Category Archives: English

#ENGCLASS: CODE-SWITCHING AND CODE-MIXING (REVISIT)

This article is a revisit and rewritten version of #EngClass: Code-switching vs. Code-mixing (2015).

“Hujan-hujan begini, I feel so lucky that I got to work from home. Semoga orang-orang yang literally have to be out there to make a living bisa survive.”

Have you ever said or typed something in this manner, fellas?

Indonesian younger generations (millennials and younger), especially those who live in capital cities and are heavily exposed to foreign languages, often do code-switching and code-mixing.

This could happen with many different languages at once, as Indonesia is immensely rich in culture. I often find myself code-switching and code-mixing with my Indonesian friends, using Javanese, Indonesian, Balinese, and English, all in one conversation.

What are code-switching and code-mixing and why do we do them? Are they bad or incorrect or wrong?

Some argue that code-switching and code-mixing can be used interchangeably. We tend to go with a more specific definition for each.

Code-switching is changing from one language to another during a speech, especially on a clause or a sentence level.
Example:
“Hujan terus. It’s very cold outside.”

Code-mixing is adding one or two words of another language into the speech, not enough to make a clause or a sentence.
Example:
“Mana my umbrella? Hujannya deras sekali.”

Here are the possible reasons why someone or a group of people code-switch or code-mix:

1. Talking about a secret
In a group dominated by English-speaking people who don’t speak Indonesian, we might speak in Indonesian if we want nobody to find out what we’re saying.

2. Failing to find the compatible words or terms/words or terms from the other language come first to our mind when we are required to make quick decisions or quick responses
On some occasions, we might struggle to find the suitable words or terms from the same language and we end up inserting one or two words from another language.

Example:
“Bisa tolong print ini, nggak?”
We know the Indonesian equivalent of the verb ‘to print’ is ‘cetak’, but in a rush, we might forget about it and blurt out ‘print’, even though the rest of the sentence is in Indonesian.

3. To soften or strengthen a request or a command
Some requests seem more earnest and some commands sound less bossy if we add the English word ‘please’ to the sentence.
Example:
“Tolong bantuin aku, ya, please…”
Please, jangan ribut, teman-teman!”

4. To emphasise what has previously been said in another language
Example:
“Ingat, besok jangan telat. Don’t be late.

5. To sound smart
Some people do think that using foreign languages during an argument will make them look smarter and will get the point across. We see this a lot during a Twitter-war amongst Indonesians. Some of us might switch to English in order to be taken seriously.

Are code-switching and code-mixing bad or wrong or incorrect, linguistically speaking?

We even have a joke about it now, ‘byelingual.’

Well, we Indonesians speak at least 3 different languages: our mother tongue (for each province or regency might use a different one), Indonesian, and English. Add other languages we learned over the course of our lives, we can collectively cry in multilingual.

Linguists might say that code-switching or code-mixing is a sign that we cannot be consistent with one language, but I would argue that at some point we will inevitably code-switch or code-mix, especially if we interact with people from many different backgrounds on a daily basis.

Besides, there are quite a few English words being adopted by Indonesians that using the Indonesian counterparts might confuse our audience. For example, we will be easily understood if we say ‘keyboard’ instead of ‘papan ketik.’

Considering the above points, I wouldn’t say either code-switching or code-mixing is wrong. I would still propose that for the sake of being on a mutual understanding, we stick with the language that will be understood better.

Using English in a Twitter debate with a fellow Indonesian might make us feel better as we can say what we want to say clearly, but if it ends up confusing our interlocutor even more, we won’t reach a middle ground anytime soon.

Share your thoughts on code-switching and code-mixing by mentioning us or write on the comment section below!

@unclee_eman: Keminggris. Sama 1 lgi minlish, kalo debat kudu di mix pake english biar dikira pinter dan berbobot bacotanya hehehe

Colloquially, yes. In Indonesian, English-Indonesian code-switching and code-mixing is known as Jaksel dialect, or bahasa daerah Jaksel, as people from southern Jakarta are considered by many to be the ones who popularised them @kaonashily: I thought it was bahasa Jaksel

@slvywn: code-mixing waktu kuliahnya biasanya dibarengin sama code-switching, pembahasan bagus ni

I know, right? I personally think it’s cool for us Indonesian to be able to use 3 different languages in one go. P.S.: The word ‘pisan’ that means ‘sangat’ or ‘sekali’ is also found in Balinese. @Inisinene: pada suatu hari “any idea? buntu pisan parah” me as sundanese proud but make it baker street lol

Exactly. @AM_Ihere: Lebih paham download daripada unduh.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, 23 February 2021.

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#EngClass: Code-switching vs. Code-mixing
#EngKnowledge: English Words of Indonesian Origin
#EngTalk: English Words as Bahasa Indonesia Slang (2)
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Further #EngTalk: Penggunaan Bahasa Inggris di Indonesia

#WOTD: PRODIGY

Did you know, fellas? Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart started composing when he was five. He was a musical prodigy.

On this article, we will discuss the word ‘prodigy.’

Photo by Gabby K on Pexels.com

A prodigy is a highly talented child, especially under the age of ten years old, who is capable of producing a meaningful output in a field which the child is interested in, in a level of an adult expert.

In the course of history, there are several different areas where a prodigy could be found: mathematics and science, arts, and sports, particularly chess.

Some researchers believe that prodigious talent tends to arise as a result of the innate talent of the child, and the energetic and emotional investment that the child ventures. Others believe that the environment plays the dominant role.

For example, a chess grandmaster might train their children starting at a very young age, resulting in an emotional investment of the children in the game. We also see how children of famous actors or performers tend to acquire the same talents as their parents’.

