Category Archives: English

#IOTW Idioms Related to Money

Hi, Fellas! Good evening and happy Thursday! How’s your week so far?
This evening I am going to share idioms related to money.

Break the bank
Meaning :An idiom that can mean to use up all of one’s money is break the bank. This idiom can also mean to win all the money at a gambling table.:E.g. “ I know the Mobile Phone is expensive but it’s not going to break the bank.”

Dime a dozen
Meaning :something is easy to get or common
E.g. “I told him not be angry since guys like him are a dime a dozen.”

Bring home to the bacon
Meaning :Bring home the bacon is an idiom that stands for earning a salary. This idiom specifically suggests that the salary would be used to support a family.
E.g. “I work on weekends and Public holidays to bring home the bacon..”

Foot the bill
Meaning :Foot the bill is an idiom that means to pay for the fees.
E.g. “I will help my brother foot the bill of her college education.”

Get a run for one ‘s money
Meaning: The idiom get a run for one’s money denotes receiving a challenge. This idiom can also mean getting what one rightfully deserves.
E.g. “ The company is getting a run for its money from the small-sized yet innovative competitor.”

Worth its weight in gold
Meaning: Means that something is very valuable
E.g. “ They are an asset to the company and is certainly worth his weight in gold.”

Bread and butter
Meaning: The idiom bread and butter refers to one’s source of income. A person makes bread and butter with his or her jobs, businesses or other sources of earnings.
E.g. “ Writing is her bread and butter. Chika feeds and sends her kid to school with her earnings from writing online..”

It’s a wrap for now. Thank you for joining me. I hope it has been useful for you and…. Have a nice weekend, Fellas!

Compiled and written by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, February 14, 2019.




#EngVocab: Other Ways to Say ‘Tired’

Do you know other words to describe tiredness?
Today we will learn other ways to say ‘tired’.

Let’s start.

  • Debilitated: in severely weakened state.

E.g. “He is debilitated after the treatment.”

  • Weary: feeling extremely tired, especially as a result of excessive exertion.

Note: ‘Exertion’ is the physical or perceived use of energy.
E.g. “They felt weary after all the hard work.”

  • Jaded: exhausted; losing interest because you have experienced something too many times.

E.g. “You look jaded, you need a holiday.”

  • Sapped: gradually weaken; exhausted of all your reserve energy.

E.g. “Loss of bloods has sapped his movements.”

  • Enervated: feel drained of energy or vitality.

E.g. “If you feel enervated by the heat, let’s go swimming.”

  1. Prostrate: completely overcome and lacking vitality, will, or power to rise.
    E.g. “She was prostrate with grief after her son’s death.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 2, 2019.

#Engtips: Test Items and How to Teach Them

Types of Test Item

Test items and questions can be either direct or indirect. A direct test item asks the candidate to perform the skill that is being tested (for example, make an oral presentation). An indirect test item, on the other hand, examines the candidate’s knowledge of individual items of language.

Direct Test Items
Direct test items come in many forms as the following examples show:

  • In test of speaking, students can be asked to do such things as give an oral presentation.
  • In test of writing, students can be asked to do such things as write a letter or report.
  • In test of reading, students can be asked to transfer information from a written text to some kind of visual organizer (a pie chart, a graph, etc.) or match texts with pictures and headlines.
  • In test of listening, students can be asked to transfer the information they hear, or they can put pictures (or events) in the right sequence, or choose between different written summaries of what they hear.

Indirect Test Items
There are many different kinds of indirect test items.

  • For Gap Fills, students have to write a word or words in blanks. For example:

Complete the following sentences with one word for each blank.
She had a quick shower, but she didn’t _ any time to put on her makeup.

  • In cloze texts, every sixth (or seventh, etc.) word is a blank. The students have to understand the whole text in order to fill in the blanks. For example:

At school none of her (1) _ seemed to have remembered that (2) was her birthday either and (3) _ made her miserable.

