Category Archives: English

#EngClass: Sentence

A sentence is the major unit of grammar for language, especially in written form. A sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a period or full-stop [.] or sometimes with a question mark [?] or a exclamation mark [!].

Still remember what a clause is, right? Simple sentence consists of one clause; and more than one clause in a complex sentence. There are four sentence types, they are:

  1. a statement
    • Example:
      • “I like you.”
      • “She didn’t know you’re here.”
      • “We are happy it’s Ramadan again.”
  2. a question
    • Example:
      • “Are you OK?”
      • “Can you hear me?”
      • “Did you call me when I was doing my homework?”
  3. an imperative
    • Example:
      • “Open the door.”
      • “Stop writing.”
      • “Don’t cheat during the test.”
      • “Eat a lot of vegetables.”
  4. an exclamation
    • Example:
      • “What a great idea!”
      • “Wow, that was awesome!”
      • “Congratulations!”
      • “How lucky you are!”

Compiled and written by  for  Saturday, August 6, 2011




#EngGame: synonyms, take the odd one out

Rules of the game:

  1. Choose the word that is NOT synonymous to the other words.
  2. Type the number of question as you answer.

For example:

  • 1) like 2) cherish 3) enjoy 4) fancy 5) popular
  • The ANSWER: 5) popular; not synonymous with 1) 2) 3) 4).

Let’s start!

  1. a) corrupt b) degrade c) demoralize d) deprave e) disgrace
  2. a) beneficial b) useful c) advantageous d) resourceful e) valuable
  3. a) kind b) nice c) good d) refined e) pleasant
  4. a) choose b) prefer c) rather d) select e) pick
  5. a) fellowship b) mentor-ship c) brotherhood d) companionship e) comradeship
  6. a) want b) fond c) desire d) wish e) crave
  7. a) type b) behavior c) fashion d) manner e) way
  8. a) posses b) have c) lose d) hold e) own
  9. a) likely b) possible c) potential d) workable e) imaginary
  10. 10) a) merry b) enjoyable c) happy d) cheerful e) joyful



  1. e) disgrace
  2. d) resourceful
  3. a) kind
  4. c) rather
  5. b) mentor-ship
  6. b) fond
  7. a) type
  8. c) lose
  9. e) imaginary
  10. b) enjoyable

Compiled and written by August 4, 2011

#EngClass: Adverb

Adverb dalam Bahasa Indonesia disebut sebagai kata keterangan atau tambahan. Salah satu contoh adverb adalah kata “slowly” dalam kalimat “I walk slowly.

Secara garis besar ada 2 fungsi utama adverb, yaitu:

Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah clause (klausa)

Informasi yang dimaksud adalah keterangan mengenai waktu atau tempat dari suatu tindakan. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai adverbial.

  • Contoh:
    • I walk slowly.”
    • Adverb slowly” menambahkan informasi pada klausa I walk.

Menambahkan informasi pada sebuah kata lain

Keterangan pada sebuah kata yang dimaksud adalah adjective (kata sifat) atau pun adverb lain. Fungsi adverb dalam kategori ini disebut sebagai modifier.

  • Contoh:
    • “Extremely slowly.”
    • Adverb extremely” menambahkan informasi pada adverb slowly.

Berdasarkan artinya, terdapat beberapa jenis adverb. Berikut ini adalah 5 jenis adverb yang paling umum digunakan beserta contohnya:

  1. Adverb of manner. Artinya: keterangan menunjukkan bagaimana sesuatu dilakukan, seperti well, badly, how, quickly, slowly, hard, fast, etc.
    • Contoh: 
      • “He plays the piano well.”
  2. Adverb of place. Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan suatu tempat, misalnya up, there, here, above, upstairs, anywhere, somewhere, etc. 
    • Contoh:
      • “The book can be anywhere.”
  3. Adverb of time.  Artinya: keterangan yang menunjukkan waktu, seperti then, now, soon, recently, afterwards, today, yesterday, tomorrow, etc 
    • Contoh:
      • “She will finish her homework soon.”
  4. Adverb of degree. Artinya: kata keterangan untuk menunjukkan tingkatan atau intensitas, seperti very, so, too, really, quite, much, extremely, etc.
    •  Contoh:
      • “I really love you.”
  5. Adverb of frequency. Artinya:  keterangan yang menujukkan frekuensi atau seberapa sering sesuatu dilakukan, misalnya never, always, often, sometimes, generally, etc.
    • Contoh:
      • “I always play football twice a week.”

