Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives“The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.
Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).
Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.
There are three structures of double comparatives:
1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.
2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.
3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide
This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’
@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS
Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.
On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.
“Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.” Subject linking verb complement
On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’
If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’
Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.
Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.
Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.
a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.
@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to. @notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to. @cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.
Answers: a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’
b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’
A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:
‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).
‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.
Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)
A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin: A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom. The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.
Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…
A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan. The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions. Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury. Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’
Saturday, 19 May 2018, saw the wedding of Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle, who were designed the Duke and Duchess of Sussex shortly before the ceremony started. Here are the facts of the 2018 Royal Wedding:
Although there was no set protocol, a royal wedding of the British royal family has always happened on a weekday. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex opted for a weekend wedding to allow as many people as possible to celebrate the occasion.
Having come from a biracial background, the Duchess of Sussex has been considered by many to make the British monarchy more accessible and diverse.
The Duchess has also been involved in numerous charitable works, including issues on equality and women’s health.
Photographer Alexi Lubomirski, who captured the Duke and Duchess’ official engagement pictures, was selected to cover the wedding.
American Bishop Michael Curry captured the world’s attention with a long and powerful address. The Chicago-born bishop spoke passionately about the power of love, quoting Dr Martin Luther King Jr.
The Duke and Duchess’ wedding song, Ben E King’s classic ‘Stand by Me,’ was performed during the ceremony by Karen Gibson and the Kingdom Choir.
Also performing was Sheku Kanneh-Mason. The 19-year-old cellist, who was dubbed BBC’s Young Musician of the Year in 2016, performed 3 songs.
Clare Waight Keller from Givenchy was the designer of the Duchess’ wedding dress. The dress was also complemented by a veil which had flowers from 53 Commonwealth nations embroidered on it.
The Duchess paid tribute to the late Princess Diana by including forget-me-not, Princess Diana’s favourite flower, in her wedding bouquet. The bouquet also contained flowers hand-picked by the Duke from Kensington Palace.
The Duchess of Sussex has followed tradition of placing her wedding bouquet on the tomb of the unknown warrior at Westminster Abbey. The tradition was started by Queen Mother (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) the day after her wedding to future King George VI.
Those are #RoyalWedding trivia that I can share with you, fellas.
Source: The Sun, ABC Australia, CBC Canada, BBC, The Telegraph, and Harper’s Bazaar.
We all have that one friend who sings beautifully, albeit never considering singing as a professional career. What should we say to compliment him/her? Do we say, “I love you singing,” or do we say, “I love your singing?” Which one is correct, fellas?
@ghaniginanjar: The second one. I love your singing.
@KushalRJoshi: Second one?
@endang_yl: I love your singing.
@XxKit_kat: The 2nd one ‘I love your singing’ = ‘I love the sound of your voice when you sing’.
On one fine afternoon, you and a friend are out for a walk. You pass a bus stop where a woman seems to be crying. Do you say to your friend, “Did you see that woman crying?” or do you say, “Did you see that woman’s crying?”
@Goyoomin: Did you see that woman crying?
So, what is the difference between these two situations? Why do we use the possessive form ‘your singing’ in the first example, but then we use ‘see that woman crying’ in the second example?
Let’s go back to what gerund is. Gerund is a verb that has transformed into and functions as a noun. Therefore, the way we use gerund should always be in line with the way we use a noun, including combining it with a possessive form.
If we see a sentence like the one in the first example, “I love your singing,” it’s very likely that the thing we love is ‘the singing that belong to you.’ ‘Singing‘ here is something owned by ‘you,’ or in other words, ‘your singing.’
What about the second example? Does it make sense if I modify the sentence into, “Did you see that crying woman?” Does the sentence still have the same meaning?
‘Crying‘ in the second example is not a gerund. It is in fact an adjective, modifying ‘that woman.’ Therefore, we do not need to use a possessive form like we did with the first example.
