Category Archives: trivia

#EngTrivia: Commonly misspelled and missused vocabulary (2)

Hi, Fellas! Good evening and happy Friday! How’s your week so far? Well, in this evening I would to continue our session about  some vocabulary that are usually confusing due to similar letter arrangement. For you who missed the topic two weeks ago, you can read the article by following this link 

“Stationery” vs. “stationary”

Before I start explaining them, is there anyone know the difference of those words?

“Stationary means stability there is no change. While stationery means writing paper and everything related with write process.” – @al3ajalabead

“Stationery” is known as a noun, which means something that is used for writing, such as papers, pens, pencils, etc. Meanwhile, “stationary” is an adjective to refer something that is not moving. There are some similar words of “stationary” to make it clear, such as

  • “immobile,”
  • “static,” and
  • “motionless.”

Example:

  • “I am going to stationery shop to get some pencils.”
  • “Wall is a simple example of stationary material.”

“Principle” vs. “principal.”

“Principle” acts as a noun that means basic/fundamental belief or concept. On the other hand, “principal” can be either a noun or an adjective. As a noun, “principal” means an important person in an organisation, but as an adjective, this word means the most important.

EaEmple:

  • “I have a principle to not intervene my personal life with work.”
  • “Mr. Heidi is our school principal.”

“Affect” vs. “effect.”

“Affect” is a verb that means to give an impact to someone or something, while “effect” is the impact itself (noun).

Example:

  • “Deforestation affects the increase of global temperature.”
  • “Extinction of some species is one of the effects of global warming.”

source:

  • Merriam Webster

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, November 2, 2018

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#EngTrivia: Commonly missused and misspelled vocabulary

Hi, Fellas! Good evening and happy Friday! How’s your week so far? I hope you experienced something great! Well, in this evening I would share some vocabulary that are usually confusing because most of them have almost similar letter arrangement or typography if I’m not mistaken.

“A lot” vs. “alot.”

Before I start explaining them, is there anyone know the the meaning of each of them and how we should use it?

“Not so good at explaining, but here’s my shot. “A lot” is for a particular ‘bunch’ of items. Eg: There’s a lot of books for A there, a lot of pencils for B here.” – @educareer_jp 

It is generally known that “a lot” can act as a pronoun or an adverb, which means many/pleunty.  Meanwhile, “allot” is verb, which means to distribute or to assign. There are some words that are related to “allot,” they are “allocate,” “administer,” “hand out,” etc.

Example:

  • “We have a lot of problem to deal with.”
  • “You are alloted 20 minutes to present your research findings.”

“Awhile” vs. “a while.”

Both “a while” and “awhile” means “a short period of time.” However, each of them have a different role in a sentence. “Awhile” acts as an adverb that explain something happens in a short time. On the other hand, “a while” is a noun phrase.

Example:

  • “I think I’m going to stay here awhile.”
  • “Pasta will be ready in a while.”

“Desert” vs. “dessert.”

“Desert” means to abandon/to leave something (verb), while “dessert” is food that usually served after meal and generally it’s sweet (noun).

Example:

  • “This town is very quiet it’s looked like deserted place.”
  • “I want cheese cake as my dessert.”

source:

  • Merriam Webster
  • Grammarly

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, October 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Double Comparatives

Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives “The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.

Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).

(More on comparisons: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/20/engclass-degrees-of-comparison/comment-page-1/)

Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.

There are three structures of double comparatives:

1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.

2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.

3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 19, 2018

 

#GrammarTrivia: Due to vs. Because of (REVISIT)

This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’

@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS

Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.

person people woman hand
Photo by Public Domain Pictures on Pexels.com

On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.

“Her headache                  was                                        due to the noise coming from upstairs.”
Subject                               linking verb                         complement

 

On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’

If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’

Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.

Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.

 

Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.

a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.

@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to.
@notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to.
@cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.

 

Answers:
a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’

b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’

 

A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:

‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).

‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.

 

Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)

due to

A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin:
A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom.
The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.

Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…

due to 2

A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan.
The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions.
Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury.
Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 13 June, 2018.


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#EngKnowledge: Duke and Duchess of Sussex Royal Wedding Trivia

Meghan-Harry engagement.jpg
Official engagement picture of Duke and Duchess of Sussex by photographer Alexi Lubomirski (Harper’s Bazaar).

Saturday, 19 May 2018, saw the wedding of Prince Harry and Ms Meghan Markle, who were designed the Duke and Duchess of Sussex shortly before the ceremony started. Here are the facts of the 2018 Royal Wedding:

  1. Although there was no set protocol, a royal wedding of the British royal family has always happened on a weekday. The Duke and Duchess of Sussex opted for a weekend wedding to allow as many people as possible to celebrate the occasion.
  2. Having come from a biracial background, the Duchess of Sussex has been considered by many to make the British monarchy more accessible and diverse.
  3. The Duchess has also been involved in numerous charitable works, including issues on equality and women’s health.
  4. Photographer Alexi Lubomirski, who captured the Duke and Duchess’ official engagement pictures, was selected to cover the wedding.
  5. American Bishop Michael Curry captured the world’s attention with a long and powerful address. The Chicago-born bishop spoke passionately about the power of love, quoting Dr Martin Luther King Jr.
  6. The Duke and Duchess’ wedding song, Ben E King’s classic ‘Stand by Me,’ was performed during the ceremony by Karen Gibson and the Kingdom Choir.
  7. Also performing was Sheku Kanneh-Mason. The 19-year-old cellist, who was dubbed BBC’s Young Musician of the Year in 2016, performed 3 songs.
  8. Clare Waight Keller from Givenchy was the designer of the Duchess’ wedding dress. The dress was also complemented by a veil which had flowers from 53 Commonwealth nations embroidered on it.
  9. The Duchess paid tribute to the late Princess Diana by including forget-me-not, Princess Diana’s favourite flower, in her wedding bouquet. The bouquet also contained flowers hand-picked by the Duke from Kensington Palace.
  10. The Duchess of Sussex has followed tradition of placing her wedding bouquet on the tomb of the unknown warrior at Westminster Abbey. The tradition was started by Queen Mother (the mother of Queen Elizabeth II) the day after her wedding to future King George VI.

Those are #RoyalWedding trivia that I can share with you, fellas.

Source: The Sun, ABC Australia, CBC Canada, BBC, The Telegraph, and Harper’s Bazaar.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 21 May, 2018.


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#GrammarTrivia: Possessives with Gerunds

adolescent blur child close up
“I love you singing” or “I love your singing?” Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

 

We all have that one friend who sings beautifully, albeit never considering singing as a professional career. What should we say to compliment him/her? Do we say, “I love you singing,” or do we say, “I love your singing?” Which one is correct, fellas?

@ghaniginanjar: The second one. I love your singing.

@KushalRJoshi: Second one?

@endang_yl: I love your singing.

@XxKit_kat: The 2nd one ‘I love your singing’ = ‘I love the sound of your voice when you sing’.

 

On one fine afternoon, you and a friend are out for a walk. You pass a bus stop where a woman seems to be crying. Do you say to your friend, “Did you see that woman crying?” or do you say, “Did you see that woman’s crying?”

@Goyoomin: Did you see that woman crying?

 

So, what is the difference between these two situations? Why do we use the possessive form ‘your singing’ in the first example, but then we use ‘see that woman crying’ in the second example?

Let’s go back to what gerund is. Gerund is a verb that has transformed into and functions as a noun. Therefore, the way we use gerund should always be in line with the way we use a noun, including combining it with a possessive form.

If we see a sentence like the one in the first example, “I love your singing,” it’s very likely that the thing we love is ‘the singing that belong to you.’ ‘Singing‘ here is something owned by ‘you,’ or in other words, ‘your singing.’

What about the second example? Does it make sense if I modify the sentence into, “Did you see that crying woman?” Does the sentence still have the same meaning?