  • In multiple-choice items, the students have to choose the correct (or perhaps the best) from three or four alternatives. For example:

Choose the correct answer:
There were _ people outside.
any b. a lot of c. much d. noneIn

  • In true/false items, the students have to say whether a statement about a reading text is true of false. For example:

Circle the correct answer:
Brittany went to bed at nine o’clock in the evening. true / false

  • For jumbled sentences tasks, the students have to put sentences in the correct order to make a coherent text, they have to put words in order to make correct sentences. For example:

Put the words in order to make correct sentences.
call / finished / for / left / no / she / sleeping / the / there / time / was / when

  • Sentence transformation exercises ask students to rewrite sentences in a slightly different form. For example:

Rewrite the sentence using the word given.
When she got home, Brittany was still tired so she lay down to have a bit of rest. (because)

  • Proofreading exercises ask students to identify the mistakes in certain sentences.
    For example:
    Underline the mistake in the following sentences.
    Luckily, she doesn’t wearing much makeup.

Candidates can also be asked to do matching tasks and we can give them dictations which test a range of competencies, such as listening, spelling, grammar, collocations, etc.

How to Prepare Students for Tests
Students are often highly motivated in exam classes because they have a clear goal to aim for. We can use their enthusiasm to help them prepare for achievement and proficiency tests.

  • We will give the students experience with the indirect test items that they are likely to meet. We will also give them strategies for dealing with multiple-choice questions. For example, they should find the most obvious distractors (the choices that are wrong), eliminate them and then focus on the possibilities that remain and try to work out what is being tested.
  • Students can do direct tasks which are similar to ones they will meet in the test, but we can also get them involved in any other activities and materials that will help them improve their English.
  • We can get the students to roleplay, oral interviews (one student plays the examiner)
  • Students can try to write their own exam items and give them to their classmates. This will give them a good idea of what is involved.
  • Students can give each other sections of tests to do or they can work in pairs and groups to discuss how to do them.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2012. Teacher Knowledge Core Concept in English Language Teaching. England: Pearson Education Limited.

#GrammarTrivia: Other Forms of Conditional Sentences

Hello, fellas. On this Chinese Lunar New Year’s Day, we will discuss other forms of conditional sentences. According to Betty Schrampfer Azar, a conditional sentence usually comprises of an adverb clause of condition or if-clause, which contains a condition, and a result clause, which shows a result.

(More on conditional sentences:

There are other words introducing adverb clauses of condition.

1) Whether or Not and Even If
Whether or not and even if mean that the result will be the same despite the condition.
I am going to go the beach tomorrow whether or not it rains. (Or whether it rains or not)
I am going to go the beach tomorrow even if it rains.
(If it rains, I am going to the beach. If it does not rain, I am going to the beach. I do not care about the weather. It does not matter.)

2) In Case and In the Event That
In case and in the event that show that something will probably not occur, but it might. In the event that is more common in formal usage than in case.
I will be online in case you need to contact me.
I will be online in the event that you need to contact me.

3) Unless
Unless has the same meaning as if…not.
I will go to the beach tomorrow unless it rains.
I will go to the beach tomorrow if it does not rains.

4) Only If
Only if expresses the idea that only one condition will lead to a particular result. The subject and verb of the result clause are inverted when only if begins a sentence.
The picnic will be cancelled only if it rains.
Only if it rains will the picnic be cancelled.

(More on inversion with negative words: and

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, February 5, 2019

#WOTD: Foray

Hi, Fellas! How are you doing? In this evening we are going to have word of the day session. Anyway, have you heard about ‘foray’?

‘Foray’ originally comes from Middle English ‘forrayen,’ which means ‘forager.’

We can use ‘foray’ either as a noun or a verb in a sentence. If you regard it as a noun, ‘foray’ means a sudden invasion/attack. On the other hand, it also means an attempt to try a new activity. In addition, ‘foray’ always refers a new territory/scope or a new occupation. 

There are some synonyms of ‘foray,’ such as ‘irruption,’ ‘invasion,’ and ‘raid.’