Adverb dapat ditempatkan di depan, tengah, atau belakang dalam sebuah kalimatBerikut ini adalah aturan peletakan dari masing-masing posisi adverb dalam sebuah kalimat:

  1. Untuk posisi di depan, letakkan adverb sebelum S (Subject) kalimat.
    • Contoh:
      • Usually I play football twice a week.”
  2. Untuk posisi di tengah, adverb dapat digunakan sesudah auxiliary yang pertama (be) atau sebelum verb (kata kerja).
    • Contoh:
      • “She is never late.”
  3. Untuk posisi di belakang, adverb diletakkan pada akhir clause.
    • Contoh:
      • “He plays the piano well.”


Compiled and written by  for  Tuesday, August 2, 2011

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#EngClass: Participial adjective

Kali ini kita akan membahas participial adjective. Apakah itu? Kalian pasti pernah mendengar kata “boring” dan “bored” kan?

Participial adjective adalah kata sifat yang diambil dari the past participle (-ed) dan the present participle (-ing).

Seringkali terdapat salah penggunaan antara the past participle dan the present participle dalam sebuah kalimat, seperti:

  • “I’m interested in English.” | “I’m interesting in English.”
  • “English is interesting.” | “English is interested.

Kata yang dibentuk dari the past participle (interested) menjelaskan apa yang dirasakan seseorang.

  • Contoh:
    • “Saya tertarik dengan Bahasa Inggris.” -> “I’m interested in English.”

“interested” menjelaskan bagaimana perasaan saya terhadap Bahasa Inggris.

Kata yang terbentuk dari the present participle (interesting) menjelaskan penyebab dari perasaan tertarik pada ‘saya.’ Dalam contoh di atas, penyebabnya adalah ‘bahasa Inggris’ dan kata ‘interesting’ menjelaskan bahwa suatu hal (bahasa Inggris) itu menarik.

Untuk membuat kalimat dengan menggunakan participal adjective dapat aturan penulisan sebagai berikut:

S + be + adjective


  • “I was surprised.”
  • “The news was surprising.”


1. I don’t like our new teacher. He really bores me. I think he is a (boring/bored) person.

2. I don’t understand these formulas. They are so (confusing/confused).

3. Have you heard about the latest news? I’m so (exciting/excited) to tell you!

4. I had never been to Raja Ampat before. But when I was there, I was really (fascinating/fascinated).

5. Everyone was (shocking/shocked) when they heard the minister’s corruption scandal for the first time.

6. I will never sing in front of the class again! It was so (embarrassing/embarrassed).

7. I feel very (tiring/tired) after the long trip.

8. I don’t think I can watch that movie. It’s so very (depressing/depressed).

9. Oh my goodness, look at the size of that cake! It’s very (tempting/tempted). I want to eat it!

10. She never really finished that work. I guess she’s already . . . (frustrating/frustrated) because of it.


Compiled and written by  for  on Friday, July 29, 2011

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#IOTW: Idioms using the word ‘Dog’

Do you like or have dogs? Apparently there are some English idioms that use the word ‘dog.’ Check them out and their meanings!