Crying‘ in the second example is not a gerund. It is in fact an adjective, modifying ‘that woman.’ Therefore, we do not need to use a possessive form like we did with the first example.

Two tips to determine whether a verb -ing should come with a possessive form or not:

  1. Check the object of our action. In the first example, is it the ‘you’ that you love or is it the ‘singing that belongs to you?’
  2. Try switching the sentence’s structure. Modifying the first sentence into ‘I love singing you’ does not quite make the same sense as modifying the second sentence into ‘Did you see that crying woman?’

 

Exercise:

  1. Do you mind (me/my) asking questions?
  2. No, not at all. I appreciate (you/your) coming to me.
  3. I heard about the (project/project’s) being cancelled.
  4. In fact, we anticipate the possibility of (it/its) succeeding.

 

Answer:

  1. “Do you mind my asking questions?”
    Checklist:
    – What will the other person mind about?
    The action ‘asking questions’ that belongs to the speaker. ‘Asking questions’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “Do you mind asking me questions?” or “Do you mind asking my questions?” which does not have the same meaning as the primary sentence.
  2. “No, not at all. I appreciate your coming to me.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker appreciate?
    The action ‘coming to me’ that belongs to the interlocutor. ‘Coming to me’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I appreciate coming you to me,” which does not have any clear meaning.
  3. “I heard about the project being almost cancelled.”
    Checklist:
    – What did the speaker hear about?
    The project is being almost cancelled. ‘Being almost cancelled’ here is an adjective.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I heard about the almost-cancelled project,” which has the exact same meaning as the primary sentence.
  4. “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of its succeeding.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker anticipate?
    The success of the project. ‘Succeeding’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of succeeding it,” which creates double meanings. It can mean that the project is being successful or it can mean that the project is being followed by another project. The phrase ‘its succeeding’ will remove the ambiguity.

 

Special shout-out to one of our fellas who sent us a question about how to use possessives with gerunds during our LINE chat session. If you would like a one-one-one consultation as well, add us on LINE .

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 16 May, 2018.


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#EngTrivia: Choice of words

Hi, Fellas.  How are you today? We meet again in #EngTrivia session.

This evening I will share some words which can be the alternative of daily casual words. You can use these selections in your IELTS test essay performance.

  1. ‘Accelerate.’ Meaning: ‘speed up.’
    • Example:
      • “My friend had join a special class in his high school, so he can accelerate his grade.”
  2. ‘Additionally.’ Meaning: ‘there is more.’
    • Example:
      • “Additionally, we have to prepare the gift for this holiday session.”
  3. ‘Allow.’ Meaning: ‘let.’
    • Example:
      • “My parents allowed me to drive to school.”
  4. ‘Anecdote.’ Meaning: ‘joke.’
    • Example:
      • “There are plenty of silly anecdote in social media nowadays.”
  5. ‘Anticipate.’ Meaning: ‘expect.’
    • Example:
      • “The movie was as good as I have anticipated.”
  6.  ‘Beneficial.’ Meaning: ‘good for (something).’
    • Example:
      • “Do you think this purchasing system would be beneficial for our company?”
  7. ‘Utilize.’ Meaning: ‘use.’
    • Example:
      • “This manual has a detail description of utilizing the incubator.”
  8.  ‘Sufficient.’ Meaning: ‘enough.’
    • Example:
      • “Our country still have a sufficient rice stock and it will last approximately until next year.”
  9. ‘Pleased.’ Meaning: ‘happy.’
    • Example:
      • “Pleased to meet you.”
  10. ‘Perhaps.’ Meaning: ‘maybe.’
    • Example:
      • “I am not sure I would able to attend the meeting on time. Perhaps, my assistant could cover me for several minutes.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, December 7, 2017

#EngTrivia: Common confusing adjectives

Hola, Fellas, welcome to English Trivia session. How are you today? In this #EngTriva we are going to have a talk about some adjectives that are commonly confusing.

