Beginning at the evaporation stage, 80% of water vapour in the air comes from the oceans. Heat from the sun causes water to evaporate, and water vapour condenses to form clouds. At the second stage, precipitation, water falls as rain or snow.
2) Passive Voice
Passive voice is used to report processes of manufacturing a product in a factory or workshop. In passive voice, the action is more important than the person performing it.
At the fourth stage in the process, the clay bricks are placed in a drying oven for one to two days. Next, the bricks are heated in a kiln at a moderate temperature (200 – 900 degrees Celsius) and then at a high temperature (up to 1300 degrees), before spending two to three days in a cooling chamber. Finally, the finished bricks are packaged and delivered.
Ebrahim Tahasoni, Master IELTS Visuals (Academic Writing Task One): Course Materials & Supplements for Academic Candidates
Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with answers IELTS Writing Task 1 Simon
Alireza Ramedani, IELTS Writing Compact: GRAPH REVIEW (Academic Task 1)
Hi, everyone! How was your day? Did your favourite football team secure a slot in the quarter-final of #WorldCup2018? Mine was hectic, but I was able to do a lot today.
Notice the last sentence of the previous paragraph. It’s what we call a compound sentence.
A compound sentence is a sentence with more than an independent clause. An independent clause is a clause that can already stand as a sentence. It consists of a subject and a predicate. In Indonesian, a compound sentence is known as ‘kalimat majemuk.’
Example of an independent clause:
“I would like a cup of tea.”
“I would like a slice of cake.”
Even though these clauses are simple and short, they can already function as sentences with actual meaning.
Question: Could you combine those two examples and create a compound sentence? Answer: “I would like a cup of tea and a slice of cake.”
From the answer, we can identify two characteristics of a compound sentence.
It has a coordinating conjunction.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions that we can use to form a compound sentence: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. We can also use a semicolon (;) to do so.
The ideas for both clauses are related.
The speaker implied that he would like to enjoy a tea-time with some delicacies, namely ‘a slice of cake.’
Create a compound sentence by filling the blanks with the correct conjunction.
What would you like for dinner, pizza _____ salad?
Salad is healthier, _____ pizza means a lot of fun.
When you have decided, order through the delivery service, will you? Don’t forget some side dishes _____ I’d suggest bruschetta, chicken wings, _____ some sausages.
I don’t want more carbs, _____ do I want sausages.
Well, take out the bruschetta, then, _____ it contains a lot of carbs. You’re so skinny, _____ you don’t like carbs.
I think I’ll place the order now, _____ it will be here by the time the game is on.
The sentence compares two alternatives.
2.BUT. The sentence introduces a second choice that is contrasting with what has been mentioned.
3.First blanks: (;)
There are two clauses being put together, ‘don’t forget some side dishes’ and ‘I’d suggest bruschetta.’
Second blanks: AND.
4.NOR. The speaker already mentioned a negative statement, ‘I don’t want more carbs,’ and ‘nor’ introduces another negative statement, ‘nor do I want sausages.
5.First blanks: FOR. ‘For’ explains why the ‘bruschetta will be taken out,’ and it is because ‘it contains a lot of carbs.’
Second blanks: YET.
It explains that despite being skinny, the other person still limits his carbohydrate intake.
6.SO. It explains that the order will be placed soon, with the aim that it will arrive by the time the game starts.
Hi, fellas. Today we are still going to discuss IELTS Writing Task 1. However, this discussion will focus on the use of tenses.
1) Past Tenses
a. Past Simple Tense
This tense is used to report events or trends occurring in the past.
e.g. In 2008, British parents spent an average of around £20 per month on their children’s sporting activities.
b. Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense is used when we report what happened before a particular time in the past. It can also be used to mention an event or trend taking place earlier.
e.g. By 2000, 12.4% of the US population had reached the age of 65 or more.
2) Present Simple Tense
Present simple tense is used to describe a process.
e.g. The cycle of the honey bee begins when the female adult lays an egg; the female typically lays one or two eggs every 3 days. Between 9 and 10 days later, each egg hatches and the immature insect, or nymph, appears.
3) Future Tense
a. Simple Future Tense
Simple future tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur in a particular time in the future.
e.g. The proportion of foreign students will reach a peak at 60% in 2020.
b. Future Perfect Tense
Future perfect tense is used to describe events or trends which will occur before a particular time in the future.
e.g. The number of cars will have increased significantly by 2024.
In formal writing, expressions other than will are used to predict the future, e.g. be likely to, be predicted to, be projected to, and be going to.
