Category Archives: English

#EngGrammar: Infinitive Verbs

Hi, fellas, how are you today?

There are several parts of speech in English: noun, pronoun, adjective, determiner, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.

One of them, verb, specifically infinitive verbs, are our topic for this article. Can you define infinitive verbs? What is the difference between infinitive verbs and base/finite verbs?

text on shelf
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

 

Base verbs are verbs that can be used in their original forms.
E.g.:
run every day.
check my social media accounts 8 to 10 times a day.

Infinitive verbs are non-finite verbs or verbs that cannot stand independently as the main verbs on a sentence. Infinitive verbs are usually preceded by the word ‘to.’ Infinitive verbs are also usually used after the following words:
Modal verbs (can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, will/would)
E.g.:
She must go to the airport by 3 hours prior to the flight.
John should consider a career in acting; he’s so talented.

Several other verbs
Several other verbs that are followed by infinitive verbs are afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, attempt, determined, beg, care, choose, claim, dare, decide, demand, deserve, expect, fail, happen, help, hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, mean, need, neglect, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, refuse, resolve, seem, stop, swear, tend, threaten, use, volunteer, vow, want, wish, would hate, would like, would love, and would prefer.
E.g.:
The child appears to be ill.
I beg to differ.
It helps to have a friend who is a tech-savvy.
He refused to sign the agreement.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 23 January 2020.


RELATED ARTICLE(S):

 

 

 

 

 

 

#IOTW: Idioms about Transport (2)

Today we will learn more about transport idioms.
Do you know other idioms related to transport?

Let’s start.

  1. Jump the track.
    Meaning: suddenly switch from one thought or activity to another.
    E.g. “We have to postpone the meeting because our boss jumped the track.”
  2. Train wreck.
    Meaning: something that fails completely or goes extremely badly.
    E.g. “Her life hit the train wreck after she dropped out of school.”
  3. Fly high.
    Meaning: having a great extent; at high point or high rank in one’s career.
    E.g. “My colleague flew high after getting the promotion.”
  4. Fifth wheel.
    Meaning: someone who has no real place or purpose in a situation.
    E.g. “I’m tired of being trated like the fifth wheel.”
  5. Sail through.
    Meaning: to move or proceed through in an easy, quick, and smooth way.
    E.g. “My brother sailed through the agreement and got the deal.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 6, 2020.

#EngKnowledge: Common Misconceptions in English Learning

Hi, hello, fellas! How are you?

With the increasing use of English in every field, English proficiency is a must-have skill. We in Indonesia, however, could find a lot of challenges when trying to learn English, some of them came from the misconceptions that we still believe to be true until now.

By changing our mindset about these misconceptions, we will be better prepared to embrace English learning or learning any other foreign languages as a part of our daily life.

What are those misconceptions?

 

abstract blackboard bulb chalk
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

English (or any foreign languages) is hard. I will never be good at it.
Trust me, fellas, I also had the same mindset when I first started learning English. It turned out that it was just in my mind. And so, I tried a variety of learning methods. One that helped me a lot was doing a lot of exercise and practice, whether it was reading, listening, or structure/grammar. Take your time while learning something new and be patient with yourself.

We can learn English better and faster with a native speaker.
Not always true. Most native speakers learn English through language acquisition when they were young, which means they might not experience the difficulty of learning a new language at a later age. Native speakers can often follow English grammar patterns without knowing what that grammar pattern is, so they can use English well but might not be able to teach it.

I can never master the correct British/American/Australian accent.
Again, this is not always true, fellas. With practice, you can acquire the accent, but the more important thing is the correct pronunciation as well as your confidence in yourself to use English on a daily basis.

Grammar is the most important part of English learning.
The correct statement is all elements of English learning are equally important. Grammar at times can be the most intimidating part, but as you grow to love what you are learning and notice the pattern on which a grammar is used, you will find no difficulties using grammar.

Someone who speaks English is more intelligent than others.
Proficiency in English does not equate intelligence, fellas. It’s true that by being proficient in English, the opportunity to learn new things will open widely. However, it will depend on the person whether he/she/they can use the opportunity and the resources well, including understanding the subject.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 13 January 2020.