  1. Dog eat dog (in business, politics). Arti: situasi dengan persaingan yang kejam; orang bisa saling mencelakai untuk menang.
    • Contoh:
      • “It’s a dog eat dog world.”
  2. A dog in the manger. Arti: seseorang yang menghentikan orang lain menikmati sesuatu yang tidak bisa dia gunakan atau tidak ia sukai.
    • Contoh:
      • “Such a dog in the manger.”
  3. A dog’s breakfast/dinner. Artinya: kekacauan; sesuatu yang dikerjakan dengan buruk.
    • Contoh:
      • “You have made a dog’s dinner out of this work.”
  4. A dog’s life. Artinya: hidup yang tidak bahagia; penuh dengan masalah dan perlakuan tidak adil.
    • Contoh:
      • “I feel so depressed. It’s like living a dog’s life.”
  5. Let sleeping dogs lie. Artinya: jangan mencari kesulitan atau masalah.
    • Contoh:
      • “Leave him alone. Let sleeping dogs lie.”
  6. Every dog has his/its day. Arti: tiap orang pasti pernah merasakan sukses dalam hidupnya.
    • Contoh:
      • “I enjoy my life. I guess every dog has his day.”
  7. Rain cats and dogs. Arti: hujan yang sangat lebat.
    • Contoh:
      • “I can barely go out the whole day. It’s been raining cats and dogs.”
  8. Give a dog a bad name. Arti: adalah sangat sulit untuk menghilangkan reputasi buruk.
    • Contoh:
      • “Mind what you say. You already gave a dog a bad name.”
  9. Not have a dog’s chance. Arti: sama sekali tidak mempunyai kesempatan.
    • Contoh:
      • “That’s too bad. We haven’t got a dog’s chance to win the game.”
  10. The tail wagging the dog. Arti: situasi dimana hal kecil pada suatu hal mengontrol hal besar di dalamnya.
    • Contoh:
      • “It’s like the tail wagging the dog.”
  11. Can’t teach an old dog new tricks. Arti: kita tidak bisa sepenuhnya berhasil mengajak orang yang sudah tua mengubah ide atau cara kerjanya.
    • Contoh:
      • “My uncle doesn’t understand how to use a computer, although I taught him multiple times. I guess, I can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”
  12. Go to the dogs. Arti: jatuh ke dalam keadaan yang buruk atau terpuruk.
    • Contoh:
      • “The company has gone to the dogs since last year.”
  13. Treat somebody like a dog. Arti: memperlakukan seseorang tanpa rasa hormat sedikit pun.
    • Contoh:
      • “He treats his workers like a dog.”


Compiled and written by  for  on  Thursday, July 28, 2011.

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#USSlang: American slang (3)

  1. Da bomb. Meaning: Excellent, the best.
    • Example:
      • “He’s da bomb! I think he’s the best guitar player I’ve ever known.”
  2. Jock. Meaning: An athlete, particularly a male athlete.
    • Example:
      • “He’s a jock. He’s used to winning sport games.”
  3. Downer. Meaning: Something or someone that is depressing; anything that makes one sad.
    • Example:
      • “She’s a downer. I don’t like her around.”
  4. Blow it. Meaning: To lose or waste something; to do very poorly or fail miserably.
    • Example:
      • “Don’t blow it. This is your last chance.”
  5. Green thumb. Meaning: A special talent for gardening.
    • Example:
      • “Your garden in lovely. You must have a green thumb.”
  6. Know-it-all. Meaning: A person who thinks they know everything.
    • Example:
      • “It’s Mr know-it-all who can’t stop interrupting our speech.”
  7. Cold feet. Meaning: Loss of courage; fear.
    • Example:
      • “I always get cold feet every time I have to speak in front of public.”
  8. Raise the roof. Meaning: To have fun and make a lot of noise.
    • Example:
      • “The party is on. Let’s raise the roof.”
  9. HogMeaning: To selfishly claim all of something; to eat or take everything.
    • Example:
      • “Don’t hog the car. It’s not yours.”
  10. High five. Meaning: A way to say “Bravo!” or “Good job!” by slapping someone’s hand in the air.
    • Example:
      • “Great job! Give me high five!”

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, July 26, 2011

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#EngClass: Conditional sentences

First thing First. Dalam sebuah conditional sentence terdapat 2 clause (klausa) atau bentuk dasar kalimat, yaitu: if clause dan result clause.


If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.”

  • If I have more money” = if clause.
  • I’ll buy a car” = result clause.