The population is predicted to rise to 22 million in 2025.
By 2021, the population of Australia is projected to have reached 23.3 million.
This topic might be one of the most frequently asked questions that we have ever received. What is the difference between ‘due to’ and ‘because of?’
@ridhoansyori: KINDLY. SOMEONE. EXPLAIN. PLS
Take a look at these two sentences
– Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.
– She had a headache because of the noise coming from upstairs.
On sentence 1, there is the noun ‘her headache’ and the linking verb ‘was.’ To make sentence 1 a complete sentence, we need a complement. The phrase ‘due to the noise coming from upstairs’ is this complement.
“Her headache was due to the noise coming from upstairs.” Subject linking verb complement
On sentence 2, the subject is ‘she.’ The predicate is ‘had a headache.’
If we write it only as ‘she had a headache,’ the sentence will still be complete. We want to introduce the reason WHY she had a headache. So, we add ‘because of the noise coming from upstairs.’
Although sentence 1 & 2 are similar, sentence 1 was actually meant to say that there was a noise from upstairs and her headache came as a RESULT to this noise.
Meanwhile, sentence 2 explained that THE REASON she had a headache was that noise coming from upstairs.
Are you still unsure, fellas? Let’s take the following exercise.
a. My brother’s success is ______ his hard work.
b. My brother is a successful person ______ his hard work.
c. She failed ______ not studying.
d. Her failure was ______ not studying.
@dindaaark: a. Due to. b. Because of. c. Because of. d. Due to. @notevennurul: A. Due to. B. Because of. C. Because of. D. Due to. @cynthiatika: a, d : due to. b, c : because of.
Answers: a & d: due to
‘My brother’s success’ came as a result of ‘his hard work.’
‘Her failure’ came as a result of ‘not studying.’
b & c: because of
‘His hard work’ is the reason why ‘my brother is a successful person.’
‘Not studying’ is the reason why ‘she failed.’
A couple of tips to decide when to use ‘due to’ and ‘because of’:
‘Due to’ is an adjectival phrase. It gives more detail to the noun. It identifies the result of an event. It always comes after linking verb ‘be’ (is, am, are, was, were, will be, etc.).
‘Because of’ is an adverbial phrase. It gives more detail to the verb. It identifies the reason why something happens. It always comes after subject + verb.
Q: @magnifician: Di kamus cambridge online, “due to” bisa menggantikan “because of”, min (contoh kedua)
A: Benar. Namun, contoh kedua lebih tepat jika menggunakan ‘because of.’ Ini versi admin: A lot of her unhappiness is due to boredom. She is unhappy because of boredom. The bus’ delay was due to heavy snow. The bus was delayed because of heavy snow.
Q: @magnifician: Ini contoh lainnya…
A: Seperti penjelasan admin sebelumnya, ‘due to’ memberi keterangan pada subjek, sehingga jika sudah menggunakan ‘due to,’ frasa yang mengandung verba bisa tidak dicantumkan. The game’s cancellation was due to adverse weather conditions. Her five days of work was due to illness.
The captain’s withdrawal from the match was due to injury. Kalimat 2 & 3 sudah tepat menggunakan ‘due to.’
Hi fellas, how is life today? This article is still related to other articles about the passive. Perhaps, you already know that the most common form of the passive is be + past participle. However, there are other forms of the passive.
1) Reporting with Passive Verbs
With reporting verbs and verbs of thinking or feeling we can use
• it + passive verb + that
e.g. It is said that filmmaking is a lucrative industry.
• subject + passive verb + to-infinitive
e.g. Filmmaking is said to be a lucrative industry.
2) need + -ing need + -ing is sometimes used as an alternative to the passive to without stating who does it.
e.g. Some houses need reconstructing after an earthquake occurred.
3) have/get + object + past participle
The past participle is used after have/get and the object to give a passive meaning.
e.g. I had my watch repaired. I got my watch repaired.
In the two examples above, I caused my watch to repaired by someone.
•Diana Hopkins and Pauline Cullen, Cambridge Grammar for IELTS with Answers
• Fiona Aish and Jo Tomlinson, Collins English for Exams: Grammar for IELTS
• Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar
Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, June 8, 2018
Conditional sentences are sentences that express factual implications OR hypothetical situations and the consequences. Conditional sentences consist of ‘if clause’ and ‘result clause.’
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
“If I have more money” = if clause.
“I’ll buy a car” = result clause.