RELATED ARTICLE(S):

#EngTips: How to Improve Vocabulary

woman in front of her computer
Photo by Ree on Pexels.com

It is not easy to learn a new language, fellas. Especially with the structure, grammar, and all the tenses. We could also find difficulties adding new words to our vocabulary. We have to know the meaning of the word, how to pronounce it correctly, and in what context it is used.

However, we can always try by learn and learn more. Here are some tips to help you improve your vocabulary:

Read and listen
It might sound simple, fellas, but it is about building a habit. The more we try to find new words by reading English texts, watching the news, or listening to podcast, the more familiar we are with them.

Keep a journal
Writing a word down in a journal could help us memorise it better. You can also use any notes on your mobile phone if you feel more comfortable doing so.

Dictionary and thesaurus are handy
If you are still unsure about the difference between a dictionary and a thesaurus, you can simply think of a dictionary as a list of words in alphabetical order with their meanings and the pronunciation, while a thesaurus shows what words are synonymous or antonymous.
With technology nowadays, install a dictionary and a thesaurus app on your mobile phone to quickly help you when you find a new word.

Use the new words
Never be hesitant to practice by using the words in a written form or in a conversation. You can also ask your studying partner to correct you.

Group words that surround the same theme
Instead of listing the words one by one, try grouping them into the same theme. For example, if you love dining out, then collect words that are related to food and restaurant and cooking. So every time you learn a new word from this theme, it will be easier to remember.

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 9 January 2020.


RELATED ARTICLE(S):

#GrammarTrivia: Irregularities in Subject-Verb Agreement (2)

Hello, fellas. Tonight we have the second session of several irregularities in subject-verb agreement.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2019/12/24/grammartrivia-irregularities-in-subject-verb-agreement/)

People, police, and cattle are plural nouns and followed by plural verbs, even though they do not end in –s.

Example:
Many people learn English to study overseas.

Some nouns of nationality ending in –sh, -ese, and –ch can refer to language or people, e.g., English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Portuguese, French. They can be followed by singular or plural verbs.

Examples:
Chinese is an international language.
The Chinese are hard workers.

Several adjectives can be preceded by the and used as a plural noun (with no final –s) to refer to people having the quality, e.g., the poor, the rich, the young, the elderly, the living, the dead, the blind, the deaf, the disabled.

Example:
The young want a change.

Source:

Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 6, 2019

#IOTW: Idioms about Transport

Today we will learn about transport idioms.
Do you know some idioms related to transport?

Let’s start.

  1. Hit the road.
    Meaning: to leave a place or begin a journey.
    E.g. “We packed up and hit the road so we will be there before the show.”
  2. Run a tight ship.
    Meaning: to be very strict, managing an organization in an orderly and disciplined manner.
    E.g. “She ran a tight ship and won the competition in a perfect score.”
  3. Go off the rails.
    Meaning: to start behaving in a way that is not generally acceptable, especially dishonestly or illegally.
    E.g. “My brother went off the rail in middle school so my parents put him in the school dorm.”
  4. Bump in the road.
    Meaning: something that delays a process or prevents it from developing, relatively a minor one.
    E.g. “My friend and his divorced parents’ relationship has hit another bump in the road.”
  5. Rock the boat.
    Meaning: to say or do something that will upset people or cause problems.
    E.g. “Don’t rock the boat. The negotiation is on process to achieve an agreement.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 22, 2019.

Continue reading #IOTW: Idioms about Transport

#EngKnowledge: 2020 Fun Facts

#Page364of365 Today is the last Monday this year and only less than 48 hours before we change the calendar. How excited are you for 2020, fellas?

pexels-photo-3401900.jpeg
Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

I myself am looking into personal growth, doing more voluntary works or charitable activities, and learning some new skills, like sewing. What about you?

While making a list of things we are planning to do in 2020, let’s share some facts about the new year.

  1. The year 2020 will start on a Wednesday and as it is a leap year, will have 366 days.
  2. People all over the world mostly believe that 2019 is the last year of this decade (2010-2019), which means 2020 is the first year of the new decade. However, there are some who believe that the new decade starts in 2021. How is that? Because there are two ways to decide from when to when a decade lasts. The first way is by the same digit. For example, the 1990s started from 1990 and lasted until 1999. The second way is by starting a decade with the last digit ‘1.’ As there is no year ‘zero/0,’ we start counting the years from year 1. By this definition, the 2020 is the last year of the decade and the new decade will begin on 1 January 2021.
  1. The Roman number of 2020 is MMXX.
  2. The Gregorian year 1992 had the exact same calendar as the year 2020.
  3. The Chinese year of Metal Rat will last from 25 January 2020 until 11 February 2021. Rat is the first animal on the Chinese zodiac list so the year of rat is believed to be a new beginning when people from all zodiac signs can prosper.