Ada 4 jenis conditional sentence, masing-masing dengan fungsi yang berbeda, yaitu: zero, first, second, dan third conditional.

1. Zero conditional

Zero conditional digunakan untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang selalu benar (seperti contohnya kebenaran ilmiah). Struktur:

if clause (present simple), result clause (present simple)


  • If we heat ice, it melts.
  • Arti kalimat: “Jika kita menghangatkan es, es akan mencair.”
  • Hal ini merupakan sebuah kepastian yang tidak bisa diragukan.

2. First conditional

First conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang benar terjadi saat ini atau di masa depan (true in the present or future). Struktur:

if clause (present simple), result clause (will/can + V1)


  • If I have more money, I’ll buy a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: “Jika di masa depan saya punya lebih banyak uang, sangat mungkin sekali saya akan membeli mobil.”

3. Second conditional

Second conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau berlawanan dengan kenyataan saat ini (untrue in the present). Struktur:

if clause (past simple), result clause (would/could + V1)


  • If I had more money, I’d buy a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: Kalau saja saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya akan membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya saya tidak punya uang lebih.

4. Third conditional

Third conditional digunakan untuk mengekspresikan sesuatu yang tidak benar atau berlawanan dengan kenyataan di masa lalu (untrue in the past). Struktur:

if clause (past perfect), result clause (would have/could have + V3)


  • If I had more money, I could have bought a car.
  • Kalimat contoh berarti: Kalau saja dulu saya punya lebih banyak uang, saya bisa saja membeli mobil. Pada kenyataannya, dulu saya tidak punya uang lebih, maka saya tidak bisa membeli mobil.

Baiklah, sekian penjelasan. Admin akan memberi beberapa contoh kalimat lain (nomor sesuai dengan urutan jenis conditional sentence di atas).

  1. If you don’t eat, you’ll die. – If you don’t try, you will never know.
  2. If I meet the girl I like, I’ll ask her out. – If I do good at school, I will be happy
  3. If I had the guts, I’d ask her out. – If I had wings, I could fly.
  4. If I had had the guts, I would have asked her out. – If we had won, we would have brought the prizes.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, July 25, 2011

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#EngQuote: English quotes (1)

  1. “Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young.” – Henry Ford
  2. “You haven’t failed, until you stop trying” – Unknown
  3. “One must learn by doing the thing; for though you think you know it, you have no certainty, until you try.” – Sophocles
  4. “Every artist was at first an amateur.” – Ralph W. Emerson
  5. “Learning is never done without errors and defeat.” – Vladimir Lenin

Compiled by @EnglishTips4U on July 24, 2011

#EngGame: Common spelling mistakes

Rules of the game:

  1. Type the number of the question as you answer.
  2. Choose the right spelling between 2 words.

Let’s start!

  1. “Cemetery” or “cemetary”?
  2. “Espresso” or “expresso”?
  3. “Government” or “goverment”?
  4. “Enlightment” or “enlightenment”?
  5. “Forty” or “fourty”?
  6. “Pronounciation” or “pronunciation”?
  7. “Writting” or “writing”?
  8. “Ninth” or “nineth”?
  9. “Acknowledge” or “aknowlegde”?
  10. “Beautiful” or “beautifull”?
  11. “Bussiness” or “business”?
  12. “Misspell” or “mispell”?
  13. “Devide” or “divide”?
  14. “Grammer” or “grammar”?
  15. “Bycicle” or “bicycle”?
  16. “Chinese” or “Chinesse”?
  17. “Until” or “untill”?
  18. “Potatoes” or “potatos”?
  19. “Strength” or “strenght”?
  20. “Dissappear” or “disappear”?


  1. cemetery
  2. espresso
  3. government
  4. enlightenment
  5. forty
  6. pronunciation
  7. writing
  8. ninth
  9. acknowledge
  10. beautiful
  11. business
  12. misspell
  13. divide
  14. grammar
  15. bicycle
  16. Chinese (with capital letter)
  17. until
  18. potatoes
  19. strength
  20. disappear

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U  for@EnglishTips4U on Saturday, July 23, 2011



#EngClass: Modal auxiliary

The modal auxiliaries (singular: auxiliary) mencakup can, may, might, could, would, will, shall, must, should, ought to, used to.

