Category Archives: grammar

#GrammarTrivia: Am/Is/Are Being + Adjective

Hello, fellas. Can you guess the differences between these two sentences: Tom is funny and Tom is being funny? One difference lies in the tense used in them. The first sentence uses simple present tense, while the second is written in present progressive tense. Due to the different tenses, the meaning they carry is not similar either.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the use of simple present tense shows that an event or a situation exists in the past, present, and future. On the other hand, present progressive tense means that an event or a situation started in the past, is in progress when it is being said, and will probably end in the future.

(More on simple present tense and present progressive tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/09/engclass-simple-present-tense-positive/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/16/engclass-present-progressive-tense-positive/)

Present progressive tense may also be used with an adjective. The pattern is am/is/are being + adjective. It expresses someone’s temporary and uncharacteristic behaviour. However, only some adjectives can be used with such pattern: bad (ill-behaved), careful, cruel, fair, foolish, funny, generous, good (well-behaved), illogical, impolite, irresponsible, kind, lazy, logical, loud, nice, noisy, patient, pleasant, polite, quiet, responsible, rude, serious, silly, unfair, unkind, and unpleasant.

Based on the explanation above, in the first sentence Tom is known to be a funny person on a daily basis. On the contrary, as described by the second sentence, funny is not his characteristic.

Other examples:

1) Bill is generous.
This sentence means that generosity is Bill’s characteristic behaviour.

2) Bill is being generous.
In this example, Bill is said not to be generous in his daily life.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, September 20, 2018

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#GrammarTrivia: Using ‘Since’ and ‘For’ in Present Perfect Tense

Hello, fellas. How is life today? In this session we are going to learn about time signals frequently used in present perfect tense. They are since and for.

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, present perfect tense mainly consists of have/has + past participle. It shows that an event occurred or never occurred before now. The time when the event took place is not important.

(More on present perfect tense: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/13/engclass-present-perfect-tense-vs-simple-past-tense/)

However, present perfect tense carries different meaning when since or for is used. Present perfect tense with since or for means that something happened in the past and continues to the present.

There is a difference between since and for. Since is followed by a particular time, while for precedes a duration of time.

Examples:

1) Indonesia has existed since 1945.

2) The students have played football for an hour.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Noun + of Which

Hello, fellas. After learning about how to use expressions of quantity in relative clauses last week, today we are still going to have a session on another form of relative clauses. It is the use of noun + of which.

(More on expressions of quantity in relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/30/grammartrivia-expressions-of-quantity-in-relative-clauses/)

According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, the pattern has the same meaning of whose. In other words, both of them show possession. Noun + of which is used in a relative clause modifying a thing and more common in formal written English. It is preceded by a comma.

(More on whose: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/06/01/engclass-how-to-use-who-whom-and-whose/)

Example:

1) Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel. The title of the novel is Anna Karenina.

    Leo Tolstoy wrote a novel, the title of which is Anna Karenina.

2) The student bought a book. The price of the book was affordable.

     The student bought a book, the price of which was affordable.

3) They like Indonesian food. The taste of the food is spicy.

     They like Indonesian food, the taste of which is spicy.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, September 5, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Expressions of Quantity in Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. Today we are going to learn about expressions of quantity in relative clauses. An expression of quantity is used to express the number or amount of something. It may precede a noun whose number or amount it describes. Several examples of expressions of quantity are one, two, each, every, both, some, several, a few, a little, many, much, most, etc.

(More on expressions of quantity: https://englishtips4u.com/2017/03/05/engclass-expressions-of-quantity/)

In relative clauses, expressions of quantity with of come before the pronouns. However, the pronouns are only whom, which and whose. This pattern is preceded by a comma and more common in writing than speaking.

Examples:

1) There are 23 players in the German national team. Most of them are from Bayern Munich. (There are 23 players in the German national team, most of whom are from Bayern Munich.)

2) Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books. Two of them are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”. (Pramoedya Ananta Toer wrote several books, two of which are “Bumi Manusia” and “Anak Semua Bangsa”.)

3) Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. One of his works is “The Marriage of Figaro”. (Students are reading the biography of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of whose works is “The Marriage of Figaro”.)