‘Each’ vs. ‘every’

The first are ‘each’ and ‘every.’ Does any of you can explain what is the difference between those words? ‘Each’ and ‘every’ are actually similar in referring singular noun

However, ‘each’ is used to indicate individual object/person. Meanwhile ‘every’ indicates a group of similar object, for instances doctors, teachers, apples, books, days, etc.

In a special case, we usually use ‘each’ when there are only two objects at the moment.

Example:

  • “She wear socks on each of her feet.”

On the other hand, if there are more than two objects the use of ‘each’ and ‘every’ is interchangeably.

Example:

  • “I donated every books I have to the town’s library,”
  • “Dina gave each of her old clothes to her sister.”

‘Farther’ vs. ‘further’

I found an articles in quickanddirtytips.com about these words. It stated that ‘farther’ is used to refer physical distance while ‘further’ refers figurative or metaphorical distance.

Example:

  • “We need to drive farther to reach Anyer beach,”
  • “We can discuss the financial planning further in the next meeting.”

‘Sick’ vs. ‘ill’

The last ones are ‘sick’ and ‘ill.’ The general difference between ‘sick’ and ‘ill’ is their formality. If you are included in less formal communication, you may use the word ‘sick.’ In addition, ‘sick’ describes a short term disease while ‘ill’ can describe both short term and long term disease.

Example:

  • “Maya couldn’t come to school for three days because she was sick,”
  • “Finally she appears fresher today. The project she’s just handled certainly made her look ill.”

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, November 9, 2017

#EngTrivia: How do you read ‘1800s’ and its friends?

Hello Fellas.. how’s your Thursday? Are you also excited like me to welcome Friday, which means weekend, tomorrow?

Alright, maybe some of you have noticed the title of today’s session, “how do you read ‘1800s’ and its friends?” It doesn’t mean that we will be focus on ‘1800s,’ but do you know how to spell it? Is it “one thousand and eight hundreds”? Just like we spell fifties (50s)?

I even couldn’t think about a single thing while I found the word ‘1800s’ in my English textbook.

Generally, ‘1800s’ indicates a century and after I did a browsing in the internet, it stated that ‘1800s’ is spelled “eighteen hundreds.” So, you read by dividing the ‘18’ (eighteen) and ‘00s’ (hundreds).

Examples:

  • 1300s: thirteen hundreds
  • 1400s: fourteen hundreds
  • 1700s: seventeen hundreds

Then, what about the century which is started in millennial era, such as 2000s, 2100s, 2200s, and so on? Could you tell me what is the proper pronounce of those years?

Similarly, you pronounce ‘2100s’ by separating ’21’ and ’00s.’ So, it will be “twenty one hundreds.” Then “twenty two hundreds” for ‘2200s,’ “twenty three hundreds” for ‘2300s,’ and so on.

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, October 26, 2017

#EngTrivia: Confusing words (2)

Hello, Fellas. How was your day? In this session we are going to continue our discussion about some confusing words.

‘Harm,’ ‘injury,’ and ‘damage.’

Do you know the difference of those words?

Regarding to Merriam-webster dictinary, if ‘harm’ acts as a verb, it means to make someone/something to be hurt/broken. On the other words, ‘harm’ can also be a noun which is something that has a bed effect on someone or another thing.

Example:

  • “The acidic solutions may harm the metals.”
  • “I mean no harm.”

What about ‘injury’? This word means a physical harm on someone. It is usually cause by an accident.

Example:

  • “I got this injury from falling down of my motorbike.”

Meanwhile, according to BBC ‘damage’ is a physical harm on something (non-living/abstract object), such as economy, impression, electronics, etc.

Example:

  • “This rumor can cause a damage on her reputation.”

‘During,’ ‘while,’ and ‘for.’

If you check on the dictionary, ‘during’ means the entire time of an event/a moment, such as, holiday, school (grade), party, meeting, etc.

Example:

  • “I made this sweater during the term holiday.”

Ecenglish. Com also states that ‘during’ is a preposition to indicate the time of an event.

Example:

  • “There were many interesting performances during last year’s Christmas holiday.”

On the other hand ‘while’ means a short period of time.