There could also be occasions where, even though the environment a child grows up in doesn’t necessarily provide support to the child’s development in specific areas, the child still becomes prodigious. Researches suggest that working memory and the cognitive function of the cerebellum are what makes a prodigal child. This theory is supported by brain imagery.

The term ‘prodigy’ itself initially only meant ‘an omen’ or ‘something extraordinary’ when it was first used in English around the 15th century. It came from the Latin word ‘prodigium.’ ‘Wunderkind’ is a German word (literally: wonder child) that is often used as a synonym to ‘prodigy.’

Aside of Mozart, prodigies we might be familiar with are Frédéric Chopin and Blaise Pascal.

“My mother said that I should finish high school and go to college first.” – Saul Kripke, an American philosopher and logician who is a prodigy, in a response to an invitation to apply for a teaching position at Harvard.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 22 February 2021.

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#GRAMMARTRIVIA: LOWERCASE AESTHETIC

Fellas, have you ever heard of ‘lowercase aesthetic?’ It’s the act and art of turning our auto-capitalisation off and type all letters in lowercase. Examples, as taken from Billie Eilish’s YouTube channel:

How, when, and why did this trend start?

In English, and many other languages from every part of the world, we begin a sentence with an uppercase or a capital letter. The title of something also carries the capitalisation rule with it. The word ‘I’ is always typed as an uppercase.

But when it comes to internet language or online conversation, particularly a social media post or text messages, we often disregard grammatical rules including capitalisation as long as it doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence.

Lauren Fonteyn, a linguistics lecturer at the University of Manchester who studies language on the internet, concluded this phenomenon, as quoted by Mashable on this article: the surprising reasons we turn off autocaps and embrace the lowercase.

The lowercase movement can be traced back to 2015 or even earlier, when social media started seeing its ever-increasing popularity. It’s become an unwritten norm on the internet, what’s more with notable public figures or celebrities popularising it.

Those who favour lowercase believe that lowercase is more than just a utility; it subtly conveys that the person using all lowercase is hip, casual, and chill, doesn’t get riled up by little things. In short, all lowercase helps with one’s online persona. Uppercase is reserved for specific context, like conveying excitement or putting emphasis on certain word(s).

Some of the lowercase users also believe that using all lowercase in non-professional setting is somewhat liberating. It means that after hours and hours being constrained by grammatical rules while at work, one finally gets to be themselves by using all lowercase. By this, we can assume that lowercase users feel that using all lowercase is a way to express themselves.

Another interesting point to note is that many lowercase users are found on online communities, namely fandoms, where using all lowercase gives them a sense of being a part of something, a sense of belonging.

What do you think about this phenomenon, fellas? Share your thoughts.

@slvywn: i’ve been dong this for years because it looks better on my eyes

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 18 February 2021.

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#IOTW: IDIOMS THAT MENTION ROME

Rome. A city full of myths, legend, and history. Rome’s influence to the whole world is such that we have four idioms in English that mention Rome. We Indonesian will at least be able to name one of them, as it has an Indonesian version.

Photo by Chait Goli on Pexels.com

‘Banyak jalan menuju Roma’ is the Indonesian version of ‘all roads lead to Rome.’ In Indonesian, it’s commonly interpreted as there are a lot of ways to achieve something, which essentially means ‘never give up.’

The English version has a slightly different meaning. It means that all methods of doing something will lead to the same result. However, the idiom ‘all roads lead to Rome’ had a literal meaning once.

To mark the starting point of the Roman road system to the rest of Italy, Emperor Caesar Augustus of the Roman Empire instructed the building of Milliarium Aureum or the Golden Milestone around 20 BCE. All roads were considered to begin at this monument and all distances in the Roman Empire were measured relative to it.

Next, we have ‘Rome wasn’t built in a day.’ The first known reference to this idiom was actually made by a 12th-century cleric in the court of Phillippe of Alsace, the Count of Flanders, in present-day Belgium.

It was recorded in a mediaeval French poem around the end of the 12th century as ‘Rome ne fu pas faite toute en un jour’ and then it was included in the book Li Proverbe au Vilain by Swiss linguist Adolf Tobler in 1895. This idiom means that everything takes time and effort.

Another idiom is ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans do.’ It means wherever we are in the world, it’s expected that we respect local people and local culture. The phrase’s origin can be traced back to the 4th century, written by Saint Augustine.

During that time, Saint Augustine moved from Rome to Milan to become a professor of rhetoric. In his previous Roman church, there was a custom to fast on Saturdays, but he didn’t find such tradition in Milan. Thus, he found the place quite different.

Saint Ambrose, a bishop of Milan, then advised Saint Augustine, “When I go to Rome, I fast on Saturday, but here I do not. Do you also follow the custom of whatever church you attend if you do not want to give or receive scandal (create controversies)?”

These wise words left such a deep impression that Saint Augustine wrote it in a letter. Later on, similar phrases started gaining popularity and came to a conclusion as ‘when in Rome, do as the Romans do.’

The last one is ‘fiddling while Rome burns.’ It means to continue our regular activity to avoid dealing with something unpleasant or to do something trivial in the midst of an emergency. Sounds like celebrities and influencers who attend or host parties during a pandemic.

All shades aside, in July of 64 AD, a great fire ravaged Rome for six days, destroying 70 percent of the city and leaving half of its population homeless. Emperor Nero, who was notorious for being a tyrant, was believed to quite literally play music, specifically a fiddle, during the fire.