There are 4 types of conditional sentences, each with its own function.
Zero Conditional Sentences Zero conditional sentences are used to describe general truth. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (simple present)
“If we heat ice, it melts.”
(It’s a common knowledge that when ice is heated, it melts).
First Conditional Sentences First conditional sentences are used to describe something that actually happens in present time or will actually happen in future time. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple present), result clause (will/can + V1).
“If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”
(In a certain time in the future, the speaker will buy a car given he has more money).
Second Conditional Sentences Second conditional sentence are used to describe something in the present time that is impossible to happen. It goes by the form:
If clause (simple past), result clause (would/could + V1).
“If I had more money, I’d buy a car.”
(The speaker does not have money in the present time, so it is not possible for him to buy a car).
Third Conditional Sentences Third conditional sentences are used to describe something that didn’t happen in the past as well as imagining what the result will be if the event actually happened. It goes by the form:
If clause (past perfect), result clause (would/could have + V3).
“If I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late.”
(The speaker was late and so he wishes he woke up early).
Q: sorry interupting, but why do the clause is not ‘heats’ instead? Thankyou. i’m still not get it :p (@kaonashily). A: Because the subject of the first clause is ‘we’ (@arah_hadi).
Q: Is it okay to add ‘only’ in third conditional sentences? E.g. If only I had woken up early, I wouldn’t have been late (@delinaPRF). A: Good point. We could add ‘only,’ but the meaning of the sentence will be slightly different. ‘If only’ is usually used to express a wish for things to happen in a certain way or a regret that things did not happen as expected.
Q: Apakah bisa “if” nya dihilangkan min? misal : Had I woken up early (@roislavista). A: Bisa. Bentuk kalimat di mana verb mendahului subject disebut ‘inversion.’ Umumnya, bentuk ‘had I’ dianggap lebih formal dibandingkan dengan ‘If I had.’
Q: if only you practice, you can form good habits (@timliu2491300). A: Small correction: always use past form with ‘if only.’
“If only you practiced, you could form good habits.”
We all have that one friend who sings beautifully, albeit never considering singing as a professional career. What should we say to compliment him/her? Do we say, “I love you singing,” or do we say, “I love your singing?” Which one is correct, fellas?
@ghaniginanjar: The second one. I love your singing.
@KushalRJoshi: Second one?
@endang_yl: I love your singing.
@XxKit_kat: The 2nd one ‘I love your singing’ = ‘I love the sound of your voice when you sing’.
On one fine afternoon, you and a friend are out for a walk. You pass a bus stop where a woman seems to be crying. Do you say to your friend, “Did you see that woman crying?” or do you say, “Did you see that woman’s crying?”
@Goyoomin: Did you see that woman crying?
So, what is the difference between these two situations? Why do we use the possessive form ‘your singing’ in the first example, but then we use ‘see that woman crying’ in the second example?
Let’s go back to what gerund is. Gerund is a verb that has transformed into and functions as a noun. Therefore, the way we use gerund should always be in line with the way we use a noun, including combining it with a possessive form.
If we see a sentence like the one in the first example, “I love your singing,” it’s very likely that the thing we love is ‘the singing that belong to you.’ ‘Singing‘ here is something owned by ‘you,’ or in other words, ‘your singing.’
What about the second example? Does it make sense if I modify the sentence into, “Did you see that crying woman?” Does the sentence still have the same meaning?
‘Crying‘ in the second example is not a gerund. It is in fact an adjective, modifying ‘that woman.’ Therefore, we do not need to use a possessive form like we did with the first example.
Two tips to determine whether a verb -ing should come with a possessive form or not:
Check the object of our action. In the first example, is it the ‘you’ that you love or is it the ‘singing that belongs to you?’
Try switching the sentence’s structure. Modifying the first sentence into ‘I love singing you’ does not quite make the same sense as modifying the second sentence into ‘Did you see that crying woman?’
Do you mind (me/my) asking questions?
No, not at all. I appreciate (you/your) coming to me.
I heard about the (project/project’s) being cancelled.
In fact, we anticipate the possibility of (it/its) succeeding.
“Do you mind my asking questions?”
Checklist: – What will the other person mind about?
The action ‘asking questions’ that belongs to the speaker. ‘Asking questions’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “Do you mind asking me questions?” or “Do you mind asking my questions?” which does not have the same meaning as the primary sentence.
“No, not at all. I appreciate your coming to me.” Checklist: – What does the speaker appreciate? The action ‘coming to me’ that belongs to the interlocutor. ‘Coming to me’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “I appreciate coming you to me,” which does not have any clear meaning.