Lastly, here are some example of sentences with ‘foray,’

  • “I heard that last night the police forayed that abandoned building. So, it’s true that there had been a suspicious activity there.”
  • “The author forayed into romance.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, February 1, 2019

#WOTD: Pretermit

Today we will learn about ‘pretermit’.
Do you know the meaning of the word ‘pretermit’?

‘Pretermit’ is a verb.
‘Pretermit’ is pronounced as /ˌprēdərˈmit/.

‘Pretermit’ means to neglect (leave undone or leave out); to disregard intentionally (allow to pass unnoticed or unmentioned).

Some synonims of ‘pretermit’:
1. Omit.
2. Ignore.
3. Abandon.
4. Overlook.

Examples of ‘pretermit’ in sentences:
“He wants to pretermit anything that will remind him of his childhood.”

Examples of ‘pretermit’ in sentences:
“My company has pretermitted the invitation to work with other companies.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 20, 2019.

Hey ho, fellas! How’s your day?
how do you learn your English so far?
Today, I would like to direct your attention to some English idioms that can be used to express feelings and emotions

  •  No hard feelings
    Meaning : It might be used after an argument to express the thought or hope that no one  will continue to be angry afterwards. “without offence or anger.”
    Example :
    “Hey man ! no hard feelings, man! That’s the way of life.”
  • Mixed feelings
    Meaning :describe a state where you have more than one feeling – you are happy, but at the same time sad, anxious.
    Example :
    “I was excited about my new school, but sad to be leaving all my friends.”
  • Chilled out
    Meaning :expression simply means the same as ‘relaxed’
    Example :
    “I feel really chilled out after my Fitness class.”
  •  Fed up
    Meaning :you feel really frustrated about something and no longer want to deal with it.
    Example  :                                                                                                                                                      “We have had a terrible day at school and we are feeling completely fed up!.”
  •  Be as hard as nails
    Meaning :describe a person who is insensitive and has no compassion or empathy for others.
    Example :
    “Bella will be great in this new business because she is as hard as nails.”

It’s a wrap for now. Thank you for joining me. I hope it has been useful for you and…. Have a nice weekend, Fellas!

Exclamatory Sentence

Hello, fellas, how are you doing?

Fellas, do you know what is this?

Burj Khalifa

That is Burj Khalifa in Dubai, UAE, “How amazing it is!

Did you notice the form that I used to compliment Burj Khalifa? Yes, I said, “How amazing it is!“. On that sentence, I used what we call exclamatory sentence, which is going to be our topic for today.

An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses about wonder or a feeling caused by something beautiful or stunning. Usually, the characteristic of an exclamatory sentence is it ends with an exclamation mark (!).

Check these sentences:
How small their house was!” (Betapa kecil rumah mereka!)

How oddly Justin behaved!” (Betapa aneh kelakuan Justin!)

What a surprising conclusion it was!” (Sungguh sebuah kesimpulan yang mengejutkan!)

To make an exclamatory sentence, we can use the following formula.

  • Formula 1:
    How + adjective + subject + auxiliary verb

    How cheap these shoes are!
  • Formula 2:
    How + adverb + subject + verb
    How oddly Justin behaved!
  • Formula 3:

  How + adjective + noun + subject + verb


What expensive bags you have!”

Fellas, sometimes, we can remove some word on an exclamatory sentence to make the sentence even better.

E.g.: “What a charming girl!” instead of “What a charming girl she is!” “What beautiful hair!” instead of “What beautiful hair you have!

An exclamatory sentence can also be written as a declarative sentence (which we will discuss next time).

E.g.: “There is the plane now!” (Itu pesawatnya sudah mendarat!)

There is your bus coming!” (Itu dia busnya tiba!)

Fellas, that is all for today, thank you so much for your patience and see you tomorrow!