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Abridged Noun Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we are going to learn about the abridgement of noun clauses. A noun clause is a clause used as the subject, object or complement of a sentence. It can begin with a question word (who, whom, what, which, where, when, whose, why or how), that, if or whether.

(More on noun clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/02/06/engclass-noun-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/)

Noun clauses beginning with one of the question words or whether can be abridged. However, the abridgement is only possible if these requirements are fulfilled:

1) The main clause and the noun clause have the same subject or the subject of the noun clause is the same as the object of the main clause; and

2) The noun clause contains a modal verb either can/could or should.

There are 3 steps in the abridgement of noun clauses:

1) Omit the subject;

2) Omit the modal verb; and

3) Change the verb into an infinitive.

Examples:

1) I know what I should do. (I know what to do.)

2) She told me when I should go. (She told me when to go.)

3) Students learn how they could write journals. (Students learn how to write journals.)

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 19, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Adjective Clauses as the Object of a Preposition

Hello, fellas. In everyday usage, the subject and verb of an adjective clause (relative clause) precede a preposition. On the other hand, to make it more formal, the clause is used as the object of the preposition.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

According to Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, a preposition is a word used before its object (a noun, a noun phrase, or a pronoun), connecting it to another word. It usually shows a temporal, spatial or logical relationship of its object to the rest of a sentence. Examples of prepositions are about, at, by, for, from in, on, through, to, with, and without.

(More on prepositions: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/09/17/engclass-prepositions/)

If the preposition is followed by the adjective clause, pronouns to use are only whom or which. It is never followed by that or who.

Examples:

  • He is the man whom we talk about.

         He is the man about whom we talk.

  • The lecturer whom you should listen to is explaining course materials.

         The lecturer to whom you should listen is explaining course materials.

  • The view which we look at is breath-taking.

         The view at which we look is breath-taking.

  • Surabaya is the city which I live in.

         Surabaya is the city in which I live.

(in which has the same meaning as where)

Source:

Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition

GrammarBook.com, https://www.grammarbook.com/grammar/probPrep.asp

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Sunday, August 12, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Reason

After discussing reduced relative clauses and reduced adverb clauses of time, today we are going to learn the reduction of adverb clauses of reason.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2018/08/02/grammartrivia-reduced-adverb-clauses-of-time/)

Adverb clauses of reason are also called adverb clauses of cause and effect. They are introduced by conjunctions, such as because, now that, since, due to the fact that, and owing to the fact that. Like the other kinds of adverb clauses, they function as the dependent clause in a sentence.

(More on adverb clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

The reduction of an adverb clause of reason to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. Omit the conjunction, so that it is not included in the adverbial phrase, and change the verb to its –ing form.

Example:

Because she lives far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.
Living far from her family, Nancy does everything herself.

Having + past participle means because.

Example:

Because I have read the novel, I want to give it to you.
Having read the novel, I want to give it to you.

It is also possible to change be in an adverb clause of reason to being.

Example:

Because she was sick, she did not attend the class.
Being sick, she did not attend the class.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Friday, August 10, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time

Hello, fellas. Last week we learned how to reduce relative clauses.

(More on reduced relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/26/grammartrivia-reduced-relative-clauses/)

In this session, we are still going to discuss the reduction of clauses. It is the reduction of adverb clauses of time.

(More on adverb clauses of time: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/)

In a sentence, an adverb clause functions as the dependent clause. It must be attached to the main clause or the independent clause (More on clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/01/26/engclass-clause/). An adverb clause of time begins with a conjunction, such as after, before, since, when, and while.

The reduction of an adverb clause of time to an adverbial phrase is only possible when its subject is the same as the subject of the main clause. There are two ways of reducing the adverb clause of time:

1) Omit the subject and be
Example:
While I was studying, I fell asleep.
While studying, I fell asleep.

2) If there is no be, omit the subject and change the verb to its –ing form
Example:
Jane has lived abroad since she pursued her education.
Jane has lived abroad since pursuing her education.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, August 2, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Reduced Relative Clauses

Hello, fellas. How is it going? Today we are going to learn how to reduce relative clauses. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a relative clause is a dependent clause modifying a noun. Further information about a noun is described, identified, or given by the clause. It is also called an adjective clause.

