, etc. in a sentence.
An appositive gives another name or more information about the noun beside it.

Appositives often begin with the words ‘a’, ‘an’, or ‘the.’
We already have a session about appositive, you can review it here https://englishtips4u.com/2012/04/23/engclass-and-engquiz-appositive/
An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.

The modifier can be a single word, phrase, or clause.
Appositive and appositive phrase are usually punctuated with commas.
The placement of commas when using appositives:

  1. Before the noun

E.g. “The father of that woman in red, George is standing beside her.”

  1. After the noun but not at the end of the sentence

E.g. “The staff, a girl with glasses and high heels, is coming to join the meeting.”

  1. After the noun and at the end of the sentence.

E.g. “At the last match he will againts a tough opponent, a former national champion.”
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @Englishtips4U on Sunday, December 10, 2017.

#EngClass: Adverbs of Reason

Today we will learn about adverbs of reason.

Adverbs of reason are also called adverbs of purpose.

It explains why a situasion or an action happens.
Here are some adverbs of reason that are commonly used:

  1. As: to indicate something happens when other thing is taking place; by comparison the way that something happens.

E.g. “As the wind blows, you must set your sail.”
2. Since: for the reason that.

E.g. “Since I’ll be away, I’d like to reschedule the meeting.”
3. Because: to introduce the reason or explanation of something.

E.g. “I fake a smile because I don’t want you to worry about what I’m feeling.”
4. Because of: on account of.

E.g. “The match was postponed to the next day because of bad weather.”
5. Due to: caused by; as the result of.

E.g. “The failure is due to inadequacy of preparations.”
6. Hence: as a consequence.

E.g. “It is very late, hence you must go to bed.”
7. The reason for: justification for an action or event.

E.g. “The reason for over crowding is the failure of police control.”
8. Therefore: consequently; on that ground.

E.g. “The store was out of chocolate chips, therefore they would need to use another cookies.”
9. In order to: as a means to.

E.g. “We need more feedback from the costumer in order to improve our goods.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 26, 2017.