Category Archives: grammar

#GrammarTrivia: Expressions Followed by “-ing”

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss several expressions which are followed by –ing.

1) have fun/a good time
Example: I had fun watching movies.

have trouble/difficulty
Example: We had trouble looking for the key.

have a hard time/difficult time
Example: They had a hard time climbing the ladder.

2) spend/waste + expression of time or money
Example: Steve spent a lot of time reading novels.

3) sit/stand/lie + expression of place
Example: Angela sat on the floor typing a letter.

4) find/catch + pro(noun)
Both find and catch carry the meaning of discover.
Example: On my way home, I found a man crying for help.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 16, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: “Seem” vs. “look”

Hola, Fellas! It’s finally Friday again. How do you do during this week? I hope you are doing well. This evening we are going to have a discussion about the difference between ‘seem’ and ‘look.’ In this term, both words are considered as copular verbs. Do you know what copular verb is?

Copular verb is a verb that connects subject of sentence to a subject complement. In other words, copular verb is linking verb. There are some words that are considered as copular verbs, such as ‘feel,’ ‘look,’ ‘smell,’ ‘taste,’ etc.  In this occasion, we will specifically talk about ‘look’ and its common substitute, ‘seem.’

Sometimes, you might face a confusion on whether you should use ‘seem’ or ‘look’ to express your opinion of an object. As illustration,

  • “She (look/seem) happy today.”
  • “You (look/seem) pretty today.”

Which verb will you choose to complete each of the example?

“You look pretty today.” “She looks happy today.” – @NeNi961111 

Seem and look. – @Syalaladubidum

You look pretty today. She seems happy today. – @niaangreinny

You look pretty today. She seems happy today. Am I right? – @innecfc

‘Look’ for the second question and ‘seem’ for the first I guess. – @ryutz_

“Seem”

In the first example, I would choose “seem” as the answer. “Seem” is a general copular verb to express our sense/impression about something. On the other words, we use “seem” when the judgement is subjective, it’s like you are using your intuition.

On the other hands, we can also say “She looks happy today” if we see her laughing or smiling. Here are some examples on how to use “seem’ in a sentence,

  • “The task seems difficult to be accomplished,”
  • “It seems like we are going to have a long chat this evening.”

“Look”

Meanwhile, I would say “You look pretty today” in the second illustration. “Look” is generally used as a result of a physical observation of an objectSo, you would say “look” if you can see the appearance of the object. For example,

  • “You look stylish with this dress,”
  • “This area looks dirty with these scattered trashes.”

 

source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, March 15, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Other Forms of Conditional Sentences

Hello, fellas. On this Chinese Lunar New Year’s Day, we will discuss other forms of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence usually comprises of an adverb clause of condition or if-clause, which contains a condition, and a result clause, which shows a result.

(More on conditional sentences: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/06/04/engclass-conditional-sentences-revisit/)

There are other words introducing adverb clauses of condition.

1) Whether or Not and Even If
Whether or not and even if mean that the result will be the same despite the condition.
Examples:
I am going to go the beach tomorrow whether or not it rains. (Or whether it rains or not)
I am going to go the beach tomorrow even if it rains.
(If it rains, I am going to the beach. If it does not rain, I am going to the beach. I do not care about the weather. It does not matter.)

2) In Case and In the Event That
In case and in the event that show that something will probably not occur, but it might. In the event that is more common in formal usage than in case.
Examples:
I will be online in case you need to contact me.
I will be online in the event that you need to contact me.

3) Unless
Unless has the same meaning as if…not.
Examples:
I will go to the beach tomorrow unless it rains.
I will go to the beach tomorrow if it does not rains.

4) Only If
Only if expresses the idea that only one condition will lead to a particular result. The subject and verb of the result clause are inverted when only if begins a sentence.
Examples:
The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains.
Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.

