Category Archives: grammar

#GrammarTrivia: Using “A” or No Article for Generalization

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn how to use a or no article. A or no article is used when a speaker is making a generalization.

A comes before a singular noun when a generalization is expressed.

Examples:
1) A leaf is green.
2) A cat makes a good pet.

In the above-mentioned examples, the speaker is talking about any leaf and any cat, all leaves and all cats, leaves and cats in general.

No article is used when a speaker is making a generalization with a plural count noun.

Examples:
3) Leaves are green.
4) Cats make good pets.

The meaning of these examples is similar to that of example 1 and 2. Sometimes an expression of quantity (e.g., almost all, most, some) is used in a generalization.

Examples:
5) She saw some cats in her room.
6) Most students read books.

If a generalization is about an uncountable noun, no article is used.

Examples:
7) Milk is good for your health.
8) Fruit contains vitamins.

Some can be used in the generalization of an uncountable noun.

Examples:
9) Can you get me some food?
10) He drank some milk.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, September 14, 2019

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#GrammarTrivia: Length of Time (How Long & It + Take)

Hello, fellas. How long have you been learning English? In this session we will learn how to ask about and express length of time.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a question about length of time is started by how long.

Examples:
1) How long did you sleep last night?
2) How long will they stay in New York?

How long can be replaced by how many + minutes/hours/days/weeks/months/years.

Example:
How many weeks will they stay in New York?

On the other hand, length of time can be expressed by this formula:

It + Take + (Someone) + Length of Time + Infinitive

(Infinitive = to + the simple form of a verb)

Examples:
1) It takes 90 minutes to play football.
2) It took Mary two months to write her book.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, August 27, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Conditional Sentences Using ‘As If’, ‘As Though’ and ‘Like’

Hello, fellas. How’s life today? On this occasion we will learn several forms of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence usually comprises of an adverb clause of condition or if-clause, which contains a condition, and a result clause, which shows a result. Besides, an adverb clause can be introduced by whether or not, even if, in case, in the event that, unless and only if.

(More on conditional sentences: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/06/04/engclass-conditional-sentences-revisit/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2019/02/05/grammartrivia-other-forms-of-conditional-sentences/)

Conditional sentences can also be formed by using as if, as though and like. The use of as if or as though usually carries the same meaning as an untrue conditional sentence.

Examples:
1) She kept playing as if she were a child.
Fact: She is not a child.
2) He explained the lesson to his classmates as though he had learned all the materials.
Fact: He did not learn all the materials.

In conditional sentences, like precedes a clause. However, it is not generally considered appropriate in formal English and more common in informal English.

Example:
It looks like it is going to be sunny.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, August 13, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: The Past Perfect Progressive

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the past perfect progressive.

To begin with, we need to understand the past perfect first. The past perfect conveys an idea that an activity was completed before another activity or time in the past.

(More on the past perfect: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/12/26/engclass-past-perfect-tense/)

Example:
Felix had finished his study when Mary started her tertiary education.
First: Felix finished his study.
Second: Mary started her tertiary education.

In the past perfect progressive, the emphasis is put on the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past.

Example:
She had been reading a book for two hours before I came.

The past perfect progressive may also express a meaning that an activity was in progress close in time to another activity or time in the past.

Example:
He was tired because he had been running.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, August 4, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Relative Clauses to Modify Pronouns

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the use of relative clauses to modify pronouns.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses can also be used to modify indefinite pronouns (everyone, everybody, everything, someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing)

Example:
1) There is somebody whom she wants to see.
2) Anything which they said was irrelevant.

Pronouns such as the one(s) and those can be modified by relative clauses, too.

Example:
1) Catherine was the only one whom I talked to in the class.
2) The governments provide scholarships for those who are unable to pay their tuition fees.

Relative clauses are extremely rarely used to modify personal pronouns (I, you, she, he, it, we, they). Even though it is possible, it is very formal and uncommon.

Example:
It is I who help the students.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, July 19, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: “Always” in the Progressive

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the use of always in the progressive.

Always is usually used in the simple present to describe habits or everyday activities.
Example: I always go to school at 6:30.

It may be used in the present progressive to complain, express annoyance or anger.
Example: She is always coming late!

Beside always, the words forever and constantly can also be used in the present progressive to convey annoyance.
Example: She is always/forever/constantly coming late!