However, historians debate this theory as Nero was at his villa in Antium, around 35 miles from Rome. Music historians believe the viol class of instruments (to which the fiddle belongs) was not developed until the 11th century, making it disputable for Nero to have played one during the fire.

Nero returned to Rome immediately and began disaster relief measures, but as he was known for being an ineffective leader, his people didn’t trust him. Many Romans accused him of instructing to start the fire in order to empty some lands which would then become his Golden Palace and its surrounding gardens. Nero himself accused and subsequently arrested and executed the Christians.

He cast the blame on the Christians because Christianity was a relatively unknown religious sect at the time. But the story that Nero played a fiddle during the Great Fire is considered more of a legend than a fact.

There they are, fellas, 4 idioms that mention Rome, each with its origin and history. Feel free to add anything that we’ve missed or correct us if there is any inaccuracy.

Source:
Wikipedia
Merriam-Webster Dictionary
Cambridge Dictionary
https://theculturetrip.com/europe/italy/articles/the-origin-of-the-saying-rome-wasnt-built-in-a-day/
https://www.romecitytour.it/blog/why-do-we-say-when-in-rome-do-as-the-romans-do/
https://www.history.com/news/did-nero-really-fiddle-while-rome-burned

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 8 February 2021.

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#ENGKNOWLEDGE: MANY, MANY TYPES OF CITRUS FRUITS

Vitamin C is one of the most important nutrients to maintain our immune system, especially during rainy season. The first thing that comes into our mind when talking about vitamin C is probably an orange.

In Indonesian, oranges are often referred to as ‘jeruk,’ regardless of the species. There are jeruk purut, jeruk nipis, jeruk bali, jeruk keprok, jeruk mandarin, and many other types. However, these fruits go by different names in English. On this article, we will discuss the many, many types of citrus fruits, the genus which oranges are a part of.

1. Sweet orange (Citrus × sinensis)
This species is what we refer to as an orange. It is a hybrid of pomelo and mandarin orange. It is sweet, relatively easy to peel, and it has only a few seeds, if not seedless. It has a spherical shape.

Image source: Wikipedia

2. Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata)
A mandarin orange is generally smaller than a sweet orange. It has a sweeter and stronger flavour and is often less sour. The rind is easy to peel and the fruit is often flat on the pole (oblate).

Image source: Wikipedia

3. Pomelo (Citrus maxima or Citrus grandis)
The largest citrus fruit of the family Rutaceae. It is 15-25 cm in diameter and is a natural (non-hybrid) type. It is considered as the ancestor of grapefruit and many other hybrids. Native to Southeast Asia, a pomelo has a thick rind, which probably requires a knife to peel, and white or pinkish flesh. The one with white flesh is usually sweeter than the one with pinkish flesh. Inside the rind, there is a membrane that is chewy and bitter. It is what’s known in Indonesian as ‘jeruk bali.’

Image credit: Wikipedia

4. Grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi)
Grapefruit is a hybrid of sweet orange and pomelo. The colour of the flesh varies from pale yellow to dark pink. It is generally smaller than a pomelo, with 10-15 cm in diameter, more sour or bitter. Native to the Barbados, it grows in grape-like clusters, which is probably why it is named grapefruit.

Image source: Wikipedia
A grapefruit cluster. Image source: Wikipedia

5. Tangerine (Citrus x tangerina)
A hybrid of mandarin with some pomelo contributions, a tangerine shares a lot of mandarin features that sometimes it is hard to differentiate them. It is sweeter, smaller, and less-rounded than a sweet orange. When it is ripe, it could be slightly soft.

6. Clementine (Citrus × clementina)
Another one that carries a lot of mandarin orange traits is clementine. The exterior is glossy and the rind is easy to peel. Juicy and sweet, it is less acidic than a sweet orange. A clementine is generally smaller than a tangerine, thus earning it the commercial name ‘cuties.’

Image source: Wikipedia

7. Blood orange (Citrus × sinensis)
A blood orange is considered a natural mutation of a sweet orange, which is probably why it goes by the same Latin name. The flesh of this fruit is blood red and the taste is a mix of an orange and a raspberry. As it originated from Europe, it is hard to come by in Southeast Asia.

Image source: Wikipedia

8. Tangelo (Citrus × tangelo)
This variant got its name from tangerine and pomelo. Also known as honeybells, the fruit is juicy and has a tart and tangy taste.

Image source: Wikipedia

9. Bitter orange/Seville orange/sour orange/bigarade orange/marmalade orange (Citrus × aurantium)
Having sour and bitter taste, this type of citrus is rarely eaten fresh and is more commonly used in cooking or liqueur (a type of liquor that requires additional flavours from fruits, herbs, or nuts).

Image source: Wikipedia


10. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)
Bergamot is a probable hybrid of lemon and bitter orange. It is the size of an orange with dark green to yellow exterior similar to a lime. The extract of bergamot is often used to add scent to food, perfume, and cosmetics.

Image source: Wikipedia

11. Yuzu/yuja (Citrus junos)
Yuzu (Japanese) or yuja (Korean) is native to East Asia. The fruit looks somewhat like a small grapefruit with an uneven skin, and can be either yellow or green depending on the degree of ripeness. It has various uses, from culinary to skincare. Have you ever heard of yuzu bath or yuja skincare?

12. Kumquat (Citrus japonica)
Kumquat closely resembles an orange in color and shape but is much smaller, being approximately the size of a large olive. The fruit is often eaten whole with its peel and sometimes is a part of a fruit salad.

Image source: Wikipedia

13. Citron (Citrus medica)
Citron is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind. It is one of three natural citrus fruits (the other two being mandarin and pomelo) from which all other citrus types developed through natural or artificial hybridisation. It has culinary and medical uses.