(More on inversion with negative words: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/11/06/engclass-inversion-sentences-begin-with-negative-adverbs/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/11/21/grammartrivia-inverted-subjects-and-verbs-with-negative-expressions-or-comparisons/)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, February 5, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Common Expressions with “Other”

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss several common expressions using other. Forms of other can be used as adjectives or pronouns. Furthermore, there are also common expressions with other carrying different meanings.

1) each other and one another

each other and one another show a reciprocal relationship. They are interchangeable because there is no difference between them.

E.g. We respect each other.
We respect one another.

In both examples above, I respect him or her, and he or she respects me.

2) every other

every other means “alternate”.

E.g. I read every other line. (I read the first line. I do not read the second line. I read             the third line. I do not read the fourth line)

3) the other

the other can be found in time expressions like the other day, the other week, etc., to indicate the recent past.

E.g. We saw her the other day.

the other day in the example carries the meaning of “a few days ago, not long ago”.

4) one after the other and one after another

The two expressions show that separate actions take place very close in time.

E.g. They arrived one after the other.
They arrived one after another.

5) other than

It is frequently used in negative sentences and has the same meaning as “except”.

E.g. No one understands the lesson other than James.
       No one understands the lesson except (for) James.

6) in other words

in other words is used to explain the meaning of the previous sentence(s).

E.g. IELTS assesses our ability to listen, read, write and speak. In other words, IELTS is a         comprehensive test.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 21, 2019

#EngClass: Derivatives

Hello fellas, how was your day?

In this session we will discuss derivative which is a part of grammar in English language. There are several grammatical rules to apply when using English. Today, we will continue with ‘Derivatives.’

Derivatives are word that are derived from other words, which we call root words. Usually, derivatives are formed by adding an affix to the root words.
Let’s see the paragraph below:

At their first session, the lawyer asked Ed, “What things about this woman that attracted you?”
Ed replied, “Her forthrightness, straightforwardness, and frankness
.”

Fellas, did you find any derivatives from that paragraph?
From that paragraph, the words ‘forthrightness,’ ‘straightforwardness,’ and ‘frankness’ are derivatives. Derivatives can also be nouns that we could change into adjectives or adverbs if we add suffix at the end of the words. However, there are some derivatives that still retain their meaning.

1. To form noun derivatives, we add suffixes like -ness, -ty, -hood, -ian, -cy, -er, -or, -sion, -ment, -tion, -ant, -ce, etc.
E.g.: 
Happy – Happiness 
Child – Childhood

Dense – Density
Pregnant – Pregnancy
Good – Goodness

Comedy – Comedian
Assist – Assistance
Friend – Friendship 

2. To form adjective derivatives, we add suffixes like: -full, -less, -ish, -al, – cy, – ary, -able, -ous, -y, etc.
E.g.:
Blue – blueish
Boy – boyish
Help – helpless
Sun – sunny
Danger – dangerous

3. To form verb derivatives, we can add affixes like dis-, re-, -ize, a-, -fy. 
E.g.:
Like – dislike
Agree – disagree 
Check – recheck
Memory – memorize
Summary – summarize

4. Derivatives can also form ‘negative words’ or words that have the negative meaning of the root words. To form these derivatives, we add prefixes un-, in-, im-, etc.

E.g.:
complete – incomplete
happy – unhappy
direct – indirect
mortal – immortal

Sumber: Yulianto, Dian. (2018). Asyiknya Belajar Grammar Dari Kisah-Kisah Jenaka. Yogyakarta: DIVA press.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 23, 2019

#EngClass: Irregular Plural Nouns (Revisit)

Hello, fellas. How is it going? In this session we will discuss irregular plurals. Most plural forms are made by adding an –s at the end of their singulars. Nevertheless, some plural nouns do not follow this rule.