Two tips to determine whether a verb -ing should come with a possessive form or not:
Check the object of our action. In the first example, is it the ‘you’ that you love or is it the ‘singing that belongs to you?’
Try switching the sentence’s structure. Modifying the first sentence into ‘I love singing you’ does not quite make the same sense as modifying the second sentence into ‘Did you see that crying woman?’
Do you mind (me/my) asking questions?
No, not at all. I appreciate (you/your) coming to me.
I heard about the (project/project’s) being cancelled.
In fact, we anticipate the possibility of (it/its) succeeding.
“Do you mind my asking questions?”
Checklist: – What will the other person mind about?
The action ‘asking questions’ that belongs to the speaker. ‘Asking questions’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “Do you mind asking me questions?” or “Do you mind asking my questions?” which does not have the same meaning as the primary sentence.
“No, not at all. I appreciate your coming to me.” Checklist: – What does the speaker appreciate? The action ‘coming to me’ that belongs to the interlocutor. ‘Coming to me’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “I appreciate coming you to me,” which does not have any clear meaning.
“I heard about the project being almost cancelled.” Checklist: – What did the speaker hear about? The project is being almost cancelled. ‘Being almost cancelled’ here is an adjective. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “I heard about the almost-cancelled project,” which has the exact same meaning as the primary sentence.
“In fact, we anticipate the possibility of its succeeding.” Checklist: – What does the speaker anticipate? The success of the project. ‘Succeeding’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of succeeding it,” which creates double meanings. It can mean that the project is being successful or it can mean that the project is being followed by another project. The phrase ‘its succeeding’ will remove the ambiguity.
Special shout-out to one of our fellas who sent us a question about how to use possessives with gerunds during our LINE chat session. If you would like a one-one-one consultation as well, add us on LINE @EnglishTips4U.
Hola, Fellas, welcome to English Trivia session. How are you today? In this #EngTriva we are going to have a talk about some adjectives that are commonly confusing.
‘Each’ vs. ‘every’
The first are ‘each’ and ‘every.’ Does any of you can explain what is the difference between those words? ‘Each’ and ‘every’ are actually similar in referring singular noun
However, ‘each’ is used to indicate individual object/person. Meanwhile ‘every’indicates a group of similar object, for instances doctors, teachers, apples, books, days, etc.
In a special case, we usually use ‘each’ when there are only two objects at the moment.
“She wear socks on each of her feet.”
On the other hand, if there are more than two objects the use of ‘each’ and ‘every’ is interchangeably.
“I donated every books I have to the town’s library,”
“Dina gave each of her old clothes to her sister.”
‘Farther’ vs. ‘further’
I found an articles in quickanddirtytips.com about these words. It stated that ‘farther’ is used to refer physical distance while ‘further’ refers figurative or metaphorical distance.
“We need to drive farther to reach Anyer beach,”
“We can discuss the financial planning further in the next meeting.”
‘Sick’ vs. ‘ill’
The last ones are ‘sick’ and ‘ill.’ The general difference between ‘sick’ and ‘ill’ is their formality. If you are included in less formal communication, you may use the word ‘sick.’ In addition, ‘sick’ describes a short term disease while ‘ill’ can describe both short term and long term disease.
“Maya couldn’t come to school for three days because she was sick,”
“Finally she appears fresher today. The project she’s just handled certainly made her look ill.”
Hello Fellas.. how’s your Thursday? Are you also excited like me to welcome Friday, which means weekend, tomorrow?
Alright, maybe some of you have noticed the title of today’s session, “how do you read ‘1800s’ and its friends?” It doesn’t mean that we will be focus on ‘1800s,’ but do you know how to spell it? Is it “one thousand and eight hundreds”? Just like we spell fifties (50s)?
I even couldn’t think about a single thing while I found the word ‘1800s’ in my English textbook.
Generally, ‘1800s’ indicates a century and after I did a browsing in the internet, it stated that ‘1800s’ is spelled “eighteen hundreds.” So, you read by dividing the ‘18’ (eighteen) and ‘00s’ (hundreds).