If you think 2019 was not up to your expectation and 2020 is not going to be any different, plan to try out new things or rediscover your love for old hobbies and idle skills. Who knows what will happen, right? Let’s welcome 2020 with a bang!

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 30 December 2019.


RELATED ARTICLE(S):

#EngKnowledge: The Twelve Days of Christmas

Have you ever heard of the phrase ‘The Twelve Days of Christmas,’ fellas? Have you ever wondered what it is and what it means?

‘The Twelve Days of Christmas’ is a Christmas carol that dated back to 1780 when it was first used in England as a chant or a rhyme. It is believe to have a French origin.

It tells a story of accumulating gifts for twelve days since Christmas Day; each day the amount of gift increases from the day before.

assorted color gift boxes
Photo by Giftpundits.com on Pexels.com

The song goes like this (source: Google):

On the first day of Christmas my true love sent to me
A partridge in a pear tree
On the second day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the third day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the fourth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the fifth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the sixth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Six geese a laying, five gold rings, four calling birds
Three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the seventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying, five gold rings
Four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the eighth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the ninth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Nine drummers drumming, eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying, five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the tenth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Ten pipers piping
Nine drummers drumming, ten pipers piping
Drumming, piping, drumming, piping
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the eleventh day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Eleven ladies dancing, ten pipers piping, nine drummers drumming
Eight maids a milking, seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
Five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree
On the twelfth day of Christmas my true love sent to me
Twelve Lords a leaping, eleven ladies dancing, ten pipers piping
Nine, drummers drumming, eight maids a milking
Seven swans a swimming, six geese a laying
And five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves
And a partridge in a pear tree, and a partridge in a pear tree

 

There are several variations and versions to this song but all tells a story of cumulative wealth or gifts. There are also similar verses in Scotland, Faroe Islands, and France. The exact origins and the meaning of the song are unknown, although many believe that it came from children’s memory and forfeit game. Each child in succession repeats the gifts of the day and forfeits or is given penalty for each mistake.

Do you want to try to memorise it, fellas?

 

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 26 December 2019.


RELATED ARTICLE(S):

#GrammarTrivia: Irregularities in Subject-Verb Agreement

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn some irregularities in subject-verb agreement.

Sometimes a proper noun (the name of a particular person, place, or object spelled with a capital letter) that ends in –s is followed by a singular verb because it is singular. The singular pronoun it is used if the noun is changed to a pronoun.

Example:
The United Nations has 193 member states.

News is a singular noun.

Example:
Bad news is good news.

Fields of study ending in –ics are followed by singular verbs.

Example:
Economics is interesting.

Several illnesses which end in –s require singular verbs, such as diabetes, measles, mumps, rabies, rickets, shingles.

Example:
Measles is an infectious disease producing small, red spots all over the body.

Expressions of time, money, and distance are usually followed by a singular verb.

Example:
Five dollars is enough to pay.

Arithmetic expressions require singular verbs.

Example:
One and three equals four.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary: 4th Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, December 24, 2019

#GrammarTrivia: Stative Verbs

Hello, fellas. Our session today is about stative verbs.

(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2014/04/13/engclass-stative-or-non-continuous-verb/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2016/07/29/grammartrivia-non-continuous-verbs/)

Stative verbs are verbs which have stative meanings. They are used to describe states: existing conditions or situations. They are usually not used in progressive tenses.

Verbs having stative meanings:

  1. Mental state: know, realize, undertand, recognize, believe, feel, suppose, thinks*, imagine*, doubt*, remember*, forget, want*, need, desire, mean*
  2. Emotional state: love, like, appreciate, please, prefer, hate, dislike, fear, envy, mind, care
  3. Possession: possess, have*, own, belong
  4. Sense perceptions: taste*, smell*, hear, feel*, see*
  5. Other existing states: seem, look*, appear*, sound, resemble, look like, cost*, owe, weigh*, equal, be*, exist, matter, consist of, contain, include

Note: Verbs with an asterisk (*) have stative and progressive meanings and uses.