Image source: Wikipedia

14. Lemon (Citrus limon)
Lemon is native to South Asia, primarily Northeastern India. Lemon juice is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie.

15. Lime
There are several species of citrus trees that are called limes, including the Key lime (Citrus aurantiifolia), Persian lime, kaffir lime, and desert lime. Limes are sour and sometimes bitter, often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. In Indonesia, the most popular one is probably ‘jeruk sambal’ or ‘jeruk limau’ (Citrus amblycarpa), whose fruits and leaves are often used in condiments.

Source:
https://www.homestratosphere.com/types-of-citrus-fruits/
https://www.seriouseats.com/2018/01/know-your-citrus-a-field-guide-to-oranges-lemons-limes-and-beyond.html
Others are mentioned above.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 6 February 2021.

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#WOTD: RAMBUNCTIOUS

Our #WOTD for this article is ‘rambunctious.’ Having read it on various news portals, I found the word quite intriguing.

Firstly, I like how it sounds and how easy it is to remember. When I read the word for the first time, I thought it came from British English; it just sounded like it did.

As I looked into it further, the word is actually an informal American English word, which means exuberant, lively, cheerful, boisterous. Essentially, ‘rambunctious’ is used to describe someone or something that is overly-energetic and has a cheerful manner.

Photo by Emily Rose on Pexels.com

My guess about the word coming from British English was not entirely baseless, however, as there is another word that has similar meaning, ‘rumbustious,’ and the latter did come from British English.

According to Merriam-Webster, ‘rumbustious’ first appeared in Britain in 1700s. It was probably based on ‘robustious,’ which could mean both ‘robust’ and ‘boisterous.’

‘Rambunctious’ began gaining popularity in the United States by 1830. At that time, the States was a fast-growing nation that encouraged the coinage of some new words and terms that represent the nation’s optimism and exuberance.

Example of ‘rambunctious’ in a sentence:
“Bali beaches are packed with rambunctious people every weekend.”
“The rambunctious puppies apparently chewed on one of my shoes last night.”

On the same note, ‘rambunctious’ could also carry a meaning of being too full of energy that we become noisy and unruly.

Example:
“Rambunctious concert-goers caused injuries to their peers as they pushed each other to get closer to the stage.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 4 February 2021.

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#WOTD: Gesticulative

#WOTD: GESTICULATIVE

Fellas, have you ever lost words in the middle of a sentence and decided to use your hands to deliver the message instead? Or have you ever met someone who moves their hands a lot while talking?

In English, we have a word to describe that type of person, ‘gesticulative.’

Photo by u795d u9e64u69d0 on Pexels.com

The word ‘gesticulative’ came from late Middle English ‘gesture,’ which came from medieval Latin ‘gestura,’ which we can trace back to Latin ‘gerere,’ that means ‘bear, wield, perform.’ Hence, ‘gesture’ means ‘the use of posture and bodily movements for effect in oratory.’

Most English speakers would opt for the verb ‘to gesticulate’ or the noun ‘gesticulation,’ which is probably why it is hard to find the definition of ‘gesticulative.’

Examples:
“He gesticulated a lot during the debate.”
“Her gesticulation is more effective than words.”

Another similar word, which is also an adjective, is ‘gesticulatory.’ Both ‘gesticulative’ and ‘gesticulatory’ mean ‘of or relating to a gesticulation.’

Example:
“He didn’t say much, not with words, at least. It was quite a gesticulative/gesticulatory conversation.”
“Pardon me for being gesticulative; I was too nervous during the speech.”

Now that we have the word ‘gesticulative’ as an addition to our vocabulary, try using it on our everyday conversation to get more familiar with it.

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 25 January 2021.

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#ENGVOCAB: POPULAR INTERNET TERMS AS OF JANUARY 2021 T-Z

Hello, everyone! This article is to the last one of our series on popular internet terms as of January 2021. Here are the previous articles on the series in case you missed it: PART 1PART 2PART 3, PART 4

REMINDER: Most of these terms are slang and SHOULD ONLY be used in an informal interaction.

  1. That’s a you problem (phrase)
    Meaning: an informal way of saying ‘that’s your problem.’
    Example:
    “I’m telling the truth and I have witnesses. If you don’t believe me, I think that’s a you problem.”
  2. That’s just me (phrase)
    Meaning: an informal way of saying ‘that’s just my opinion.’
    Example:
    “I don’t think it’s right to meet up and hang out now, but that’s just me.”
  3. Thicc (adjective)
    Meaning: curvy, slightly overweight.
    Example:
    “I feel like I’d rather be thicc than being underweight.”
  4. This could have been an email (phrase)
    Meaning: of a professional gathering that seems to be a waste of time.
    Example:
    “This whole meeting could have been an email.”
  5. This isn’t even my final form (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘I can improve or do better than this.’ Originated from Songoku’s or any Saiyan’s transformation to a Super Saiyan in the Dragon Ball franchise.
    Example:
    “Wait, wait, wait, this isn’t even my final form. You will be shocked.”
Credit: Meme Generator