1) Vowel change
man / men
woman / women
foot / feet
tooth / teeth
goose / geese
mouse / mice

2) Add –en
child / children
ox / oxen

3) Same as singular
deer / deer
fish / fish
people / people
salmon / salmon
sheep / sheep
trout / trout

4) -is / -es
analysis / analyses
axis / axes
crisis / crises
diagnosis / diagnoses
hypothesis / hypotheses
parenthesis / parentheses
synthesis / syntheses
thesis / theses

5) End in –a
bacterium / bacteria
curriculum / curricula
datum / data
phenomenon / phenomena
criterion / criteria

6) –us / -i
alumnus / alumni
bacillus / bacilli
cactus / cacti
fungus / fungi
nucleus / nuclei
radius / radii
stimulus / stimuli
syllabus / syllabi

Sources:
Grammarly, Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/plural-nouns/
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 7, 2019

#EngTips: Complex Sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn the use of complex sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1.

In terms of IELTS Writing and Speaking, a band score is equally awarded for each of areas, one of which is grammatical range and accuracy. We need to use complex sentences if we aim to score Band 5 or above for grammar. A complex sentence can be made by joining two simple sentences using an –ing form. A comma is put before the –ing clause.

This kind of complex sentences can also be used to add more information about a trend or describe trends that hit a low, reach a peak or stabilise.

Examples:

  1. The number of households rose in Canada. It reached 11.8 million in 2004. (The number of households rose in Canada, reaching 11.8 million in 2004.)
  2. Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s. They showed a 20% improvement over the previous decade. (Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s, showing a 20% improvement over the previous decade.)

Sources:
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Anneli Williams, Collins English for Exams: Writing for IELTS

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Inverted Subjects and Verbs with Negative Expressions or Comparisons

In the session titled #GrammarTrivia: Omitting If, we have learned the inversions of subjects and verbs in conditional sentences. When a conditional sentence contains should, were, or had, the subject and verb of the if-clause are inverted. Inversion is also possible in sentences with negative expressions or comparisons.

(More on Omitting If: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/11/10/grammartrivia-omitting-if/)

1) Inversion with Negative Expressions

A negative expression, when it precedes a subject and verb, causes them to be inverted. It is to emphasize the negative element of the sentence.
List of negative expressions:
– no
– rarely
– not
– hardly
– never
– only
– neither
– rarely
– nor
– scarcely
– seldom

Examples:
1. Never were they so enthusiastic.
2. Hardly does she attend the class.

2) Inversion with Comparisons

Inverting the subject and verb of a sentence which contains a comparison is optional and rather formal.

Examples:
1. China is larger than Japan.
2. China is larger than Japan is.
3. China is larger than is Japan.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, November 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun Clauses with ‘If’ or ‘Whether’

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn noun clauses beginning with if or whether. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a noun clause is a clause used as a subject or an object of a sentence.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

When a noun clause begins with if or whether, it means that the clause is changed from a yes/no question. There is no difference in meaning between noun clauses using if and whether. However, whether is more formal and if is more common in speaking.

Examples:

1. Yes/No Question: Will he go?
Noun Clause:
a) They know whether he will go.
b) They know if he will go.

2. Yes/No Question: Does she understand the lesson?
Noun Clause:
a) We wonder whether she understands the lesson.
b) We wonder if she understands the lesson.

The expression or not may be added in noun clauses.

Examples:

1. We wonder whether or not she understands the lesson.
2. We wonder whether she understands the lesson or not.
3. We wonder if she understands the lesson or not.
4. Whether she understands the lesson or not is unimportant to us.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 14, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Omitting If

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to discuss another form of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence typically comprises of a conditional clause (an if-clause) as well as a result clause. However, the sentence can also be made without using if.

(More on conditional sentences: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/06/04/engclass-conditional-sentences-revisit/)

To omit if in a conditional sentence, make sure that the if-clause contains should, were, or had (past perfect). After if is omitted, the subject and verb of the if-clause are inverted.