Always, forever, and constantly may be used in the past progressive to express annoyance or anger.
Example: She was always/forever/constantly coming late.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, July 6, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: The Present Progressive and the Simple Present to Express the Future

Hello, fellas. In the previous session of #GrammarTrivia on June 11, 2019, we learned how the future is expressed in time clauses.

(More on the future in time clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2019/06/15/grammartrivia-expressing-the-future-in-time-clauses/)

Our session today is about using the present progressive and the simple present to express the future.

The future is expressed by the present progressive when a sentence concerns a planned event or definite intention. Its future meaning is conveyed by future time words or the context.

Example:
My sister is seeing a doctor next Wednesday.

The simple present may also be used to express the future in a sentence if it concerns a definite schedule or timetable. It usually contains future time words. Only several verbs are used in this way, e.g., open, close, begin, end, start, finish, arrive, leave, come, return.

Example:
The competition starts tomorrow.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, June 19, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Expressing the Future in Time Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn how to express the future in time clauses.

A time clause is an adverb clause beginning with such words as when, before, after, as soon as, until, and while. However, will or be going to is not used in a time clause. The clause carries future meaning despite its simple present tense.

Example:
Dave will arrive soon. When he arrives, we will see him.

Sometimes a time clause uses the present progressive to express an activity that will be in progress in the future.

Example:
While I am studying overseas next year, I am going to visit several tourism destinations.

To emphasize the completion of the act before the other act takes place in the future, the present perfect is used in a time clause.

Example:
She will take a rest after she has finished her project.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, June 7, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Using Already, Yet, Still, and Anymore

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the use of several adverbs. They are already, yet, still, and anymore.

1) Already
• Meaning: Something occurred before now.
• Position: Midsentence.
• Example: The computer is already there.

2) Yet
• Meaning: Something did not take place before now (until this time), but it may happen in the future.
• Position: End of sentence.
• Example: The mail has not come yet.

3) Still
• Meaning: A situation continues its existence from past to present with no change.
• Position: Midsentence.
• Example: We can still play the guitar.

4) Anymore
• Meaning: A past situation has changed or does not continue at present. It has the same meaning as any longer.
• Position: End of sentence.
• Example: She does not teach English anymore.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, May 20, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Predicate Adjectives

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn predicate adjectives.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, adjectives are words describing nouns. They are usually placed right before nouns. An adjective can also follow a linking verb such as be, feel, look, smell, sound, taste, appear, seem, and become.

(More on linking verbs: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/08/23/engclass-linking-verb/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2012/03/12/engclass-linking-verbs/)

However, several adjectives only occur after linking verbs and they cannot come directly before nouns they describe. A predicate adjective should be changed into its corresponding form to use in front of a noun.

Here are predicate adjectives and their corresponding forms:

alike= like similar

alive= live living

alone= lone

afraid= frightened

asleep= sleeping

Examples:

1) The two brothers look alike.

2) We completed our projects in a similar manner.

3) The girl is afraid of heights.

4) The frightened child cried for his mother.

Sources:
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for The TOEFL Test
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, May 8, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Verbs of Perception

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn the use of verbs of perception. Verbs of perception express the experience of one of the physical senses. They are also called perception verbs or perceptual verbs.

Several of them are followed by the simple form of a verb (the infinitive form without to) or the -ing form (the present participle).

They are:
see
notice
watch
look at
observe
hear
listen to
feel
smell

The two forms often carry little difference in meaning, except that the –ing form frequently gives the notion of while.

Examples:
1) He saw his friend ride a bicycle.
2) He saw his friend riding a bicycle. (He saw his friend while he was riding a bicycle)

Sometimes, the use of –ing form means that an activity is already in progress when it is perceived.

Examples:
1) When she walked into her boarding house, she heard her roommate crying. (The crying was in progress when she first heard it)
2) When she walked into her boarding house, she heard her roommate cry. (She heard the crying from beginning to end)

Sources:
ThoughtCo., Verb of Perception, https://www.thoughtco.com/verb-of-perception-1692486
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 28, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Expressions Followed by “-ing”

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss several expressions which are followed by –ing.

1) have fun/a good time
Example: I had fun watching movies.

have trouble/difficulty
Example: We had trouble looking for the key.

have a hard time/difficult time
Example: They had a hard time climbing the ladder.

2) spend/waste + expression of time or money
Example: Steve spent a lot of time reading novels.

3) sit/stand/lie + expression of place
Example: Angela sat on the floor typing a letter.