  1. Three much (adjective, adverb)
    Meaning: more exaggerated than ‘too much.’
    Example:
    “Girl, you are really three much! Stop making a fuss.”
  2. Throw someone under the bus (phrase)
    Meaning: to betray someone.
    It gained popularity because of the movie Mean Girls (2004) despite not being actually said on the movie and despite having been coined a long time before the movie was released.
    Example:
    “How do you expect to have loyal friends if you constantly throw them under the bus?”
  3. Tiny (adjective)
    Meaning: someone or something being small and cute.
    Example:
    “She’s adorable when she speaks in tiny voice.”
  4. Toxic (adjective)
    Meaning: of an environment or a person’s behaviour that could be detrimental to someone’s mental health.
    Example:
    A: “Why did you deactivate your Instagram account?”
    B: “No specific reason; I just think it’s become toxic.”
  5. Trigger (noun)
    Meaning: something that could potentially upset someone, especially someone with mental health issues.
    Triggering (adjective)
    Meaning: upsetting.
    Triggered (adjective)
    Meaning: getting upset or worked up by something.
    Example:
    “Don’t show her this; it could trigger her.”
  6. Unbothered (adjective)
    Meaning: of someone not being affected by something negative said about them.
    Example:
    “Despite the rumours, she remains unbothered.”
  7. Unpopular opinion (noun)
    Meaning: an opinion that is different to the opinion of the general public, sometimes controversial.
    Example:
    “Unpopular opinion: working overtime is not something we should glorify.”
  8. Uwu (expression)
    Meaning: a written version of this smiley (◡ ω ◡). Nowadays, it’s also said as a response to something adorable.
    Example:
    “I just found out that Benedict Cumberbatch didn’t know how to pronounce ‘penguin.’ I’m uwu-ing so hard right now.”
  9. We stan (phrase)
    Meaning: we support.
    Example:
    “Michelle Obama is so inspirational. We stan an intelligent woman.”
Credit: Pinterest.

  1. Weird flex, but ok (expression)
    Meaning: a reaction we give to other people who act over the top or outlandishly.
    Example:
    A: “Yes, I won 500 Candy Crush levels, all with three stars!”
    B: “Weird flex, but ok.”
  2. Whipped (adjective)
    Meaning: being obsessed or controlled, often used on someone dominated by their significant other.
    Example:
    “Getting home right after work instead of out drinking with your friends is not being whipped. It means you prioritise your family and health.”
  3. Who hurt you? (expression)
    Meaning: a question we ask to someone who seems to be unreasonably upset.
    Example:
    “Did you really fight with a shop assistant just because they ask you to wear a mask? Really, who hurt you?”
  4. Wholesome (adjective)
    Meaning: heartwarming or feel-good.
    Example:
    “During my lunch break, I often look at some wholesome memes. They always cheer me up.”
  5. Wifey (noun)
    Meaning: an affectionate term for a husband to refer to his wife.
    Example:
    “Wifey got mad at me for leaving the front door unlocked.”
  6. Wild (adjective)
    Meaning: exaggerated, extreme, over-the-top, unusual.
    Example:
    “This mukbang with living animals is so wild. I can’t watch it.”
  7. Yeah, right (expression)
    Meaning: a double positive words that somehow carries a negative, sarcastic tone.
    Example:
    “You said you didn’t study but you still got an A on the math quiz. Yeah, right.”
  8. Yee to one’s haw (noun)
    Meaning: something or someone that makes us feel complete.
    Example:
    “Tchaikovsky’s 1812 Overture is the yee to my haw. It’s a piece that can cheer me up anytime.”
  9. Yeet (expression, verb)
    Meaning: an expression that was initially used to show excitement, approval, or surprise, but is now also used as an informal version of ‘to throw something away.”
    Example:
    “He accidentally yeeted his phone out of the window on the second floor.”
  10. Zen (adjective)
    Meaning: a peaceful and relaxed feeling.
    Example:
    “My zen side was tested during the entire 2020.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 16 January 2021.

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#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of Mid-2018
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 A-C
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 C-I
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 I-P
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 P-T

#ENGVOCAB: POPULAR INTERNET TERMS AS OF JANUARY 2021 P-T

Hello, everyone! This article is to continue our series on popular internet terms as of January 2021. Here are the previous articles on the series in case you missed it: PART 1PART 2, PART 3

REMINDER: Most of these terms are slang and SHOULD ONLY be used in an informal interaction.

  1. Protec, attac… (phrase)
    Meaning: the intentionally misspelled version of ‘he protects, but he also attacks,’ accompanied with the third phrase that rhymes with both words.
    Example:
    He protec, he attac, but most importantly, he wants some snac.
  2. Pumped (adjective)
    Meaning: excited.
    Example:
    “I’m so pumped to get 1,000 subscribers.”
  3. Reality check (phrase)
    Meaning: a phrase to use to bring someone back to reality.
    Example:
    “Yes, some of us do make less than Rp 20,000 a day that we can’t barely afford decent clothes and housing. I bet it’s a reality check for you.”
  4. Receipt (noun)
    Meaning: a proof of a scandal, a claim, or an accusation.
    Example:
    “Do you want me to dig up some receipts? I’m sure there’ll be plenty on the internet.”
  5. Relatable (adjective)
    Meaning: a state of something that we can relate to, something we can understand, or something that can make us say, “It’s so me.”
    Example:
    “This quote is so relatable.”
Credit: @tinybuddha on Twitter