1300s: thirteen hundreds
1400s: fourteen hundreds
1700s: seventeen hundreds
Then, what about the century which is started in millennial era, such as 2000s, 2100s, 2200s, and so on? Could you tell me what is the proper pronounce of those years?
Similarly, you pronounce ‘2100s’ by separating ’21’ and ’00s.’ So, it will be “twenty one hundreds.” Then “twenty two hundreds” for ‘2200s,’ “twenty three hundreds” for ‘2300s,’ and so on.
Hello, Fellas. How was your day? In this session we are going to continue our discussion about some confusing words.
‘Harm,’ ‘injury,’ and ‘damage.’
Do you know the difference of those words?
Regarding to Merriam-webster dictinary, if ‘harm’ acts as a verb, it means to make someone/something to be hurt/broken. On the other words, ‘harm’ can also be a noun which is something that has a bed effect on someone or another thing.
“The acidic solutions may harm the metals.”
“I mean no harm.”
What about ‘injury’? This word means a physical harm on someone. It is usually cause by an accident.
“I got this injury from falling down of my motorbike.”
Meanwhile, according to BBC ‘damage’ is a physical harm on something (non-living/abstract object), such as economy, impression, electronics, etc.
“This rumor can cause a damage on her reputation.”
‘During,’ ‘while,’ and ‘for.’
If you check on the dictionary, ‘during’ means the entire time of an event/a moment, such as, holiday, school (grade), party, meeting, etc.
“I made this sweater during the term holiday.”
Ecenglish. Com also states that ‘during’ is a preposition to indicate the time of an event.
“There were many interesting performances during last year’s Christmas holiday.”
On the other hand ‘while’ means a short period of time.
“I will take a rest for a while.”
In addition, we can also use ‘while’ as a conjunction when two events happen at the same time.
“I was showering while my brother came home.”
The last is ‘for.’ This word is used to indicate a specific time of an event. So, when we put ‘for’ in a sentence, it is followed by the length of time.
English plurals are usually easy to form. We can add -s to the end of the singular word, e.g.: chair (singular) or two chairs (plural). But, like almost all of the rules in English grammar, there are exceptions for the plural form of some nouns. Here is a list of the confusing singular/plural words.
Criterion (singular) – criteria (plural).Meaning: a rule or principal used in evaluation.
“One criterion for grading this essay will be announced.”
“What were the criteria used to choose the winner?”
Phenomenon (singular) – phenomena (plural).Meaning: an observable fact or event.
“Star Wars eventually became a cultural phenomenon.”
“Lightning and earthquakes are natural phenomena.”
Datum (singular) – Data (plural).Meaning: a single piece of information
“The datum shows little without the rest of the statistics.”
“The data were collected over a period of three months.”
Stratum (singular) – strata (plural).Meaning: a level or class to which people are assigned according to their social status, education, or income.
“Discrimination exist in every stratum of society.”
“Different social strata are most likely crashing into each other.”
Bacterium (singular) – bacteria (plural).Meaning: a type of unicellular microorganism that are important to human because of their chemical activities but some of its type often cause disease.
“Every bacterium is prokaryotic.”
“Tetanus is a serious illness caused by Clostridiumtetanibacteria.”
For a brief description, preposition is a word that relates a noun/a pronoun with some other words in a sentence. For instance, ‘on,’ ‘at,’ ‘about’ ‘with,’ ‘in,’ ‘before,’ etc. In this session I intend to have a discussion about preposition ‘with.’
‘With’ generally shows us the position of something or the timing of an event. However, there are some specific functions of ‘with.’ This preposition is usually used to indicate:
Being together/being involved.
“I was with Anna in the park.”
“I adore someone with blue eyes.”
“We cut the meat with a knife.”
“Our team won the football competition. So, we went home with joy.”
How was your day? Did you use your time wisely? In this particular article, we’ll talk about time… or rather, the different ways to tell the time.