4) find/catch + pro(noun)
Both find and catch carry the meaning of discover.
Example: On my way home, I found a man crying for help.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 16, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: “Seem” vs. “look”

Hola, Fellas! It’s finally Friday again. How do you do during this week? I hope you are doing well. This evening we are going to have a discussion about the difference between ‘seem’ and ‘look.’ In this term, both words are considered as copular verbs. Do you know what copular verb is?

Copular verb is a verb that connects subject of sentence to a subject complement. In other words, copular verb is linking verb. There are some words that are considered as copular verbs, such as ‘feel,’ ‘look,’ ‘smell,’ ‘taste,’ etc.  In this occasion, we will specifically talk about ‘look’ and its common substitute, ‘seem.’

Sometimes, you might face a confusion on whether you should use ‘seem’ or ‘look’ to express your opinion of an object. As illustration,

  • “She (look/seem) happy today.”
  • “You (look/seem) pretty today.”

Which verb will you choose to complete each of the example?

“You look pretty today.” “She looks happy today.” – @NeNi961111 

Seem and look. – @Syalaladubidum

You look pretty today. She seems happy today. – @niaangreinny

You look pretty today. She seems happy today. Am I right? – @innecfc

‘Look’ for the second question and ‘seem’ for the first I guess. – @ryutz_

“Seem”

In the first example, I would choose “seem” as the answer. “Seem” is a general copular verb to express our sense/impression about something. On the other words, we use “seem” when the judgement is subjective, it’s like you are using your intuition.

On the other hands, we can also say “She looks happy today” if we see her laughing or smiling. Here are some examples on how to use “seem’ in a sentence,

  • “The task seems difficult to be accomplished,”
  • “It seems like we are going to have a long chat this evening.”

“Look”

Meanwhile, I would say “You look pretty today” in the second illustration. “Look” is generally used as a result of a physical observation of an objectSo, you would say “look” if you can see the appearance of the object. For example,

  • “You look stylish with this dress,”
  • “This area looks dirty with these scattered trashes.”

 

source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, March 15, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Other Forms of Conditional Sentences

Hello, fellas. On this Chinese Lunar New Year’s Day, we will discuss other forms of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence usually comprises of an adverb clause of condition or if-clause, which contains a condition, and a result clause, which shows a result.

(More on conditional sentences: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/06/04/engclass-conditional-sentences-revisit/)

There are other words introducing adverb clauses of condition.

1) Whether or Not and Even If
Whether or not and even if mean that the result will be the same despite the condition.
Examples:
I am going to go the beach tomorrow whether or not it rains. (Or whether it rains or not)
I am going to go the beach tomorrow even if it rains.
(If it rains, I am going to the beach. If it does not rain, I am going to the beach. I do not care about the weather. It does not matter.)

2) In Case and In the Event That
In case and in the event that show that something will probably not occur, but it might. In the event that is more common in formal usage than in case.
Examples:
I will be online in case you need to contact me.
I will be online in the event that you need to contact me.

3) Unless
Unless has the same meaning as if…not.
Examples:
I will go to the beach tomorrow unless it rains.
I will go to the beach tomorrow if it does not rains.

4) Only If
Only if expresses the idea that only one condition will lead to a particular result. The subject and verb of the result clause are inverted when only if begins a sentence.
Examples:
The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains.
Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.

(More on inversion with negative words: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/11/06/engclass-inversion-sentences-begin-with-negative-adverbs/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/11/21/grammartrivia-inverted-subjects-and-verbs-with-negative-expressions-or-comparisons/)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, February 5, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Common Expressions with “Other”

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss several common expressions using other. Forms of other can be used as adjectives or pronouns. Furthermore, there are also common expressions with other carrying different meanings.

1) each other and one another

each other and one another show a reciprocal relationship. They are interchangeable because there is no difference between them.

E.g. We respect each other.
We respect one another.

In both examples above, I respect him or her, and he or she respects me.

2) every other

every other means “alternate”.

E.g. I read every other line. (I read the first line. I do not read the second line. I read             the third line. I do not read the fourth line)

3) the other

the other can be found in time expressions like the other day, the other week, etc., to indicate the recent past.

E.g. We saw her the other day.

the other day in the example carries the meaning of “a few days ago, not long ago”.

4) one after the other and one after another

The two expressions show that separate actions take place very close in time.

E.g. They arrived one after the other.
They arrived one after another.

5) other than

It is frequently used in negative sentences and has the same meaning as “except”.