Compiled and written by @2013happyyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 30, 2019


A. Young Learners
Many people think that children are better language learners than other age groups. As a result, English is taught to young and very young children in many countries around the world.

a. Children need a lot of good exposure if they are to acquire a language. One or two hours a week is usually not enough for successful acquisition, though it may a) give students a taste of the new language, b) make them feel very positive about languages other than their own and c) be a lot of fun.

b. Children take in information from everything around them, not just what is being taught. They learn from things they see, hear, touch and interact with.

c. Children are usually curious about the world and like learning.

d. Many children are happy to talk about themselves, and like learning experiences which involve and relate to their own lives.

e. Children are pleased to have the teacher’s approval.
Children often find it difficult to concentrate on the same thing for a long time.

Tips for Teaching Young Learners
– Change activities frequently.
– Combine learning and play.
– Use appropriate activities (including songs, puzzles, games, art, physical movement, etc.) for different kinds of student.
– Make the classroom an attractive, light and convenient learning environment.
– Pay special attention to your own English pronunciation – children are good imitators.

B. Adult and Older Learners
How are adult learners different from children?

a. Adults can think in abstract way and so there is, perhaps, less need for them to engage in activities such as games and songs in order to understand things.
b. We can introduce a wide range of topics into adult classrooms and expect that the students will have some knowledge of what we are talking about.
c. Many adult learners have strong opinions about how learning should take place, often based on their own schooldays.
d. Although some adults have good memories of learning success, others have experience of learning failure and are worried that they will fail again.
e. Adults usually (but not always) behave well in class – at least better than some other age groups.

Tips for Teaching Adults
– Find out what interests different student individuals in order to plan the most appropriate lessons.
– Be prepared to explain things (such as grammar rules). But remember that many adults learn by doing things, too.
– Discuss the best ways of learning with your students so that everyone is happy with your lessons.
– Provide clear short-term goals so that the students can achieve success at each stage.

C. Adolescents
For many teachers, adolescents students are the most exciting – but also the most challenging – people to have in classrooms.

a. Depending on their stage of development, teenagers can start to think in abstract terms. In other words, they can talk about ideas and concepts in a way that younger children probably cannot.
b. Many adolescent students become passionate about the things that interest them.
c. Many adolescents are extremely conscious of their age and find it irritating when adults continue to teach them as children – even though, in many ways, they are still children.
d. Many adolescents want and need peer approval (the good opinion of their classmates) far more than they want and need the approval of the teacher.

Tips for Teaching Teenagers

-Encourage teenagers to have opinions and to think critically and questioningly about what they are learning.

-Use the students’ own knowledge and experience as much as possible.

-Treat the students like adults but remember they are still children. Encourage the students to take responsibility for their own learning.

-Be super-organised! Teenagers like to know what they are doing and why.

-Be consistent when there are discipline problems. Criticise the behaviour, not the student.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2012. Teacher Knowledge Core Concept in English Language Teaching. England: Pearson Education Limited.

#GrammarTrivia: Common Expressions with “Other”

Hello, fellas. In this session we will discuss several common expressions using other. Forms of other can be used as adjectives or pronouns. Furthermore, there are also common expressions with other carrying different meanings.

1) each other and one another

each other and one another show a reciprocal relationship. They are interchangeable because there is no difference between them.

E.g. We respect each other.
We respect one another.

In both examples above, I respect him or her, and he or she respects me.

2) every other

every other means “alternate”.

E.g. I read every other line. (I read the first line. I do not read the second line. I read             the third line. I do not read the fourth line)

3) the other

the other can be found in time expressions like the other day, the other week, etc., to indicate the recent past.

E.g. We saw her the other day.

the other day in the example carries the meaning of “a few days ago, not long ago”.

4) one after the other and one after another

The two expressions show that separate actions take place very close in time.

E.g. They arrived one after the other.
They arrived one after another.

5) other than

It is frequently used in negative sentences and has the same meaning as “except”.

E.g. No one understands the lesson other than James.
       No one understands the lesson except (for) James.

6) in other words

in other words is used to explain the meaning of the previous sentence(s).