Example:

  • “I will take a rest for a while.”

In addition, we can also use ‘while’ as a conjunction when two events happen at the same time.

Example:

  • “I was showering while my brother came home.”

The last is ‘for.’ This word is used to indicate a specific time of an event. So, when we put ‘for’ in a sentence, it is followed by the length of time.

Example:

  • “My mother well be in Paris for two weeks.”

 

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, October 12, 2017

#EngTrivia: Confusing singular/plural word

English plurals are usually easy to form. We can add -s to the end of the singular word, e.g.: chair (singular) or two chairs (plural). But, like almost all of the rules in English grammar, there are exceptions for the plural form of some nouns. Here is a list of the confusing singular/plural words.

  1. Criterion (singular) – criteria (plural). Meaning: a rule or principal used in evaluation.
    • Example:
      • “One criterion for grading this essay will be announced.”
      • “What were the criteria used to choose the winner?”
  2. Phenomenon (singular) – phenomena (plural). Meaning: an observable fact or event.
    • Example:
      • “Star Wars eventually became a cultural phenomenon.”
      • “Lightning and earthquakes are natural phenomena.”
  3. Datum (singular) – Data (plural). Meaning: a single piece of information
    • Example:
      • “The datum shows little without the rest of the statistics.”
      • “The data were collected over a period of three months.”
  4. Stratum (singular) – strata (plural). Meaning: a level or class to which people are assigned according to their social status, education, or income.
    • Example:
      • “Discrimination exist in every stratum of society.”
      • “Different social strata are most likely crashing into each other.”
  5. Bacterium (singular) – bacteria (plural). Meaning: a type of unicellular microorganism that are important to human because of their chemical activities but some of its type often cause disease.
    • Example:
      • “Every bacterium is prokaryotic.”
      • “Tetanus is a serious illness caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria.”

plural singular

Source:

  • Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, August 23, 2017.


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#EngTrivia: Preposition ‘with’

Hi, Fellas, Did you read our article on preposition yet? If you missed it, you can read the article by following this link (https://englishtips4u.com/2011/09/17/engclass-prepositions/)

For a brief description, preposition is a word that relates a noun/a pronoun with some other words in a sentence. For instance, ‘on,’ ‘at,’ ‘about’ ‘with,’ ‘in,’ ‘before,’ etc. In this session I intend to have a discussion about preposition ‘with.’

‘With’ generally shows us the position of something or the timing of an event. However, there are some specific functions of ‘with.’ This preposition is usually used to indicate:

  1. Being together/being involved.
    • Example:
      • “I was with Anna in the park.”
  1. Having something.
    • Example:
      • “I adore someone with blue eyes.”
  1. Using something.
    • Example:
      • “We cut the meat with a knife.”
  1. A feeling.
    • Example:
      • “Our team won the football competition. So, we went home with joy.”
  1. Agreement/understanding.
    • Example:
    • “I agree with you.”

Source:

  • talkenglish.com
  • Esolcourses.com

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, June 22, 2017.

#EngTrivia: Phrasal verbs with ‘by’

Hi, Fellas, do you still remember what phrasal verb is? It is a verb that is followed by either an adverb or a preposition. In this session I would like to discuss phrasal verbs with preposition ‘by.’

In the previous topic (https://goo.gl/G8hTSa), we can see that there are two types of phrasal verb. They are transitive phrasal verb and intransitive phrasal verb.

I found that, generally, phrasal verbs with ‘by’ are mostly transitive verbs, for instances ‘come by,’ ‘run by,’ and ‘stick by.’ It means that this type of phrasal verb has a direct object.

Example:

  • “How did you come by such a brilliant idea?”
  • “I will stick by you no matter how bad this situation is.”

However, there are some phrases function as both transitive and intransitive verb, such as ‘stand by,’ ‘drop by,’ and ‘pass by.’

Example:

  • “You have to stand by here.” (intransitive)
  • “I don’t care about the consequences; I will stand by my decision.” (transitive)

 

Source: Macmillandictionary.com

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, June 9, 2017.