So, how do you usually tell the time? What time is this clock showing? There is more than one way to tell the time. Let’s look into it in more detail. Ready?
1. ‘a.m.’ & ‘p.m.’
‘a.m.’ and ‘p.m.’ are used in the 12 hours clock system. They are more often used in writing.
‘a.m.’ stands for ante meridiem, before noon. It indicates the time period from midnight to midday.
‘p.m.’ stands for post meridiem, after noon. It indicates the time period from midday to midnight.
2. ‘to’ and ‘past’
The most common way to tell the time is to use ‘to’ and ‘past.’ This method is acceptable in verbal and written communication.
‘to’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
If it is going to be 8 o’clock in 15 minutes, we say “It’s fifteen to eight.”
‘past’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
If the time is 15 minutes after 8 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen past eight.”
3. Hour and minute
Another way to tell the time would be by simply saying the hour and minutes. Example:
If the clock shows 8:05 p.m. You can simply say, “It’s eight zero five” or “It’s eight oh five.”
With this method, you don’t need to worry whether it’s morning, afternoon, evening or night. However, do keep in mind to only use this in casual conversation. You are highly discouraged to use this method in writing, especially in formal writing.
4. ’till’ and ‘after’
Especially in American English, some people use ’till’ (until) instead of ‘to,’ and ‘after’ instead of ‘past.’
’till’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
If it is going to be 9 o’clock in 25 minutes, we say “It’s twenty-five till nine.”
‘after’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
If the time is 15 minutes after 9 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen after nine.”
As mentioned above, ’till’ and ‘after’ are only used in American English. And even so, they’re only used in speech; not in writing.
And that’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you do have any question, feel free to leave a comment in the comment box.
Suffix -let is one of many suffixes in English. It originated from Old French -elet, from Latin -āle, a neuter of adjective suffix -ālis, or from Latin -ellus, a diminutive suffix.
Adding suffix -let to a noun will create a diminutive form to the original word. For example, if we attach -let to book, we will have booklet, which means a little or a thinner book.
With an exception to bracelet, which is also a diminutive form of brace, different meanings apply to some jewelries or articles of clothing attached to our body. In such cases, attaching -let will refer to the part of our body on which the jewelries are usually worn. For example, an anklet is an ornament worn on the ankle.
There are three basic rules of using suffix -let. First, when used with an object, it generally indicates diminution in size. E.g.: Booklet, pamphlet, droplet, bracelet, etc.
When used with animals, it generally means young animals. E.g.: Piglet, froglet, deerlet, etc.
When used to refer to a human adult, it is generally depreciative. It denotes pettiness and conveys contempt. For example, princelet is used to refer to a prince who is lesser in rank or displays pettiness (narrow-mindedness).
There are over 200 words with suffix -let. Check your dictionaries often to familiarise yourself with them.
I am devoted to them, especially when they tell the story about a kingdom or an empire. I can learn the history of a dynasty or even political issues.
Well, it is true that we couldn’t totally believe the story because the producer might add some fictional plot in it, but at least, we get the general shot of the history. Besides, I also enjoy seeing their fashion.
While you are watching the films, you may hear some words such as ‘emperor,’ ‘king,’ ‘duke,’ etc. Do you ever wonder what they mean?
Firstly, we will start with ‘emperor.’ I used to think that ‘emperor’ and ‘king’ are same. Just like a king, an emperor is the ruler of a territory, but he has a higher power than a king.
He rules the whole empire, which can have many kingdoms, while a king only rules his kingdom. For an illustration, we can imagine that our president, Joko Widodo, is an emperor, while the governors of each province are kings.
The next is ‘duke.’ This is the highest nobility below ‘emperor’ and ‘king.’ It is used to refer to the leader of a small independent region. It is said that a duke acts as a leader of a province. Since it is ruled by a duke, so the territory is called a dukedom.
Next is ‘marquess.’ This is the title below ‘duke’ and above ‘earl/count.’ marquess has a duty in a border between two countries as a defender.