Examples:

1) The food tastes delicious.
In the sentence above, tastes describes a state that exists.

2) The chef is tasting the sauce in his kitchen.
This example describes the action of the chef putting something in his mouth and actively tasting its flavor.

Sources:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 8, 2019

#EngVocab: Phrasal Verbs with ‘Sleep’

Today we will learn about sleep phrasal verbs.
Do you know some phrasal verbs with the word ‘sleep’?

Let’s start.
1. Sleep on it.
Meaning: delay making a decision until the following day, so you can think more about it.
E.g. “I can’t decide. Let me sleep on it, I’ll let you know tomorrow.”
2. Sleep in.
Meaning: remain asleep or in bed until later than usual in the morning.
E.g. “I usually sleep in at the weekends.”
3. Sleep through.
Meaning: to remain sleeping although there is a lot of noise around you.
E.g. “Please wake me up if I sleep through the alarm.”
4. Sleep over.
Meaning: to sleep in someone else’s home for a night.
E.g. “Don’t drive this late. You can sleep over in the big room upstairs.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 9, 2019.

#EnGrammar: Rather Than

Hi fellas, Have you studied English today?

Today we will discuss how to use “rather than” in the sentence. Let’s get started!

Basically, the role of “rather than” depends on the type of sentence in which it’s being used.

Rather than in sentences, it functions as an adverb, conjunctions and prepositions.

1. As an adverb, to indicate a preference, degree, or accuracy.

Example:

I would rather not go.

” She is a doctor, or rather, a surgeon.”

2. As a conjunction, parallel grammatical constructions appear on each side of rather than.

Example:

“For exercise, I walk rather than run.”

” Rather than repair the car, I prefer to buy a new one.”

3. As a preposition, rather than is synonymous with instead of and begins subordinate clauses.

Example:

Rather than driving, he rode his bike to work.

“Rather than using dried herbs, he picked fresh ones from the garden.”

#GrammarTrivia: The Subjunctive in Noun Clauses

Hello, fellas. In this session we will learn how to use the subjunctive in noun clauses.
(More: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/10/engclass-subjunctive/)

Sentences using the subjunctive usually carry the meaning of importance or urgency. A subjunctive verb only uses the simple form of a verb. There is no present, past, or future form in the subjunctive. Its verb is neither singular nor plural. A subjunctive verb is used in noun clauses with that following certain verbs and expressions.

Verbs and expressions followed by the subjunctive in noun clauses:

advise
ask
demand
insist
propose
recommend
request
suggest
it is essential
it is imperative
it is important
it is critical
it is necessary
it is vital

Examples:
1) She demands that I be on time.
2) The teacher insisted that we do the homework.
3) He recommended that they (should) not go to the stadium.
(Should is also possible after recommend and suggest)
4) It is necessary that she be forgiven.
(Passive: simple form of be + past participle)
5) I suggested that they (should) make a decision immediately.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on  Wednesday, November 20, 2019

#IOTW: Idioms about Skills

Do you know some idioms about skills?
Today we will learn about idioms related to skills.

Some idioms about skills:
1. Lose one’s touch.
Meaning: no longer be able to do or handle something as well as you could before.
E.g. “My boss just got the deal. He’s not losing his touch.”

  1. Bag of Tricks.
    Meaning: a set of skills, items of information, or other resources used to help achieve professional or personal goals.
    E.g. “The whole bag of tricks works like a charm. I got the job.”

  2. Beat Someone To The Draw.
    Meaning: to accomplish or obtain something quicker than someone else.
    E.g. “The defender beat my brother to the draw and stole the ball away.”

  3. Drop the Ball.
    Meaning: to make a mistake or fail, often because of carelessness or inattention.
    E.g. “My manager dropped the ball so we couldn’t get the agreement.”

  4. Find One’s Voice.
    Meaning: to manage to say something after being too nervous to talk, often because of fear or surprise or difficult circumstances.
    E.g. “My aunt revealed the thief’s description after she found her voice.”

  5. Green as Grass.
    Meaning: completely inexperienced or naive.
    E.g. “When my sister left school and started her first job, she was as green as grass.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 24, 2019.