#EngTrivia: ‘Hence’ & ‘thus’

Hey, fellas! It’s good to see you again. How are you today?

Today’s session discusses the use of ‘hence’ and ‘thus.’ Both ‘hence’ and ‘thus’ are conjunctive adverbs. In Bahasa Indonesia, ‘hence’ means ‘oleh sebab itu,’ while ‘thus’ means ‘dengan demikian.

‘Hence’ and ‘thus’ have the same basic meaning. However, there is a slight difference among them. Let’s take a look at each definition and how it used in the sentence.

Hence (adv)

This word means:

  • as a consequence, for this reason.
  • in the future (used after period of time).
  • from here.

‘Hence’ usually refers to the future.

  • Example:
    • “The situation is getting complicated. Hence, we will have to proceed with caution.”

Thus (adv)

There are some meanings of this words, which includes:

  • in this or that manner.
  • to this degree or extent.
  • because of this or that.
  • as an example.

‘Thus’ refers to the past and is often used to indicate a conclusion. ‘Thus’ is often used after a period (.).

  • Example:
    • “She didn’t listen to the news. Thus, she was unaware of the storm.”

‘Thus’ is often used after a semicolon (;).

  • Example:
    • “He was starving; thus, he was desperate enough to scavenge for crumbs.”

Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, June 3, 2017.


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#EngTrivia: Telling time (2)

How was your day? Did you use your time wisely? In this particular article, we’ll talk about time… or rather, the different ways to tell the time.

Slide1

So, how do you usually tell the time? What time is this clock showing? There is more than one way to tell the time. Let’s look into it in more detail. Ready?

1. ‘a.m.’ & ‘p.m.’

‘a.m.’ and ‘p.m.’ are used in the 12 hours clock system. They are more often used in writing.

  • ‘a.m.’ stands for ante meridiem, before noon. It indicates the time period from midnight to midday.
    slide3
  • ‘p.m.’ stands for post meridiem, after noon. It indicates the time period from midday to midnight. Slide4

2. ‘to’ and ‘past’

The most common way to tell the time is to use ‘to’ and ‘past.’ This method is acceptable in verbal and written communication.

  • ‘to’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If it is going to be 8 o’clock in 15 minutes, we say “It’s fifteen to eight.” Slide6
  • ‘past’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If the time is 15 minutes after 8 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen past eight.” Slide7

3. Hour and minute

Another way to tell the time would be by simply saying the hour and minutes. Example:

  • If the clock shows 8:05 p.m. You can simply say, “It’s eight zero five” or “It’s eight oh five.”Slide9

With this method, you don’t need to worry whether it’s morning, afternoon, evening or night. However, do keep in mind to only use this in casual conversation. You are highly discouraged to use this method in writing, especially in formal writing.

4. ’till’ and ‘after’

Especially in American English, some people use ’till’ (until) instead of ‘to,’ and ‘after’ instead of ‘past.’

  • ’till’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If it is going to be 9 o’clock in 25 minutes, we say “It’s twenty-five till nine.”Slide11
  • ‘after’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If the time is 15 minutes after 9 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen after nine.”Slide12

As mentioned above, ’till’ and ‘after’ are only used in American English. And even so, they’re only used in speech; not in writing.

And that’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you do have any question, feel free to leave a comment in the comment box.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, April 13, 2017

 

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^MQ

#EngVocab: Suffix -Let

Suffix -let is one of many suffixes in English. It originated from Old French -elet, from Latin -āle, a neuter of adjective suffix -ālis, or from Latin -ellus, a diminutive suffix.

Adding suffix -let to a noun will create a diminutive form to the original word. For example, if we attach -let to book, we will have booklet, which means a little or a thinner book.

With an exception to bracelet, which is also a diminutive form of brace, different meanings apply to some jewelries or articles of clothing attached to our body. In such cases, attaching -let will refer to the part of our body on which the jewelries are usually worn. For example, an anklet is an ornament worn on the ankle.