Modal auxiliary digunakan untuk menunjukkan seberapa yakin kita akan suatu hal. Secara umum, modal auxilliary dapat dibedakan menjadi 2 kelompok, yaitu stronger and weaker.

Stronger and weaker adalah modal ausxilliary yang di gunakan ketika saat kita berada dalam kondisi tidak mengetahui kebenaran akan suatu hal. Terdapat beberapa contoh kalimat untuk memperjelas kondisi tersebut yang menggunakan beberapa jenis modal auxiliary.

  • “It will be Ana,”
  • “It must be Ana,”
  • “It should be Ana,”
  • “It may be Ana,”
  • “It might be Ana,”
  • “It could be Ana,”
  • “It won’t be Ana,”
  • “It can’t be Ana,” atau
  • “It couldn’t be Ana.”

Jika respon diurutkan, kalimat yang pertama paling yakin dan yang terakhir paling tidak yakin.

Berikut ini adalah beberapa jenis modal auxiliary beserta arti dan contoh penggunaannya dalam kalimat.

  1. ‘Can’ memiliki arti:
    • Possibility. Contoh:
      • “The news about him can be true.”
    • Ability. Contoh:
      • “I can play the piano well.”
    • Permission. Contoh:
      • “You can go now,” my mother said.
  2. ‘May’ memiliki arti:
    • Possibility. Contoh:
      • “It may rain tonight.”
    • Permission. Contoh:
      • “You may go now,” my mother said.
    • Volition (or wish). Contoh:
      • May your dreams come true.”
  3. ‘Might’ memiliki arti:
    • Possibility. Contoh:
      • “It might rain tonight.”
    • Permission. Contoh:
      • “You might go now.” my mother said.”
    • Unreal meaning. Contoh:
      • “I might have won the game.”
  4. ‘Could’ memiliki arti:
    • Possibility. Contoh:
      • “It could rain tonight.”
    • Ability. Contoh:
      • “I could play the piano when I was six.”
    • Permission. Contoh:
      • “My mother said I could go.”
    • Unreal meaning. Contoh:
      • “I could have won the game.”
  5. ‘Would’ memiliki arti:
    • Habit. Contoh:
      • “When I was six, I would go to my parents’ room and sleep there.”
    • Volition (or wish). Contoh:
      • “I wish it would rain tonight.”
    • Prediction (or future). Contoh:
      • “It would rain tonight.”
    • Unreal meaning. Contoh:
      • “I would have won the game.”
  6. ‘Will’ memiliki arti:
    • Volition (or wish). Contoh:
      • “I hope it will be fine.”
    • Prediction (or future). Contoh:
      • “It will rain tonight.”
  7. ‘Shall’ memiliki arti:
    • Volition (or wish). Contoh:
      • “I hope it shall be fine.”
    • Prediction (or future). Contoh:
      • Shall we go now?”
  8. ‘Must’ memiliki arti:
    • Obligation. Contoh:
      • “You must finish your work.”
    • Deduction. Contoh:
      • “It must be Ana.”
  9. ‘Should’ memiliki arti:
    • Unreal meaning. Contoh:
      • “I should have won the game.”
    • Tentative meaning. Contoh:
      • Should there be a problem, call me.”
    • Obligation. Contoh:
      • “You should finish your work.”
    • Deduction. Contoh:
      • “It should be Ana.”
  10. ‘Ought to’ memiliki arti:
    • Obligation. Contoh:
      • “You ought to finish your work.”
    • Deduction. Contoh:
      • “It ought to be Ana.”
  11. ‘Used to’ memiliki arti:
    • Past state or habit. Contoh:
      • “When I was six, I used to go to my parents’ room and sleep there.”


Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, July 20, 2011

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#EngClass: British vs American English in Harry Potter books

Do you know buku Harry Potter dalam Bahasa Inggris dicetak dalam 2 versi, untuk Inggris (UK) dan Amerika Serikat (US). Ada yang mengoleksi buku Harry Potter dalam Bahasa Inggris? Kalau kamu bandingkan, ada perbedaan di British dan American English yang digunakan.

Contohnya ada di judul buku Harry Potter pertama, “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” (UK) dan “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone” (US).

Berikut adalah daftar penamaan hal-hal yang berbeda dalam British English dan American English di dalam buku Harry Potter:

  1. British English (BrE): car park. vs. American English (AmE): parking lot.
    • Arti: tempat parkir.
  2. BrE: jumper. vs. AmE: sweater.
    • Arti: baju hangat.
  3. BrE: nutter. vs. AmE: maniac.
    • Arti: orang gila.
  4. BrE: cupboard. vs. AmE: closet.
    • Arti: lemari.
  5. BrE: torch. vs. AmE: flashlight.
    1. Arti: lampu senter.
  6. BrE: biscuits. vs. AmE: cookies.
    • Arti: kue kering.
  7. BrE: letter boxes. vs. AmE: mailboxes.
    • Arti: kotak surat.
  8. BrE: dustbin. vs. AmE: trash can.
    • Arti: tempat sampah.
  9. BrE: cooker. vs. AmE: stove.
    • Arti: kompor.
  10. BrE: fringe. vs. AmE: bangs.
    • Arti: poni (rambut).
  11. BrE: motorbike. vs. AmE: motorcycle.
    • Arti: sepeda motor.
  12. BrE: comprehensive. vs. AmE: public school.
    • Arti: sekolah negeri.
  13. BrE: football. vs. AmE: soccer.
    • Arti: sepak bola.
  14. BrE: trolley. vs. AmE: cart.
    • Arti: kereta barang.
  15. BrE: rucksack. vs. AmE: backpack.
    • Arti: tas punggung.
  16. BrE: driver. vs. AmE: conductor.
    • Arti: masinis.
  17. BrE: trainers. vs. AmE: sneakers.
    • Arti: sepatu olahraga.
  18. BrE: sports lessons. vs. AmE: gym.
    • Arti: kelas olahraga.
  19. BrE: chips. vs. AmE: fries.
    • Arti: kentang goreng.
  20. BrE: queuing. vs. AmE: lining up.
    • Arti: mengantri.
  21. BrE: register. vs. AmE: roll call.
    • Arti: absensi.
  22. BrE: toilet. vs. AmE: bathroom.
    • Arti: kamar mandi.
  23. BrE: changing room. vs. AmE: locker room.
    • Arti: ruang ganti.
  24. BrE: dressing gown. vs. AmE: bathrobe.
    • Arti: jubah mandi.
  25. BrE: time-table. vs. AmE: schedule.
    • Arti: jadwal.

Do you know that the ending “-ise” and “-ize” in verbs such as “recognise” and “recognize” are both used in UK? However, “-ize” is only used in US.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for@EnglishTips4U on Thursday, July 21, 2011



#EngGame: solve these riddles (1)

Who wants to play some English games? Let’s solve some riddles, shall we?

riddle -n. a question or statement so framed as to exercise one’s ingenuity in answering it or discovering its meaning. Indonesian: teka-teki.

Rules of the game:

  1. Type the number of the question as you answer.
  2. Clues will be given on how many letters the answer is.

Let’s start!

  1. What goes around the world and stays in a corner? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)
  2. What can fill a room but takes up no space? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)
  3. Take off my skin, I won’t cry, but you will. What am I? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)
  4. What has to be broken before it can be used? _ _ _ (3 letters)
  5. You answer me although I never ask you questions. What am I? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (9 letters)
  6. It’s in the middle of the sea. It appears in the evening and disappears in the morning. Love without it is nothing. _ (1 letter)
  7. What goes round the house and in the house but never touches the house? _ _ _ (3 letters)
  8. What holds water yet is full of holes? _ _ _ _ _ _ (6 letters)
  9. What comes once in a minute, twice in a moment, but never in a thousand years? _ (1 letter)
  10. What gets wet when drying? _ _ _ _ _ (5 letters)