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

Relative clauses with relative pronouns as subjects (who, which, or that) can be reduced to adjective phrases.

There are two ways in which a relative clause is changed to an adjective phrase:

1) If the relative clause contains be, omit the pronoun and be.
Relative clause: The research which was conducted by the students is published.
Adjective phrase: The research conducted by the students is published.

2) If there is no be in the relative clause, omit the pronoun and change the verb to its –ing form.
Relative clause: Students who conduct research should write in journals.
Adjective phrase: Students conducting research should write in journals.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 26, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Double Comparatives

Hello, fellas. How do we say “Semakin cepat, semakin baik” in English? Yes. We say it through double comparatives “The sooner, the better”. But, wait. Is it correct to use article the with comparative comparison (-er, more)? Let’s check it out.

Comparisons are used to assess the value of one thing and another. They are equal comparison (as…as), comparative comparison and superlative comparison (-est, the most).

(More on comparisons: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/01/20/engclass-degrees-of-comparison/comment-page-1/)

Double comparatives comprise of two parts, each of which begins with the. The second part is the result of the first one. In double comparatives, both parts have parallel structures.

There are three structures of double comparatives:

1) the + comparative, the + comparative
e.g. The fresher, the tastier.

2) the + comparative + the noun, the + comparative + the noun
e.g. The greater the experience, the higher the salary.

3) the + comparative + subject + verb , the + comparative + subject + verb
e.g. The harder you work, the more you accomplish.

Sources:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar: Third Edition
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test
Michael A Pyle and Mary Ellen Munoz Page, Cliffs TOEFL Preparation Guide

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, July 19, 2018

 

#EngGrammar: Active vs Passive (IELTS Writing Task 1 Process)

Hi, fellas. Last week we learned how to structure our writing about a process in IELTS Task 1 (More: https://englishtips4u.com/2018/07/07/engtips-process-ielts-writing-task-1/). Today we will focus on when to use active voice or passive voice in such kind of writing.

1) Active Voice

Active voice is used to describe natural processes or events occurring autonomously in nature, where humans are not involved, such as rain and formation of clouds.

e.g.

task 1 rain

(http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/04/ielts-writing-task-1-water-cycle-essay.html)

Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.

2) Passive Voice

Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2012/06/26/engclass-the-passive/)

e.g.

task 1 bricks

(https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/988-process-by-which-bricks-are-manufactured-for-the-building-industry)

At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.

Sources:
Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers
IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Tuesday, July 10, 2018

 

#EngClass: Compound Sentences

Hi, everyone! How was your day? Did your favourite football team secure a slot in the quarter-final of #WorldCup2018? Mine was hectic, but I was able to do a lot today.

Notice the last sentence of the previous paragraph. It’s what we call a compound sentence.

tomato pizza
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

A compound sentence is a sentence with more than an independent clause. An independent clause is a clause that can already stand as a sentence. It consists of a subject and a predicate. In Indonesian, a compound sentence is known as ‘kalimat majemuk.’

Example of an independent clause:
“I would like a cup of tea.”
“I would like a slice of cake.”

Even though these clauses are simple and short, they can already function as sentences with actual meaning.

Question:
Could you combine those two examples and create a compound sentence?
Answer:
“I would like a cup of tea and a slice of cake.”

 

From the answer, we can identify two characteristics of a compound sentence.

  1. It has a coordinating conjunction.
    There are seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. We can also use a semicolon (;) to do so.

  2. The ideas for both clauses are related.
    The speaker implied that he would like to enjoy a tea-time with some delicacies, namely ‘a slice of cake.’

 

Exercise:
Create a compound sentence by filling the blanks with the correct conjunction.

  1. What would you like for dinner, pizza _____ salad?
  2. Salad is healthier, _____ pizza means a lot of fun.
  3. When you have decided, order through the delivery service, will you? Don’t forget some side dishes _____ I’d suggest bruschetta, chicken wings, _____ some sausages.
  4. I don’t want more carbs, _____ do I want sausages.
  5. Well, take out the bruschetta, then, _____ it contains a lot of carbs. You’re so skinny, _____ you don’t like carbs.
  6. I think I’ll place the order now, _____ it will be here by the time the game is on.