There are three basic rules of using suffix -let. First, when used with an object, it generally indicates diminution in size. E.g.: Booklet, pamphlet, droplet, bracelet, etc.

When used with animals, it generally means young animals. E.g.: Piglet, froglet, deerlet, etc.

When used to refer to a human adult, it is generally depreciative. It denotes pettiness and conveys contempt. For example, princelet is used to refer to a prince who is lesser in rank or displays pettiness (narrow-mindedness).

There are over 200 words with suffix -let. Check your dictionaries often to familiarise yourself with them.

 

Source:
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/-let
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/-let
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-let
Compiled and written by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 10 April 2017.

 

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#EngTrivia: ‘Be careful’ vs. ‘take care’

Hi, fellas, I’m sure you are familiar with these phrases: ‘be careful’ and ‘take care.’ Generally, both phrases mean to pay attention to something or a condition.

If we check in the dictionary, ‘be careful’ means telling someone to pay attention in order to avoid dangers. Normally, we use this phrase to give a warning to somebody.

Example:

  • “It is raining, be careful while driving.”
  • “Be careful, you might fall from the tree.”

There are some phrases which share the same meaning to ‘be careful,’ i.e. ‘be alert,’ ‘beware,’ and ‘be on guard.’

Meanwhile, ‘take care’ is generally used to tell someone to treat someone/something carefully.

Example:

  • “Please take care of this document.”
  • “Please take care of my child while I’m shopping.”

Sometimes, we can say either ‘be careful’ or ‘take care’ when parting with someone after a meeting. They are used to wish someone her/his safety during the trip.

Take care’ is more common in use when parting with somebody. Meanwhile ‘be careful’ is usually used when we realize that the trip might come with negative consequence to somebody.

Other than ‘take care,’ ‘so long’ may be opted to somebody who will be away for a long time.

Source:

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 6, 2017

 

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^MQ

#EngTrivia: Noble Ranks

Hi, Fellas do you like watching historical film?

I am devoted to them, especially when they tell the story about a kingdom or an empire. I can learn the history of a dynasty or even political issues.

Well, it is true that we couldn’t totally believe the story because the producer might add some fictional plot in it, but at least, we get the general shot of the history. Besides, I also enjoy seeing their fashion.

While you are watching the films, you may hear some words such as ‘emperor,’ ‘king,’ ‘duke,’ etc. Do you ever wonder what they mean?

Firstly, we will start with ‘emperor.’ I used to think that ‘emperor’ and ‘king’ are same. Just like a king, an emperor is the ruler of a territory, but he has a higher power than a king.

He rules the whole empire, which can have many kingdoms, while a king only rules his kingdom. For an illustration, we can imagine that our president, Joko Widodo, is an emperor, while the governors of each province are kings.

The next is ‘duke.’ This is the highest nobility below ‘emperor’ and ‘king.’ It is used to refer to the leader of a small independent region. It is said that a duke acts as a leader of a province. Since it is ruled by a duke, so the territory is called a dukedom.

Next is ‘marquess.’ This is the title below ‘duke’ and above ‘earl/count.’ marquess has a duty in a border between two countries as a defender.

Earl is someone who is responsible in imperial court. It is also said that earl acts as a local commander and a judge. The people outside Britain used to opt for ‘count’ for this title, like the ‘count’ in Count Dracula,

We might rarely hear ‘viscount,’ I also knew it just now. The reference tells that it is used to denote an assistant to a count in judicial function.

The title below ‘viscount’ is ‘baron.’ The history said that barons were granted a land by their superior, such as a king or a duke. They might rule the land with their own justice. In return, the must keep their loyalty and serve their superior. Generally, their main responsibility is in military by providing the knights.

The next title is ‘knight.’ It is simply said that a knight is a high rank soldier. He is responsible in military by participating in wars or guarding the higher noble in expeditions.

The last title is ‘lord.’ This is a general title for someone who has authority and power over others, such as a prince, the son of dukes or counts, etc. It also can be used to address the king.

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 4, 2017.