E.g. No one understands the lesson other than James.
       No one understands the lesson except (for) James.

6) in other words

in other words is used to explain the meaning of the previous sentence(s).

E.g. IELTS assesses our ability to listen, read, write and speak. In other words, IELTS is a         comprehensive test.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 21, 2019

#EngClass: Derivatives

Hello fellas, how was your day?

In this session we will discuss derivative which is a part of grammar in English language. There are several grammatical rules to apply when using English. Today, we will continue with ‘Derivatives.’

Derivatives are word that are derived from other words, which we call root words. Usually, derivatives are formed by adding an affix to the root words.
Let’s see the paragraph below:

At their first session, the lawyer asked Ed, “What things about this woman that attracted you?”
Ed replied, “Her forthrightness, straightforwardness, and frankness
.”

Fellas, did you find any derivatives from that paragraph?
From that paragraph, the words ‘forthrightness,’ ‘straightforwardness,’ and ‘frankness’ are derivatives. Derivatives can also be nouns that we could change into adjectives or adverbs if we add suffix at the end of the words. However, there are some derivatives that still retain their meaning.

1. To form noun derivatives, we add suffixes like -ness, -ty, -hood, -ian, -cy, -er, -or, -sion, -ment, -tion, -ant, -ce, etc.
E.g.: 
Happy – Happiness 
Child – Childhood

Dense – Density
Pregnant – Pregnancy
Good – Goodness

Comedy – Comedian
Assist – Assistance
Friend – Friendship 

2. To form adjective derivatives, we add suffixes like: -full, -less, -ish, -al, – cy, – ary, -able, -ous, -y, etc.
E.g.:
Blue – blueish
Boy – boyish
Help – helpless
Sun – sunny
Danger – dangerous

3. To form verb derivatives, we can add affixes like dis-, re-, -ize, a-, -fy. 
E.g.:
Like – dislike
Agree – disagree 
Check – recheck
Memory – memorize
Summary – summarize

4. Derivatives can also form ‘negative words’ or words that have the negative meaning of the root words. To form these derivatives, we add prefixes un-, in-, im-, etc.

E.g.:
complete – incomplete
happy – unhappy
direct – indirect
mortal – immortal

Sumber: Yulianto, Dian. (2018). Asyiknya Belajar Grammar Dari Kisah-Kisah Jenaka. Yogyakarta: DIVA press.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 23, 2019

#EngClass: Irregular Plural Nouns (Revisit)

Hello, fellas. How is it going? In this session we will discuss irregular plurals. Most plural forms are made by adding an –s at the end of their singulars. Nevertheless, some plural nouns do not follow this rule.

1) Vowel change
man / men
woman / women
foot / feet
tooth / teeth
goose / geese
mouse / mice

2) Add –en
child / children
ox / oxen

3) Same as singular
deer / deer
fish / fish
people / people
salmon / salmon
sheep / sheep
trout / trout

4) -is / -es
analysis / analyses
axis / axes
crisis / crises
diagnosis / diagnoses
hypothesis / hypotheses
parenthesis / parentheses
synthesis / syntheses
thesis / theses

5) End in –a
bacterium / bacteria
curriculum / curricula
datum / data
phenomenon / phenomena
criterion / criteria

6) –us / -i
alumnus / alumni
bacillus / bacilli
cactus / cacti
fungus / fungi
nucleus / nuclei
radius / radii
stimulus / stimuli
syllabus / syllabi

Sources:
Grammarly, Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples, https://www.grammarly.com/blog/plural-nouns/
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 7, 2019

#EngTips: Complex Sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn the use of complex sentences in IELTS Writing Task 1.

In terms of IELTS Writing and Speaking, a band score is equally awarded for each of areas, one of which is grammatical range and accuracy. We need to use complex sentences if we aim to score Band 5 or above for grammar. A complex sentence can be made by joining two simple sentences using an –ing form. A comma is put before the –ing clause.

This kind of complex sentences can also be used to add more information about a trend or describe trends that hit a low, reach a peak or stabilise.

Examples:

  1. The number of households rose in Canada. It reached 11.8 million in 2004. (The number of households rose in Canada, reaching 11.8 million in 2004.)
  2. Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s. They showed a 20% improvement over the previous decade. (Standards in hospitals increased in the 1960s, showing a 20% improvement over the previous decade.)

Sources:
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Anneli Williams, Collins English for Exams: Writing for IELTS

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 10, 2018