Examples:

  1. If you should need my help, please tell me.
    Should you need my help, please tell me.
  2. If I were you, I would buy the book.
    Were I you, I would buy the book.
  3. If they had prepared themselves better, they would have passed the test.
    Had they prepared themselves better, they would have passed the test.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 7, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Verbs + Gerunds/Infinitives

Hello, fellas. How is your first day in November? Let’s start this session with a question. Which one is correct: Lionel Messi began playing football since his childhood or Lionel Messi began to play football since his childhood?

Today we are going to discuss verbs and their objects, especially gerunds and infinitives. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, some verbs can come before gerunds or infinitives. However, the meaning can be similar or different.

1) No difference in meaning
begin, like, hate, start, love, can’t stand, continue, prefer, and can’t bear

Examples:
She began writing a book.
She began to write a book.

The two sentences carry no difference in their meaning. A gerund is usually used if the main verb is progressive, e.g.: She was beginning to write a book.

Note:
prefer + gerund: I prefer watching a movie to reading a book.
prefer + infinitives: I prefer to watch a movie than (to) read a book.

2) A difference in meaning
remember, forget, regret, and try

remember + gerund: remember or recall something that took place in the past
e.g.: He remembers going to the beach.

remember + infinitive: remember to perform responsibility, duty, or task
e.g.: He remembers to open the window.

forget + gerund: forget something that took place in the past
e.g.: They forget playing football together.

forget + infinitive: forget to perform responsibility, duty, or task
e.g.: They forget to pay the bills.

regret + gerund: regret something that took place in the past
e.g.: We regret watching the movie.

regret + infinitive: regret to say, to tell or inform someone of some bad news
e.g.: We regret to tell him about his failure.

try + gerund: experiment with a new or different approach to see if it works
e.g.: I try accessing the computer file.

try + infinitive: make an effort
e.g.: I try to understand trigonometry.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 31, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time (2)

Hello, fellas. On August 2, 2018, we learned how to reduce adverb clauses of time. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time: (1) omit the subject and be (if any); or (2) if there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form. However, there are still other ways of the reduction.

(More on reduced adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

If a sentence begins with an –ing form, it may be due to the reduction of an adverb clause of time using while, expressing the idea of “during the same time”.

Examples:

While I was walking to school, I witnessed a car accident.

Walking to school, I witnessed a car accident.

An adverb clause of time beginning with when can also be shortened to upon/on + -ing.

Examples:

When I finish my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

Upon finishing my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

On finishing my study, I will come back to Indonesia.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, October 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressing Necessity using ‘Have Got To’

Hello, fellas. In English, necessity can be expressed using must, have to, and have got to. For the use of must and have to has ever been discussed, this session is going to focus on that of have got to.

(More on the use of must and have to: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/09/grammartrivia-the-use-of-must-and-have-to/)

Even though have got to also carries the meaning of necessity, it is more typical to use have got to in spoken and informal English.

Examples:

1) I have got to take the IELTS test.

2) She has got to study hard.

In speech, have got to is usually pronounced gotta and have is omitted.

Example:

We gotta go to the bank.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 17, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressing Cause and Effect with “Such…That” and “So…That”

Hello, fellas. Our session today is about other ways of expressing cause and effect relationship. Usually it is introduced by prepositions, like because of and due to, or conjunctions, such as because.

(More on cause and effect: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/10/engclass-because-for-since-as-because-of-due-to/)

However, we can use the following constructions to show cause and effect.

1) Such…that
Such…that is used with a modified noun. The pattern is:
such + adjective + noun + that
Examples:
1. It was such a sunny day that we went to the beach.
2. She wrote such interesting books that everyone wanted to read them.

2) So…that
An adjective or adverb is enclosed by so…that. The pattern is:
so + adjective/adverb + that
Examples:
1. The day was so sunny that we went to beach.
2. Luka Modric performed so well that he was named as the best player.