  1. Rn (adverb)
    Meaning: short of ‘right now.’
    Example:
    “This song is so beautiful. I’m dying rn.”
  2. Sadboi/sadgirl (noun)
    Meaning: someone who is being very open about their emotions that are usually related to a complicated love life.
    Example:
    “He’s just being a sadboi right now, always emotional.”
  3. Sassy (adjective)
    Meaning: of someone, usually a woman or a girl or those identify as such, to be unapologetically bold.
    Example:
    “Sassy remarks are to be expected from her. Be prepared.”
  4. Screen-capture (verb, noun)
    Meaning: to capture a screen where a piece of important information is shown.
    Example:
    “I have screen-captured this conversation. Just in case.”
  5. Serving (verb)
    Meaning: providing a good look, good internet posts/contents, or good artistic material.
    Example:
    “He’s been serving us a lot of behind-the-scene from his latest movie.”
  6. Shaking/quaking (verb)
    Meaning: someone or something is possibly intimidated by someone’s hidden ability or talent.
    Example:
    A: “Your acting skill is top notch. Hollywood is shaking.”
    B: “You’re being sarcastic.”
  7. Shameless plug (noun)
    Meaning: an improperly placed promotion or advertisement.
    Example:
    “His promoting his YouTube channel on a natural-disaster-related Instagram post feels like a shameless plug to me.”
  8. Share one braincell (phrase)
    Meaning: two or more people doing something silly or ridiculous together.
    Example:
    “My classmates and I shared one braincell during the exam. We literally had no idea what we were doing.”
  9. S**t hits the fan (phrase)
    Meaning: something bad happens.
    Example:
    “She always does controversial things, but when s**t hits the fan, she momentarily disappears from social media.”
  10. Sike (expression)
    Meaning: an incorrect spelling of the slang ‘psych’ that was popular in 1990s. It’s similar to adding ‘not’ or ‘no’ at the end of a sentence to imply sarcasm or a joke.
    Example:
    “You look good with that platinum blonde hair… Sike.”
  11. Simp (noun, verb)
    Meaning: an insult for a male follower who is obsessed with and desperate to get the attention of a female social media celebrity.
    Example:
    “You bought her bath water? D**n, I didn’t know you were such a simp.”
  12. Sketchy (adjective)
    Meaning: untrustworthy, disreputable, suspicious.
    Example:
    “This website seems sketchy to me. Are you sure it’s not a scam?”
  13. Slay (verb)
    Meaning: to greatly impress.
    Example:
    “Mariah Carey slays with her ‘All I Want for Christmas Is You.'”
  14. Sleep with one eye open (phrase)
    Meaning: to live in fear.
    Example:
    “I sleep with one eye open thanks to my overbearing boss.”
  15. Smol (adjective)
    Meaning: a cute way to say ‘small.’
    Example:
    “Look at this smol puppy.”
A smol puppy. Credit: @smoldogpics on Twitter.

  1. Snap (verb)
    Meaning: to do something agressively or to do something greatly.
    Example:
    “Ariana Grande snapped with her ‘Thank You, Next.'”
  2. Snatch/steal someone’s wig (phrase)
    Meaning: to steal the show or to humiliate someone publicly, giving the same embarrassment to the target as literally taking off their wig.
    Example:
    “I sincerely apologise for snatching your wig, but this is what happens when you badmouth me.”
  3. So done (adjective)
    Meaning: tired, bored.
    Example:
    “I’m so done with your antics. Can you go disturb someone else?”
  4. Soft (adjective)
    Meaning: moved, touched.
    Example:
    “The interaction between Keanu Reeves and his fans makes me soft.”
  5. Sploot (verb, noun)
    Meaning: for a pet to lie flat on a surface and stretch their back legs. A wordplay of ‘split.’
    Example:
    “As soon as we got back from the walk, my dog sploot and smiled widely.”
  6. Sure, Jan (expression)
    Meaning: something we say when we know someone is lying right to our face. Taken from the movie A Very Brady Sequel (1996).
    Example:
    “So you left me on read because your phone died? Sure, Jan.”
  7. (Kinda) sus (adjective)
    Meaning: (kind of) suspicious.
    Example:
    “Do you trust her story? It seems kinda sus.”
  8. Take the heat (phrase)
    Meaning: to withstand disapproval or controversies.
    Example:
    “She always causes drama, but when she gets confronted, she’s unable to take the heat herself.”
  9. Thank you, next (expression)
    Meaning: the title of Ariana Grande’s 2018 hit single. Nowadays, it’s used to express that someone wants to move on from a hurtful experience.
    Example:
    “The last thing I want is to have my ex back into my life. Thank you, next!”
  10. That didn’t age well (phrase)
    Meaning: of someone or something that has a negative ending despite a promising start.
    Example:
    “That actor was selected as one of the first people to get vaccinated, but he went straight into a party afterwards. That surely didn’t age well.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 16 January 2021.

RELATED ARTICLE(S):
#EngVocab: New Words on Internet
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of Mid-2018
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 A-C
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 C-I
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 I-P

#ENGVOCAB: POPULAR INTERNET TERMS AS OF JANUARY 2021 I-P

Hello, everyone! This article is to continue our series on popular internet terms as of January 2021. Here are the previous articles on the series in case you missed it: PART 1, PART 2

REMINDER: Most of these terms are slang and SHOULD ONLY be used in an informal interaction.