“I heard about the project being almost cancelled.” Checklist: – What did the speaker hear about? The project is being almost cancelled. ‘Being almost cancelled’ here is an adjective. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “I heard about the almost-cancelled project,” which has the exact same meaning as the primary sentence.
“In fact, we anticipate the possibility of its succeeding.” Checklist: – What does the speaker anticipate? The success of the project. ‘Succeeding’ here is a gerund. – How could we modify the sentence into? The sentence could be modified into, “In fact, we anticipate the possibility of succeeding it,” which creates double meanings. It can mean that the project is being successful or it can mean that the project is being followed by another project. The phrase ‘its succeeding’ will remove the ambiguity.
Special shout-out to one of our fellas who sent us a question about how to use possessives with gerunds during our LINE chat session. If you would like a one-one-one consultation as well, add us on LINE @EnglishTips4U.
Here is _____ useful article about gardening that I found ______ few days ago.
Have you heard? It snowed in _____ Sahara.
He bought me _____ ‘Orange Is the New Black’ DVD box set as _____ birthday gift.
When do you plan to return _____ book to me?
I think I’m going to wear _____ white shirt for _____ interview tomorrow.
After performing for almost 40 years, Gary Oldman finally received _____ Oscar in 2018.
Which one do you think I should take, _____ TOEFL or _____ IELTS?
It’s such _____ honor to perform for _____ Queen.
1.a, a Explanation: ‘Useful’ makes a yoo sound, which sounds like there is a consonant ‘y,’ therefore it is ‘a useful article.’ ‘a few days’ is clear enough.
2.the Explanation: The Sahara is a specific area, only one in the world.
3.an, a Explanation: ‘Orange Is the New Black’ begins with a vowel, therefore the determiner is ‘an.’ ‘a birthday gift’ is clear enough.
4.the Explanation: People in the conversation have already known which book the speaker is referring to, so ‘the’ is the correct article.
5.a, the Explanation: ‘a white shirt’ is the correct form as the shirt was not specified enough. ‘the interview’ is the correct form because it is already specified that it will happen ‘tomorrow.’
6.an Explanation: ‘Oscar’ begins with a vowel.
7.a, an Explanation: Both noun refer to general TOEFL/IELTS, but it is also acceptable not to put any articles, since TOEFL & IELTS are already established names.
8.an, the Explanation: Although ‘honor’ starts with a consonant, the ‘h’ is mute or unread. Therefore, we put ‘an’ as the determiner. For the second part, a nation normally has only one queen, so ‘the Queen’ is the correct form.
Brackets are symbols mainly used as separator for additional information to a sentence or a main content. If we remove the brackets, the sentence would still make good sense. There are two main types of brackets: round () and square . British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) define them differently.
BrE: ( ) = round brackets or brackets
AmE: ( ) = parentheses
BrE: [ ] = square brackets
AmE: [ ] = brackets
Round brackets or parentheses are used to add extra information to a sentence.
E.g.: “Lake Toba (Indonesia: Danau Toba) is the largest volcanic lake in the world and is in Sumatra, Indonesia.”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to indicate plural or singular nouns.
E.g.: “My new shelf need book(s).”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to add a personal comment.
E.g.: “Kuta Beach is the most beautiful beach in Bali. (I prefer Sanur Beach to Kuta Beach.)”
Round brackets or parentheses are used to define abbreviations.
E.g.: “The link above will take you to a PDF (Portable Document Format) version.”
Square brackets are used to modify another person’s words, especially when we want to make it clear that the modification has been made by us, not by the original writer.
The witness said: “He [the policeman] hit me.”
Square brackets are used to add information.
E.g.: “The two teams in the finals of the first FIFA Football World Cup were both from South America [Uruguay and Argentina].”
Square brackets are used to add missing words.
E.g.: “It is [a] good question.”
Square brackets are used to modify a direct quotation.
He “love[s] driving.” (The original words were “I love driving.”)
That’s all for today, fellas! I hope it’ll be useful for you. Good night!
Compiled and written by @anhtiss at @EnglishTips4U. Saturday, March 10, 2018.
‘Opposite‘ and ‘in front of‘. Do these words sometimes make you confused?