#IOTW : Idioms starting with “By”

Hello fellas, how are you today? Today, we will discuss idioms that start with “by”.

1. By heart mean: from memory

E.g: “You know their names by heart”.

2. By hand mean: not by machine

E.g: “All these fancy soap are made by hand”.

3. By chance mean: without planning

: “Suddenly, I meet Rebecca on the street by chance”.

4. By mistake Mean: not on

E.g: ” Sorry, I call you by mistake”.

5. By the book

mean: follows the rules E.g:” If you want to succeed, you have to work by the book”.

6. By and large mean: On the whole in general

: ” The weather today are sunny and rainy by and large”.

7. By leaps and bounds mean: tremendously a lot

E.g: “If somebody want to improve, must be by leaps and bounds”.

8. By word of mouth mean: through people talking each other.

E.g:” I know that it is delicious ice cream by word of mouth”.

That’s all for today fellas, see you tomorrow!!

Compiled and Written by @2013happyy for @englishtipsforyou, Wednesday, November, 20 2019

#IOTW: Idioms about Friendship

Hello, fellas! How was your weekend?

Today we will learn more idioms about friendship.
Do you know some idioms about friendship?
#IOTW

Let’s start.
1. Like two peas in a pod.
Meaning: very similar.
E.g. “My brother and his best friend were like two peas in a pod.”
#IOTW

  1. To bury the hatchet.
    Meaning: to end a conflict and become friendly.
    E.g. “My father and my mother agreed to bury the hatchet after years of arguing.”
    #IOTW

  2. To hit it off.
    Meaning: find yourself immidately and naturally friendly with someone.
    E.g. “My cousin met his friend at school and hit it off right away.”
    #IOTW

  3. Joined at the hip.
    Meaning: refers to friends who are always seen together.
    E.g. “My sister and her best friend are not joined at the hip. They have their own personal lives and spaces.”
    #IOTW

  4. To see eye to eye with someone.
    Meaning: agree with someone.
    E.g. “I don’t always see eye to eye with my mother.”
    #IOTW

  5. To build bridges.
    Meaning: to promote friendly relations between people or groups.
    E.g. “The cafe owner should build bridges with next door butcher.”
    #IOTW

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 10, 2019.

#GrammarTrivia: Using ‘Which’ to Modify a Whole Sentence

Hello, fellas. Today we will learn how to use which to modify a whole sentence. Which is usually used in a clause modifying a noun or a relative clause (an adjective clause)

(More on relative clauses: https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/)

A sentence is modified by which in informal and spoken English. It is not generally deemed appropriate in formal writing. If it is written, a comma comes before it to reflect a pause in speech.

Examples:

1) Liverpool won the UEFA Champions League. That did not surprise me.
Liverpool won the UEFA Champions League, which did not surprise me.

2) We are facing a long dry season. This is too horrible.
We are facing a long dry season, which is too horrible.

The pronouns that and this refer to the ideas of the previous sentences “Liverpool won the UEFA Champions League” and “We are facing a long dry season”. Then, they are replaced by which.

Source:
Betty Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar: Third Edition

Compiled and written  by @fathrahman for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, October 15, 2019

#EngVocab: Synonyms of ‘Problem’ (2)

Today we will learn about other ways to say ‘problem.’
Do you know the synonyms of ‘problem’?

Let’s start.
Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
1. Quandary
Meaning: a state of uncertainty over what to do in a difficult situation.
Example:
“My friend was in a quandary about which job to accept.”
#EngVocab

Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
2. Plight.
Meaning: an unfavourable or unfortunate condition.
Example:
“I had great sympathy for his plight.”
#EngVocab

Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
3. Vexation.
Meaning: something that causes annoyance, frustration, or worry.
Example:
“My brother was facing a vexation at work.”
#EngVocab

Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
4. Muddle.
Meaning: a disordered or confusing state.
Example:
“My company got into an awful muddle with the tax forms.”
#EngVocab

Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
5. Hitch.
Meaning: a temporary interruption or problem.
Example:
“The ceremony went off without a hitch.”
#EngVocab

Some synonyms of ‘problems’:
6. Snag
Meaning: an unexpected or hidden obstacle.
Example:
“I take every snag in my way as a stepping stone.”
#EngVocab

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 27, 2019.