E.g. IELTS assesses our ability to listen, read, write and speak. In other words, IELTS is a         comprehensive test.

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 21, 2019

#EngClass: Derivatives

Hello fellas, how was your day?

In this session we will discuss derivative which is a part of grammar in English language. There are several grammatical rules to apply when using English. Today, we will continue with ‘Derivatives.’

Derivatives are word that are derived from other words, which we call root words. Usually, derivatives are formed by adding an affix to the root words.
Let’s see the paragraph below:

At their first session, the lawyer asked Ed, “What things about this woman that attracted you?”
Ed replied, “Her forthrightness, straightforwardness, and frankness

Fellas, did you find any derivatives from that paragraph?
From that paragraph, the words ‘forthrightness,’ ‘straightforwardness,’ and ‘frankness’ are derivatives. Derivatives can also be nouns that we could change into adjectives or adverbs if we add suffix at the end of the words. However, there are some derivatives that still retain their meaning.

1. To form noun derivatives, we add suffixes like -ness, -ty, -hood, -ian, -cy, -er, -or, -sion, -ment, -tion, -ant, -ce, etc.
Happy – Happiness 
Child – Childhood

Dense – Density
Pregnant – Pregnancy
Good – Goodness

Comedy – Comedian
Assist – Assistance
Friend – Friendship 

2. To form adjective derivatives, we add suffixes like: -full, -less, -ish, -al, – cy, – ary, -able, -ous, -y, etc.
Blue – blueish
Boy – boyish
Help – helpless
Sun – sunny
Danger – dangerous

3. To form verb derivatives, we can add affixes like dis-, re-, -ize, a-, -fy. 
Like – dislike
Agree – disagree 
Check – recheck
Memory – memorize
Summary – summarize

4. Derivatives can also form ‘negative words’ or words that have the negative meaning of the root words. To form these derivatives, we add prefixes un-, in-, im-, etc.

complete – incomplete
happy – unhappy
direct – indirect
mortal – immortal

Sumber: Yulianto, Dian. (2018). Asyiknya Belajar Grammar Dari Kisah-Kisah Jenaka. Yogyakarta: DIVA press.

Compiled and written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou on Wednesday, January 23, 2019

#IOTW: Idioms about personality

Hi, hello, Fellas! Happy weekend. How are you doing? It’s such a great time to meet you again in our session. This evening I would like to share some idioms that refer personalities.

  1. Chatter box.”Meaning: someone who talks a lot.
    • Example:
      • “I bet she even talk in her sleep. She’s a chatter box.”
  2. Cold fish.” Meaning: someone who is expressionless. Most of us know it as “cold” in a simpler way.
    • Example:
      • “I have no idea why most girls love cold fishes [men]. Are they that attractive?”
  3. “Dark horse.” Meaning: someone who has greater ability than we had expected, or, on the other hand, someone who apparently has greater ability than she/he had shown before.
    • Example:
      • “I know he plays piano, but I never thought that he’s very skillful at playing classics. He’s such a dark horse.”
  4. Lone wolf.” Meaning: someone who is less social. He/she prefers to be alone.
    • Example:
      • “I don’t suggest you to come to Adam. That lone wolf won’t care about your existence.”
  5. “Party animal.” Meaning: someone who often go to a party.
    • Example:
      • “I bet we will meet Wilona in Jenny’s. She’s kind of a party animal.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, January 18, 2018

#EngClass The Use of Still, Yet, Already, Any More, Any Longer And No Longer

A. Still (Masih)
It is used to show a continuous action, and is used in affirmative sentence. The word “Still” usually goes in the mid-position of the sentence.
– She still looks young.
– It’s 8 o’clock and Jimmy is still in bed.
– Do you still want to marry to her?

And is usually used with Present Continuous (Progressive).

– I am still doing my homework.
– He is still washing his car.

B. Yet (Belum)
Yet is used to talk about something that is expected to happen, but did not happen till this moment. We use yet mainly in negative sentences and in questions.