  1. I- (expression)
    Meaning: an expression that represent speechlessness. Often comes in its variation ‘I cannot,’ ‘I can’t’ or ‘I can’t even.’
    Example:
    “I just got a notification that I won a giveaway. I-“
  2. In Spain, but without ‘s’ (expression).
    Meaning: being in pain.
    Example:
    “Her crush didn’t want to go out with her. She is in Spain, but without ‘s’ right now.”
  3. In this economy? (phrase)
    Meaning: we cannot carry out something because it’s a financial burden.
    Example:
    “Buying the latest phone? In this economy?”
  4. Influencer (noun)
    Meaning: an internet celebrity who can possibly influence other people’s opinion or decision. Nowadays, it generally refers to someone who was relatively unknown but gradually became famous as they gained huge following on social media.
    Example:
    “Yet another influencer throwing a party in the middle of a worldwide pandemic. Are they for real?”
  5. Instant regret (phrase)
    Meaning: a regretful feeling that comes instantly after saying something, making a wrong decision, or doing something wrong.
    Example:
    “I bought this phone on a flash sale, but I didn’t know that it didn’t support dual SIM cards. Talk about an instant regret.”
  6. Irl (phrase)
    Meaning: the abbreviation of ‘in real life,’ distinguishing our life on and off the internet.
    Example:
    “I imagine she’s not as sassy irl, but that’s just me.”
  7. Issa (phrase)
    Meaning: a slang for ‘is a’ or ‘it is a.’
    Example:
    “The football match issa fire.”
  8. Karen (noun)
    Meaning: a pejorative term for women seeming to be entitled or demanding beyond the scope of what is normal.
    Example:
    “I just saw a Karen arguing with a shop assistant who advised her to wear a mask.”

  1. Leave one on read (phrase)
    Meaning: to leave a message on read and not send any responses.
    Example:
    “She leaves you on read all the time, man. I think it’s time you take the hint.”
  2. …lives in one’s head rent free (phrase)
    Meaning: of someone not being able to forget or move on from someone else or something.
    Example:
    “His remarks live in your head rent free, but you should know he said that as a joke.”
  3. Lost it (phrase)
    Meaning: losing one’s temper or not being able to control oneself.
    Example:
    “When he started raising his voice, I lost it.”
  4. Love that for you (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘I’m happy for you,’ sometimes used in a sarcastic tone.
    Example:
    A: “I got this LV knockoff for $200.”
    B: “Love that for you.”
  5. Lowkey (adverb)
    Meaning: secretly.
    Example:
    “I lowkey want to travel but I don’t want to spread the virus.”
  6. Make it make sense (phrase)
    Meaning: make something clear, transparent, or comprehensible.
    Example:
    “So, you want to travel in the middle of a pandemic? Make it make sense.”
  7. Make no mistake (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘do not be mistaken.’
    Example:
    “Make no mistake, she’ll also be 10 minutes late to this meeting.”
  8. Mess (noun)
    Meaning: a problem, a complicated situation.
    Example:
    “That mess is gonna be hard to clean up, especially since a lot of netizen have apparently screen-captured their Instagram stories.”
  9. Miss me with that (nonsense) (phrase)
    Meaning: another way of saying ‘I don’t believe you’ or ‘I don’t buy your excuses.’
    Example:
    “You were being honest? Miss me with that nonsense. I knew you’ve been texting other girls.”
  10. Mom, come pick me up, I’m scared (phrase)
    Meaning: an expression to use when we see something scary on the internet. Originated from a scene in the movie Mean Girls (2004).
    Example:
    “Aaarrgghh, I can’t watch this horror movie trailer. Mom, come pick me up, I’m scared!”
  11. Mood (noun)
    Meaning: a representation of our current state or feelings.
    Example:
    “This lazy cat is such a mood.”
Picture credit: Pinterest

  1. Mukbang (noun)
    Meaning: an eating broadcast originated from South Korea to accompany those who live and eat alone. A currently popular theme for a YouTube content.
    Example:
    “How do people do mukbang and stay healthy? I’m honestly curious.”
  2. …never gets old (phrase)
    Meaning: something is never boring.
    Example:
    “This joke never gets old.”
  3. No one, literally no one (expression)
    Meaning: a reaction we give to something unexpected.
    Example:
    No one: …
    Literally no one: …
    Disney: ruining Mulan’s live action.
  4. No s**t, Sherlock (expression)
    Meaning: a reaction to someone explaining something that’s a common fact or blatantly obvious. Example: “You eat junk food every day and now you’re complaining that you gained weight? No s**t, Sherlock.”
  5. Nothing to write home about (phrase)
    Meaning: not special or distinguished enough.
    Example:
    “Yeah, my YouTube channel is monetised, but it’s nothing to write home about, yet.”
  6. Nvm (expression)
    Meaning: a contraction of ‘never mind.’
    Example:
    “Nvm, I’ll just order pizza.”
  7. Ok, boomer (expression)
    Meaning: an expression commonly used by millennials and Gen-Z to mock baby-boomers and Gen-X for their outdated thinking.
    Example:
    “A woman’s place is in the kitchen. Yeah, right. Ok, boomer.”
  8. On fleek (adjective)
    Meaning: looking good, perfectly done, or just about right.
    Example:
    “My eyebrows are on fleek today.”
  9. People are sleeping on it (phrase)
    Meaning: people are ignoring a good content or a talented person.
    Example:
    “This song is moving, but people are sleeping on it. Wake up, people!”
  10. Period (expression)
    Meaning: a simplified way of saying ‘end of a discussion.’
    Example:
    “i was right, you were wrong. Period.”
  11. Petition to/for… (phrase)
    Meaning: a phrase to demand something to be done or someone to be treated in a certain way.
    Example:
    “Petition to Netflix to have all Lord of the Rings movies on its catalogue.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 16 January 2021.

RELATED ARTICLE(S):
#EngVocab: Internet Slang
#EngVocab: New Words on Internet
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of Mid-2018
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 A-C
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 C-I

#ENGVOCAB: POPULAR INTERNET TERMS AS OF JANUARY 2021 C-I

Hello, everyone! This article is to continue our series on popular internet terms as of January 2021. Here is the first article on the series in case you missed it: PART 1

REMINDER: Most of these terms are slang and SHOULD ONLY be used in an informal interaction.