 

Answer:

1.OR.
The sentence compares two alternatives.

2.BUT.
The sentence introduces a second choice that is contrasting with what has been mentioned.

3.First blanks: (;)
There are two clauses being put together, ‘don’t forget some side dishes’ and ‘I’d suggest bruschetta.’
Second blanks: AND.

4.NOR.
The speaker already mentioned a negative statement, ‘I don’t want more carbs,’ and ‘nor’ introduces another negative statement, ‘nor do I want sausages.

5.First blanks: FOR.
‘For’ explains why the ‘bruschetta will be taken out,’ and it is because ‘it contains a lot of carbs.’
Second blanks: YET.
It explains that despite being skinny, the other person still limits his carbohydrate intake.

6.SO.
It explains that the order will be placed soon, with the aim that it will arrive by the time the game starts.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 2 July, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

 

#EngGrammar: Tenses for IELTS Writing Task 1

Hi, fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.

1) Past Tenses

a. Past Simple Tense

This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.

e.g. In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.

b. Past Perfect Tense

Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.

e.g. By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.

2) Present Simple Tense

Present simple tense is used to describe a process.

e.g. The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears. 

3) Future Tense

a. Simple Future Tense

Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.

e.g. The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.

b. Future Perfect Tense

Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.

e.g. The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.

In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. be likely to, be predicted to, be projected to, and be going to.

e.g.

The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.

By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.

Sources:

Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates

Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers: Self-study grammar reference and practice

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2016/09/ielts-writing-task-1-separate-line-graphs-answer.html

http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2013/01/ielts-writing-task-1-life-cycle-essay.html

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @englishtipsforyou on Thursday, June 14, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Due to vs. Because of (REVISIT)

This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’

@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS

Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.

person people woman hand
Photo by Public Domain Pictures on Pexels.com

On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.

“Her headache                  was                                        due to the noise coming from upstairs.”
Subject                               linking verb                         complement

 

On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’

If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’

Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.

Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.

 

Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.

a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.

@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to.
@notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to.
@cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.

 

Answers:
a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’

b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’

 

A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:

‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).

‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.

 

Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)

due to

A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin:
A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom.
The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.

Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…

due to 2

A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan.
The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions.
Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury.
Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 13 June, 2018.


RELATED POST(S):

#EngGrammar: Other Forms of the Passive

Hi fellas, how is life today? This article is still related to other articles about the passive. Perhaps, you already know that the most common form of the passive is be + past participle. However, there are other forms of the passive.

1) Reporting with Passive Verbs
With reporting verbs and verbs of thinking or feeling we can use
it + passive verb + that
e.g. It is said that filmmaking is a lucrative industry.
subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
e.g. Filmmaking is said to be a lucrative industry.

2) need + -ing
need + -ing is sometimes used as an alternative to the passive to without stating who does it.
e.g. Some houses need reconstructing after an earthquake occurred.

3) have/get + object + past participle
The past participle is used after have/get and the object to give a passive meaning.
e.g. I had my watch repaired.
       I got my watch repaired.
In the two examples above, I caused my watch to repaired by someone.

Sources:
•Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers
• Fiona Aish and Jo Tomlinson, Collins English for Exams: Grammar for IELTS
• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, June 8, 2018

#EngClass: Conditional Sentences (REVISIT)

man riding bicycle on city street
Photo by Snapwire on Pexels.com

Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’

Example:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”

“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.

There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.

Zero Conditional Sentences
Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)

E.g.:
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).

 

First Conditional Sentences
First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).

E.g.:
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).

 

Second Conditional Sentences
Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:

If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).

E.g.:
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).

 

Third Conditional Sentences
Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:

If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).

E.g.:
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).

 

Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily).
A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).

Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF).
A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.

Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista).
A: Bisa. Bentuk  kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’

Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300).
A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 4 June, 2018.


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#ENGGRAMMAR: ADVISABILITY

Fellas, what do we need when we do not know what to do or how to act in a particular situation? It is an advice. Today, we are going to learn the use of modals of advice.

1) Should

e.g.: You should come early.

Negative form: should not

e.g.: You should not work until midnight.