Earl is someone who is responsible in imperial court. It is also said that earl acts as a local commander and a judge. The people outside Britain used to opt for ‘count’ for this title, like the ‘count’ in Count Dracula,
We might rarely hear ‘viscount,’ I also knew it just now. The reference tells that it is used to denote an assistant to a count in judicial function.
The title below ‘viscount’ is ‘baron.’ The history said that barons were granted a land by their superior, such as a king or a duke. They might rule the land with their own justice. In return, the must keep their loyalty and serve their superior. Generally, their main responsibility is in military by providing the knights.
The next title is ‘knight.’ It is simply said that a knight is a high rank soldier. He is responsible in military by participating in wars or guarding the higher noble in expeditions.
The last title is ‘lord.’ This is a general title for someone who has authority and power over others, such as a prince, the son of dukes or counts, etc. It also can be used to address the king.
Err … what is it called again? It’s a … an ellipsis.
The three dots ( … ) is known as ellipsis. It is used to quote materials and to indicate hesitation or a pause in writer’s thought.
When used to quote materials, ellipsis is to show you’ve omitted words from the original sentence, but do not change the meanings.
Police said that two people had been killed by rebels … .
(The Nation, Bangkok, Wednesday 4 December 1991)
When used to indicate a pause:
“Dear boy you’re so tall … look behind and see if there’s anything coming…”
–F. Scott Fitzgerald, This Side of Paradise
Ann: Would you like a cup of tea?
Dan: Yes, I would.
Omitting part of sentences and referring to the earlier sentence/ context to make the meaning clear is also called ellipsis. We do not need to provide substitute words or phrases which have already been said. In the previous dialogue, instead of saying, “Yes, I would like a cup of tea.” we can just say “Yes, I would.” We omit some words because “Yes, I would.” will be understood.
According to Nunan (1993), as cohesive devices there are three types of ellipsis: nominal, verbal, and clausal. Following are examples of each type. The material that has been omitted is indicated with (0).
Don and Dan like football. Both (0) are great football players.
A: Are you a student?
B: Yes, I am (0).
A: Why don’t you bring a camera? Dan said that we are going to shoot a film, didn’t he?
B: Did he? He didn’t tell me(0).
Many experts, however, agree that there are nine types of ellipsis: gapping, stripping, VP- ellipsis, pseudogapping, answer fragments, sluicing, N-ellipsis, comparative deletion, and null complement.
Yes … it is quite confusing when it comes to linguistics. But if you need further explanation about the ellipsis (linguistics), you can find out in any books with words ‘discourse analysis.’
I hope this #EngTrivia will develop your background knowledge that is available when you later will be studying linguistics in university.
Hey, fellas! Today, I want to talk about yet another usage case where two words look interchangeable but are actually not. The words are ‘that’ and ‘which’. Both words are used to introduce a particular clause in a sentence.
The usage rule is actually simple: In a restrictive clause, use ‘that’. In a non-restrictive clause, use ‘which’. You can read more about restrictive and non-restrictive clause here.
Pay attention to this sentence:
Dave’s wall art that I bought yesterday is my favorite.
Dave’s wall art, which I bought yesterday, is my favorite.
The first sentence implies that Dave has created more than one wall art, but my favorite is the one that I bought yesterday. ‘That I bought yesterday’ is a necessary information. This is what we call restrictive clause. Therefore, we use ‘that‘ to introduce the clause. Without the clause, we don’t know which wall art of Dave’s that I’m talking about, since Dave has created more than one artwork.
In the second sentence, I’m saying that Dave’s wall art is my favorite. I’m probably comparing it with other people’s artworks that aren’t Dave’s. And I happened to purchase the wall art just yesterday. ‘Which I bought yesterday‘ is just an additional information. Even if I remove the clause, the sentence is still complete. This is what we call non-restrictive clause. We use ‘which’ to introduce this clause.
There you go, fellas. I hope it clears the confusion regarding the usage of ‘that’ and ‘which’.