  1. stamp
  2. light
  3. onion
  4. egg
  5. telephone
  6. E
  7. sun
  8. sponge
  9. M
  10. towel

DYK? The ending “-ise” and “-ize” in verbs such as “recognise” and “recognize” are both used in UK. However, “-ize” only used in US.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U on July 20, 2011

#EngClass: Agreement

“Agreement adalah kecocokan antara subject (subyek) dan verb (kata kerja) dalam suatu clause (klausa)

Kalusa adalah struktur utama kalimat. Di dalam sebuah kalimat setidaknya terdiri dari satu klausa, yang terdiri dari:


  • Contoh:
    • The baby cries.”
    • I like apples.”

Mari kita kembali kembali ke “agreement.” Jadi, yang dimaksud adalah kecocokan antara S “the baby” pada contoh tadi dengan V “cries“. Atau S “I” dengan V “like“. Aturan dasar “agreement” adalah

singular subject + singular verb phrase, atau

plural subject + plural verb phrase.

“Agreement” berlaku pada penggunaan present tense untuk verb; namun juga pada past tense untuk verb “be“. Kita beri contohnya ya…

Pada present tense (berlaku untuk verb):

  • They like apples.” – “She likes apples.”
  • The baby cries.” – “The babies cry.”

Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan kata “like” pada S “they” (plural) dan “she” (singular). Juga penggunaan kata “cry” pada S “baby” dan “babies“.

Contoh verb “be”:

  • Present tense: “The book is pink.” – “The books are pink.”
  • Past tense: “He was sick.” – “They were sick.”

Perhatikan perbedaan penggunaan bentuk “be” menjadi “is” dan “are” pada present tense; dan “was” dan “were” pada past tense, sesuai dengan S.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for  @EnglishTips4U on July 17, 2011



#GrammarTrivia: Uncountable noun

“Countable noun” memiliki bentuk singular (tunggal) dan plural (jamak), sementara “uncountable noun” memiliki bentuk singular saja.

Kebanyakan noun (kata benda) termasuk dalam “countable noun”.


  • “a baby” (bentuk singular) – “babies” (bentuk jamak).

uncountable noun” merujuk pada benda yang tak bisa dihitung. Benda yang termasuk dalam kategori ini antara lain zat, cairan, gas, ide abstrak.


  • (zat) paper, gold, rock;
  • (benda cair) water, oil;
  • (gas) smoke, oxygen;
  • (ide abstrak) music, money.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for@EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, July 12, 2011



#BusEng: Business English verbs (1)

All questions are taken from: Business English Verbs by David Evans, published by Penguin English.

  1. Advise. “They advised us to go to another bank.” The Indonesian word for “advise” is …
  2. Assemble. “The cars are assembled at our factory.” The Indonesian word for “assemble” is …
  3. Auction. “They auctioned the painting today.” The Indonesian word for “auction” is …
  4. Bribe. “He bribed the customs officer.” The Indonesian word for “bribe” is …
  5. Confess. “I must confess – I didn’t think of that.” The Indonesian word for “confess” is …
  6. Defraud. “He defrauded his business partner.” The Indonesian word for “defraud” is …
  7. Endorse. “The French team is endorsing our car.” The Indonesian word for “endorse” is …
  8. Foot the bill. “We all had to foot the bill.” The Indonesian meaning of “foot the bill” is …
  9. Go on strike. “They went on strike for more pay.” The Indonesian meaning of “go on strike” is …
  10. Go short. “She went short on sterling.” The Indonesian meaning of “go short” is …


  1. advise = menyarankan.
  2. assemble = merakit (pasif: dirakit).
  3. auction = melelang.
  4. bribe = menyuap.
  5. confess = mengakui.
  6. defraud = menggelapkan uang.
  7. endorse = membiayai/mensponsori/menyokong.
  8. shoot the bill = membayar semua biaya/tagihan.
  9. go on strike = mogok (kerja).
  10. go short = kekurangan.