2) Ought to

Ought to is often pronounced “otta” in informal speaking. It is usually not used in the negative and questions.

e.g.: We ought to wait for the rain to stop.

3) Had better

Had better is usually stronger than should and ought to and implies a warning about possible bad consequences.

Notes on the use of had better:

• It has a present or future meaning.

• It is followed by the simple form of a verb.

• It is more common in speaking than writing.

e.g.: You had better consume less sugar.

Negative form: had better not

e.g.: You had better not eat spicy food.

Source:

• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar

• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Fundamentals of English Grammar

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, May 31, 2018

#GrammarTrivia: Possessives with Gerunds

adolescent blur child close up
“I love you singing” or “I love your singing?” Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

 

We all have that one friend who sings beautifully, albeit never considering singing as a professional career. What should we say to compliment him/her? Do we say, “I love you singing,” or do we say, “I love your singing?” Which one is correct, fellas?

@ghaniginanjar: The second one. I love your singing.

@KushalRJoshi: Second one?

@endang_yl: I love your singing.

@XxKit_kat: The 2nd one ‘I love your singing’ = ‘I love the sound of your voice when you sing’.

 

On one fine afternoon, you and a friend are out for a walk. You pass a bus stop where a woman seems to be crying. Do you say to your friend, “Did you see that woman crying?” or do you say, “Did you see that woman’s crying?”

@Goyoomin: Did you see that woman crying?

 

So, what is the difference between these two situations? Why do we use the possessive form ‘your singing’ in the first example, but then we use ‘see that woman crying’ in the second example?

Let’s go back to what gerund is. Gerund is a verb that has transformed into and functions as a noun. Therefore, the way we use gerund should always be in line with the way we use a noun, including combining it with a possessive form.

If we see a sentence like the one in the first example, “I love your singing,” it’s very likely that the thing we love is ‘the singing that belong to you.’ ‘Singing‘ here is something owned by ‘you,’ or in other words, ‘your singing.’

What about the second example? Does it make sense if I modify the sentence into, “Did you see that crying woman?” Does the sentence still have the same meaning?

Crying‘ in the second example is not a gerund. It is in fact an adjective, modifying ‘that woman.’ Therefore, we do not need to use a possessive form like we did with the first example.

Two tips to determine whether a verb -ing should come with a possessive form or not:

  1. Check the object of our action. In the first example, is it the ‘you’ that you love or is it the ‘singing that belongs to you?’
  2. Try switching the sentence’s structure. Modifying the first sentence into ‘I love singing you’ does not quite make the same sense as modifying the second sentence into ‘Did you see that crying woman?’

 

Exercise:

  1. Do you mind (me/my) asking questions?
  2. No, not at all. I appreciate (you/your) coming to me.
  3. I heard about the (project/project’s) being cancelled.
  4. In fact, we anticipate the possibility of (it/its) succeeding.

 

Answer:

  1. “Do you mind my asking questions?”
    Checklist:
    – What will the other person mind about?
    The action ‘asking questions’ that belongs to the speaker. ‘Asking questions’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “Do you mind asking me questions?” or “Do you mind asking my questions?” which does not have the same meaning as the primary sentence.
  2. “No, not at all. I appreciate your coming to me.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker appreciate?
    The action ‘coming to me’ that belongs to the interlocutor. ‘Coming to me’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I appreciate coming you to me,” which does not have any clear meaning.
  3. “I heard about the project being almost cancelled.”
    Checklist:
    – What did the speaker hear about?
    The project is being almost cancelled. ‘Being almost cancelled’ here is an adjective.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “I heard about the almost-cancelled project,” which has the exact same meaning as the primary sentence.
  4. “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of its succeeding.”
    Checklist:
    – What does the speaker anticipate?
    The success of the project. ‘Succeeding’ here is a gerund.
    – How could we modify the sentence into?
    The sentence could be modified into, “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of succeeding it,” which creates double meanings. It can mean that the project is being successful or it can mean that the project is being followed by another project. The phrase ‘its succeeding’ will remove the ambiguity.

 

Special shout-out to one of our fellas who sent us a question about how to use possessives with gerunds during our LINE chat session. If you would like a one-one-one consultation as well, add us on LINE .

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, 16 May, 2018.


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