So…that can also be used with expressions of quantity: many, few, much, and little.
Examples:
1. They had so little water that we could not take a bath.
2. She wrote so many books that she was awarded a prize.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Michael A. Pyle and Mary Ellen Muñoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, October 11, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: ‘You’, ‘One’, and ‘They’ as Impersonal Pronouns

Hello, fellas. How is it going in the end of September? Our session today is about impersonal pronouns.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a pronoun refers to a noun. The noun it replaces is called the antecedent. Based on their antecedents, pronouns are divided into two categories: singular pronouns and plural pronouns. A singular pronoun refers to a singular noun. On the other hand, the antecedent of a plural pronoun is a plural noun.

Sometimes, pronouns are used to refer to no antecedent. They are called impersonal pronouns. There are three impersonal pronouns: you, one, and they. You and one carry the same meaning as they refer to “any person, people in general”. However, you is less formal than one and more common in everyday English.

Examples:

1) You should pay to attention to the announcement. (informal)

2) One should pay to attention to the announcement. (formal)

As an impersonal pronoun, they means “some people or somebody” in spoken English. However, the antecedent is implied or not stated.

Example:

Why did Ann lose her job?

They fired her.

On the sentence above, they refers to the people for whom Ann worked.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, September 29, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Am/Is/Are Being + Adjective

Hello, fellas. Can you guess the differences between these two sentences: Tom is funny and Tom is being funny? One difference lies in the tense used in them. The first sentence uses simple present tense, while the second is written in present progressive tense. Due to the different tenses, the meaning they carry is not similar either.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the use of simple present tense shows that an event or a situation exists in the past, present, and future. On the other hand, present progressive tense means that an event or a situation started in the past, is in progress when it is being said, and will probably end in the future.

(More on simple present tense and present progressive tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/09/engclass-simple-present-tense-positive/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/16/engclass-present-progressive-tense-positive/)

Present progressive tense may also be used with an adjective. The pattern is am/is/are being + adjective. It expresses someone’s temporary and uncharacteristic behaviour. However, only some adjectives can be used with such pattern: bad (ill-behaved), careful, cruel, fair, foolish, funny, generous, good (well-behaved), illogical, impolite, irresponsible, kind, lazy, logical, loud, nice, noisy, patient, pleasant, polite, quiet, responsible, rude, serious, silly, unfair, unkind, and unpleasant.

Based on the explanation above, in the first sentence Tom is known to be a funny person on a daily basis. On the contrary, as described by the second sentence, funny is not his characteristic.

Other examples:

1) Bill is generous.
This sentence means that generosity is Bill’s characteristic behaviour.

2) Bill is being generous.
In this example, Bill is said not to be generous in his daily life.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, September 20, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Using ‘Since’ and ‘For’ in Present Perfect Tense

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn about time signals frequently used in present perfect tense. They are since and for.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, present perfect tense mainly consists of have/has + past participle. It shows that an event occurred or never occurred before now. The time when the event took place is not important.

(More on present perfect tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/13/engclass-present-perfect-tense-vs-simple-past-tense/)

However, present perfect tense carries different meaning when since or for is used. Present perfect tense with since or for means that something happened in the past and continues to the present.

There is a difference between since and for. Since is followed by a particular time, while for precedes a duration of time.

Examples:

1) Indonesia has existed since 1945.

2) The students have played football for an hour.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun + of Which

Hello, fellas. After learning about how to use expressions of quantity in relative clauses last week, today we are still going to have a session on another form of relative clauses. It is the use of noun + of which.

(More on expressions of quantity in relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/30/grammartrivia-expressions-of-quantity-in-relative-clauses/)

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the pattern has the same meaning of whose. In other words, both of them show possession. Noun + of which is used in a relative clause modifying a thing and more common in formal written English. It is preceded by a comma.

(More on whose: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/01/engclass-how-to-use-who-whom-and-whose/)

Example:

1) Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel. The title of the novel is Anna Karenina.

    Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel, the title of which is Anna Karenina.

2) The student bought a book. The price of the book was affordable.

     The student bought a book, the price of which was affordable.

3) They like Indonesian food. The taste of the food is spicy.

     They like Indonesian food, the taste of which is spicy.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 5, 2018