TRIVIA: The ending “-ise” and “-ize” in verbs such as “recognise” and “recognize” are both used in UK. However, “-ize” only used in US.

Compiled and written by @EnglishTips4U for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, July 11, 2011



#EngProverb: English proverbs

  1. Learn to walk before you run.” – Don’t rush into doing something until you know how to do it.
  2. Money doesn’t grow on trees.” – You shouldn’t waste money because it is not plentiful.
  3. Patience is a virtue.” – It is good to be patient.
  4. Still waters run deep.” – A quiet person can have much knowledge or wisdom.
  5. The best things in life are free.” – You don’t have to pay for what is important: happiness, friendship, good health.
  6. When in Rome, do as the Romans do.” – You should adopt the customs of the people or country you are visiting.
  7. Walls have ears.” – Be careful. People could be listening.
  8. It’s no use crying over spilt milk.” – Don’t express regret for something that has happened and cannot be remedied.
  9. He who hesitates is lost.” – If you delay your decision too long, you may miss a good opportunity.
  10. Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” – Inexperienced people act in situations that more intelligent people would avoid.

Compiled by @EnglishTips4U on July 10, 2011

#EngClass: “Another,” “other,” “others,” “the other,” “the others”

Another“, “other“, “others“, “the other“, “the others” semua bersumber dari kata yang sama: “other“. Sebelum kita bahas perbedaan dari setiap kata tersebut, mari kita bedakan penggunaan “other” ke dalam 2 kelompok:

  1. sebagai adjective (kata sifat).
  2. sebagai pronoun (kata ganti).

Dalam masing-masing kelompok, other memiliki bentuk singular (tunggal) dan plural (jamak).

“Other” sebagai adjective (kata sifat)

Seperti fungsi dari adjective, maka bentuk other di kelompok ini berfungsi untuk “memberi sifat” pada noun (kata benda). MIsalnya, bentuk “other” sebagai adjective: “another,” “other,” “the other.” Jika ditempatkan dalam sebuah kalimat, masing-masing dari kata tersebut diikuti oleh noun. Misalnya,”another book“.

Di dalam kalimat, “another” menunjukkan kata benda tunggal, sedangkan “other” menunjukkan kata benda jamak. Sementara, “the other” bisa diikuti oleh singular atau plural noun.


  • “another book,”
  • “other books,”
  • “the other book,”
  • “the other books.”

Perhatikan juga bentuk penulisan singular dan plural noun.


  • There are many books in my bag. One is mine. Another book is his. Other books are hers. The other books are theirs.

Other” sebagai pronoun (kata ganti)

JIka “other” berperan sebagai kata ganti, kita bisa menggunakannya tanpa diikuti kata benda. Adapun contoh bentuk “other” sebagai pronoun, antara lain “another,” “others,” “the other,” “the others.” Perhatikan others dan the others tidak ada pada kelompok 1.

Dalam sebuah kalimat “another” dan the other” digunakan untuk mengantikan kata benda tunggal (singular noun), sedangkan others” dan “the others” digunakan untuk menunjukkan kata benda jamak (plural noun).


  • There are many books in my bag. One is mine. Another is his. Others are hers. The others are theirs.

Perhatikan perbedaan pada contoh “other” sebagai adjective dan pronoun. Contohnya, frase “other books” bisa digantikan dengan “others” saja.

Arti dari bentuk “other”

Yang terakhir, berikut arti dari penggunaan “another“, “other“, “others“, “the other“, “the others“, yang berlaku untuk semua kelompok:

  1. Another sebagai satu tambahan lagi selain dari yang sudah disebutkan.
    • Contoh:
      • another book” (satu buku.)
  2. Other/others (tanpa “the“) yang berarti beberapa tambahan lagi selain dari yang sudah disebutkan.
    • Contoh:
      • other books” (beberapa buku lainnya.)
  3. The other/the others yang berarti semua yang tersisa selain dari yang sudah disebutkan.
    • Contoh:
      • the other books” (beberapa sisa buku lainnya/ selebihnya.)

Compiled and written by @ for @ on Saturday, July 9, 2011