The word “Yet” is used at the end of a sentence.

In negative sentences
– He hasn’t come yet.
– I don’t want to go home yet.

In questions
– Has he come yet?
– Have you read his book yet?

In the Perfect Tense sentence
– He hasn’t replied my SMS yet.

C. Already (Telah)
Already is used to show that something has happened earlier. It is used in the mid-position of the sentence and is usually used with Present Perfect.

– I have already told her.
– She has already seen the film.

In American English, it is also possible to use already with the Simple Past.
– I already did my homework.
– He already washed the car.

D. Any More / Any Longer (Sudah tidak lagi)
Any More is an adverb, It happened ‘in the past but not now’
We use Not…. Any more or Not… Any Longer. Any More/Any Longer go at the end of a sentence.

– We don’t go to Cornwall on holiday any more (or any longer)
(We used to go in the past but not now.)
– Sara doesn’t work here any more (or any longer). She left last month.
( not ‘Sara doesn’t still work here’ )
– Ann doesn’t teach in this university any more/ any longer.

E. No Longer (Sudah tidak lagi/bukan lagi)
No Longer is used when something used to happen or be true in the past but does not happen or is not true now. It can use to say that situation has changed. No Longer go in the middle of sentences.

– Ann no longer works here.
– We are no longer workers.
– It’s no longer a secret.

Koltai, Anastasia. 2018. When to Use Still, Already, Yet, Just? Retrieved from

Riyanto, Slamet, et al. A Handbook of English Grammar, An Effective Way to Master English. Pustaka Pelajar.

#EngClass: Irregular Plural Nouns (Revisit)

Hello, fellas. How is it going? In this session we will discuss irregular plurals. Most plural forms are made by adding an –s at the end of their singulars. Nevertheless, some plural nouns do not follow this rule.

1) Vowel change
man / men
woman / women
foot / feet
tooth / teeth
goose / geese
mouse / mice

2) Add –en
child / children
ox / oxen

3) Same as singular
deer / deer
fish / fish
people / people
salmon / salmon
sheep / sheep
trout / trout

4) -is / -es
analysis / analyses
axis / axes
crisis / crises
diagnosis / diagnoses
hypothesis / hypotheses
parenthesis / parentheses
synthesis / syntheses
thesis / theses

5) End in –a
bacterium / bacteria
curriculum / curricula
datum / data
phenomenon / phenomena
criterion / criteria

6) –us / -i
alumnus / alumni
bacillus / bacilli
cactus / cacti
fungus / fungi
nucleus / nuclei
radius / radii
stimulus / stimuli
syllabus / syllabi

Grammarly, Plural Nouns: Rules and Examples,
Deborah Phillips, Longman Complete Course for the TOEFL Test

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 7, 2019

#WOTD: Obtuse

Today we will learn about ‘obtuse’.

Do you know the meaning of the word ‘obtuse’?
‘Obtuse’ means annoyingly insensitive or slow to understand.

Someone who is obtuse has difficulty understanding things, slow on the uptake or makes no effort to understand them.

Examples of ‘obtuse’ in sentences:
“Perhaps I’m being obtuse, but I don’t understand what you’re so upset about.”
“You were too obtuse to take the hint.”
“She seemed a bit obtuse after being called by the manager.”

Some synonims of ‘obtuse’:

  • Dim.
  • Dense.
  • Dull.
  • Slow-witted.
  • Stupid.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 6, 2019.

#EngVocab :Phrasal Verbs with “Call”

Hello, Fellas! Good evening and happy Monday! How’s your week so far?
This evening I am going to share phrasal verbs with “call”

1.“Call away”
Meaning : To ask someone to go somewhere else
E.g. “i am afraid razi was called away from the meeting to deal with a medical emergency, but he should be back soon”

2.“Call for”
Meaning : Publicly demand that something be done
E.g. “Adit got the new job! This news calls for a celebration!”