It’s useful to be able to distinguish ‘opposite’ and ‘in front of’ when giving direction. This #GrammarTrivia will explain both ‘opposite’ and ‘in front of’ as a preposition. Opposite as a preposition means on the other side of (something or someone): across from (something or someone).
e.g. Brisbol Park Hospital is located opposite Tumaini supermarket. (The two buildings are facing each other). In front of as a preposition means in a position just ahead or at the front part of someone or something else.
e.g. Jack is standing in front of Jill. (Jill is standing behind Jack; they are not facing each other).
That’s all for today’s session. Thank you and bye!
What do you have in mind, fellas? You’ve been on my mind lately and I hope you all are doing well. There are two different phrases in the previous sentence. Can you spot the difference? Yup! It’s ‘on one’s mind’ and ‘in one’s mind.’
On one’s mind
This phrase indicates worry or preoccupation. It may imply: thinking a lot.
“You’ve been on my mind lately.”
Meaning: I’ve been thinking about you.
“You look worried. What’s on your mind?”
Meaning: What is bothering you?
In one’s mind
This phrase is used to mean: in your imagination.
A: Dad! I just saw an UFO passing by on the sky.
B: Oh, boy. It’s just in your mind.
The meaning of ‘in your imagination’ doesn’t apply in all cases. ‘In one’s mind’ can be used to convey our thoughts.
“In my mind, Civil War is better than Age of Ultron.”
There is another phrase: ‘in mind.’
We can use ‘in mind’ when asking for someone’s opinion or what they’re thinking of doing.
A: Want to go out and watching movie?
B: Sure. Do you have anything in mind?
A: Let’s watch Split.
Now, let’s take a look at this following sentence:
“Bear in mind that I don’t eat meat because I’m a vegetarian.”
In the previous sentence, ‘in mind’ or precisely ‘bear in mind’ means: to remember an information.
Hello hey ho, fellas! Still following our previous discussion on ‘participial adjective’, we will talk about stating degrees of comparison.
Degrees of comparison are used when we compare one thing/person with another. There are three degrees of comparison:
Comparative degree of comparison
Let’s start with the comparative degree. The comparative degree is used to compare two persons or things having the same quality.
To form the comparative degree of adjectives, we usually add -er to adjective with two or less syllables. Example:
However, when forming the comparative degree of participial adjectives, we use the word ‘more.’ Example:
Superlative degree of comparison
Moving on to the superlative degree of adjective. Superlative degree denotes the existence of the highest degree of the quality. The superlative degree of adjective is used to single out one person or thing from all the rest.
To form the superlative degree of adjectives, we usually add ‘-est’ to adjective with
two or less syllables. Example:
However, when forming the superlative degree of participial adjectives, we use the word ‘most.‘
That’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you have any question on the topic, feel free to leave a message in the comment box.
In short, participial adjectives are present and past participles which are used as adjectives. Present and past participles adjectives are used in slightly different ways. One talks about something that causes of the feeling , and the other talks about how someone feels.
One of our followers asked the question above on Twitter. Do you have a similar question? Do you get confused as to when you should use present or past participle adjective? Kalau kamu masih tulis/bilang: “I’m interesting” saat mau menyatakan “Saya tertarik,” yuk baca lagi artikel ini sampai selesai.
Participle adjectives are verbs, often ends in -ing and -ed, which are used as adjectives. There are two types of participles: present participles (v-ing) and past participles (v2). Example:
We use present particular adjectives (v-ing) to talk about person, thing, or situation which caused the feeling. Example:
“I am boring.”
“Aku membosankan, aku menimbulkan rasa bosan.”
“They are confusing.”
“Mereka membingungkan, mereka menimbulkan kebingungan.”
“The book is exciting.”
“Bukunya menarik. Bukunya membuat orang tertarik.”
We use past participle adjectives (v2) to talk about how someone feels. Example:
“I am bored.”
“Aku merasa bosan. Yang kurasakan adalah bosan.”
“They are confused.”
“Mereka kebingungan. Yang mereka rasakan adalah bingung.”
“She is very excited.”
“Dia sangat bersemangat. Yang dia rasakan adalah semangat.”
If we were to compare the two side by side:
Perasaan yang dirasa
[ter-], [ke- -an]
So, what do you think? I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you still have any question, feel free to leave a comment down below, or you can also mention us on twitter.
How about having a short quiz to see how well you understand the explanation given above? Look at these sentences and choose the correct answer.
I was really (boring/bored) during the lecture. It was really (boring/bored).
I bought a really (interesting/interested) book last night. If you’re (interesting/interested), I can lend it to you.
I heard an (alarming/alarmed) noise last night, and it kept me (alarming/alarmed) all night.