3.“Call around”
Meaning : to go to someone’s house to visit them
E.g. “Let’s call around to see your cousin later.”

4.“Call back”
Meaning : To return a telephone call
E.g. “They said I could call back later today to collect the T-shirt.”

5.“Call out”
Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “I called out her name, but she couldn’t hear me..”

6.“Call by”
Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “ I think it my might be nice to call by Aunt Jenny’s house on our way to Jakarta.”

7.“Call down”                                                                                                                                         Meaning : To shout or speak loudly in order to get someone’s attention
E.g. “Laura is a perfectionist women and always calls me down for such minor errors!”

Alright, fellas, those are phrasal vervs with call.
Thank you for being with me, fellas! Today is a wrap!
Enjoy fellas! #EngProverb


Compiled by @ijoojii for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 7 Jan, 2019.

#EngTrivia: January’s trivia

Hey, Fellas! How do you do? How is your first week in this new year? This evening I am going to share some fun facts about January, as an opening month of the year.

  1. Do you know that January was named after a Roman God, Janus? Janus is pictured as a person who has two heads. It is said that he is an animistic spirit of doorway and archway. Scholar believe that Janus is a symbol all new beginnings. And maybe, this is why his name had been using as the name of the first month of the year.
  2. In America January is regarded as a National Soup Month. Unfortunately, I still can’t find the history behind this event. The source I read also showed that this event is  unofficial in America. Perhaps, Americans initiated this event due to winter season in the country.
  3. In Russia, Christmas will be celebrated on 7th January this year. The reason why Russian celebrate their Christmas differently is Russians are mostly Orthodox Christians. And Orthodox church use Julian calendar, which was made by Julius Caesar in 45 BC.
  4. January is also an important month for Haitians because Haiti Independence Day was proclaimed on 1 January 1804.
  5. If you were born in January, then you are lucky enough to have garnets as your birthstone. It is a red colored gemstone and it shapes like pomegranate.
  6. January is also well known as a National Blood Donor in America. This event was firstly initiated in 1970 by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of USA.

Anyway, that’s all I can share in this session. If you know anything else that is related to January, you are free to share it.


Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Friday, January 4, 2018

#EngKnowledge: The History of Scientific English

In this era, world science is probably still dominated by the use of English. It can be seen from a large number of research papers written in English to reach a global audience. However, English had not been the lingua franca for European intellectuals prior to the 1600s. They, including Isaac Newton, published their works in Latin.

There were several reasons to write science in Latin. The first one was about its audience. Latin was deemed more suitable for international scholars. On the other hand, English was only able to reach a more local audience.

Scholars also continued writing in Latin due to a concern for secrecy. To put preliminary ideas into the public domain could jeopardize them. This concern about intellectual property rights showed the humanist idea of the individual, rational scientist inventing and discovering through private intellectual work, as well as the nexus of science and commercial exploitation.

The third factor which hindered the use of English in science was its linguistic inadequacy. English did not have sufficient necessary technical vocabulary. Likewise, its grammar was unable to represent the world in an objective and impersonal way, and to discuss the relations.

Ultimately, several members of the Royal Society were interested in language and involved in various linguistic projects. They encouraged science to be published in English and a suitable writing style to be developed. Many of the society’s members also wrote their monographs in English, one of whom was Robert Hooke after conducting his experiments with microscopes in Micrographia (January 1665). Two months after the publication of Micrographia, Philosophical Transactions, world’s longest-running scientific journal, was introduced.

The development of scientific English thus saw a formative period in the seventeenth century. Nevertheless, German was the most prominent European language of science in the 1700s. By the end of the 18th century 401 German scientific journals had been inaugurated as opposed to 96 in France and 50 in England. The substantial lexical growth of scientific English occurred in the 1800s as the industrial revolution required new technical vocabulary. Furthermore, new, specialized, professional societies were formed to encourage and publish in the new areas of study.

Cambridge IELTS 5
The Secret History of the Scientific Journal,

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, December 24, 2018