  1. Cuteness overload (phrase)
    Meaning: an overwhelming cuteness.
    Example:
    “Keanu Reeves playing with puppy is the definition of cuteness overload.”
  2. Cyber-bully (verb, noun)
    Meaning: to bully someone on the internet or someone who bullies another person on the internet.
    Example:
    “Jesy Nelson, a former member of Little Mix, was a victim of cyber-bullying.”
  3. Darn, dang (expression)
    Meaning: somewhat more polite versions of d*mn.
    Example:
    “Dang it, I lost the Wi-Fi connection.”
  4. Deplatform (verb)
    Meaning: to take away someone’s privilege of using a certain social media platform, usually after a series of dangerous, misleading, provocative, abusive, or life-threatening posts.
    Example:
    “I think Twitter did the right thing by deplatforming the president.”
  5. Did I stutter? (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘Do I need to repeat myself?’ or ‘Do I look like I’m kidding?’
    Example:
    A: “I want everything to be done by 5 PM today.”
    B: “But…”
    A: “Did I stutter?”
  6. Doomscrolling/doomsurfing (verb)
    Meaning: the act of consuming a large quantity of negative online news at once.
    Example:
    “Stop doomscrolling. It’s not good for your health.”
  7. Don’t @ me (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘Don’t tag me’ or ‘I don’t want to argue with you on this matter.’
    Example:
    “I like pineapple on my pizza. Don’t @ me.”
  8. Drama (noun)
    Meaning: any scandal or controversial event, sometimes steeming from a trivial argument.
    Example:
    “This influencers drama is giving me a headache. I think I’ll just unfollow them.”
  9. Drama queen (noun)
    Meaning: a gender-neutral term to refer to someone who is overly dramatic.
    Example:
    “Don’t be such a drama queen. You only lost a dozen of followers. So what?”
  10. Eboi/egirl (noun)
    Meaning: a popular internet boy or girl.
    Example:
    A: “Does playing online games a lot automatically make me an egirl?”
    B: “No, unless there is a horde of simps following all of your online activities.”
  11. Edgy (adjective)
    Meaning: daring, bold, and sometimes controversial.
    Example:
    “How to be edgy on social media 101: have an unpopular opinion.”
  12. Everybody gangsta until… (phrase)
    Meaning: everybody is emotionally strong and stable before they see something that could shake them.
    Example:
    “Everybody gangsta until they check their bank account.”
  13. Fake (adjective)
    Meaning: someone acting not as what they preach or advertise to be.
    Example:
    “Be careful of fake friends. They could always throw you under the bus.”
  14. Flex (verb, noun)
    Meaning: to show off or something that we can show off.
    Example:
    “I got an A on the math quiz. I’m gonna flex it on social media.”
  15. Flipping, freaking (adverb)
    Meaning: alternatives to f**king.
    Example:
    “She’s so freaking smart!”
  16. Flying wig/snatched wig (expression)
    Meaning: expressing surprise or shock.
    Example:
    “Things that fly: birds, planes, and our wigs.”
  17. Fr (adverb)
    Meaning: short of ‘for real,’ meaning ‘seriously.’
    Example:
    “You scared me just now, fr.”
  18. Get a life (phrase)
    Meaning: to start doing something meaningful in life.
    Example:
    “Bruh, stop scrolling through your ex’ Instagram posts and go get a life.”
  19. …gets me every time (phrase)
    Meaning: something gives us a strong feeling or emotion, no matter how old it is or how often we see or hear it.
    Example:
    “Queen’s Love of My Life gets me every time. It reminds me of my mother, who loved the song.”
  20. …gives me everything/gives me life (phrase)
    Meaning: something makes me happy.
    Example:
    “Stray Kids’ Hyunjin’s blonde hair gives me everything.”
Stray Kids’ Hwang Hyunjin with blonde hair. Picture credit: Koreaboo.

  1. Go off, sis (phrase)
    Meaning: a gender-neutral phrase to tell someone to express their feelings or emotions through ranting.
    Example:
    “I don’t think I did anything wrong, but yeah, go off, sis!”
  2. Gurl (noun)
    Meaning: an informal version of ‘girl,’ often used in an admonishing tone.
    Example:
    “Gurl, what is you doing?” (Yes, the grammatical error is often intentional).
  3. Happiness noise/happy … noises (phrase)
    Meaning: a phrase originated from a mid-sneeze husky meme. Used to describe joy.
    Example:
    “She squealed with happy girlie noises when she got a text back from her crush.”
  4. …has left the chat (phrase)
    Meaning: someone or something has disappeared.
    Example:
    “I just saw a gif of Stray Kids’ Felix. Now my soul has left the chat.”
  5. …has seen things (phrase)
    Meaning: someone or something has witnessed bad things happen, usually to the extent of getting traumatised.
    Example:
    “This cat has seen things.”
  6. Hecc (expression)
    Meaning: a somewhat more polite alternative to hck or hll.
    Example:
    “What the hecc is happening?”
  7. Henlo (expression)
    Meaning: a pet’s owner way of saying ‘hello.’
    Example:
    “Henlo, this is Coconut Rice Bear (a Samoyed that is popular on the internet).”
  8. Highkey (adverb)
    Meaning: obviously.
    Example:
    “In this day and age, I highkey want to stay at home as much as possible.”
  9. Hubby (noun)
    Meaning: an affectionate way for a wife to call her husband.
    Example:
    “Oh, my hubby calls. I’m sorry, can I get this? This must be important.”
  10. I’ll give you that/I’ll give it to you (phrase)
    Meaning: another way of saying ‘I’ll give you credits for it’ or ‘I applaud you for it.’
    Example:
    “You did finish your task on time, I’ll give it to you, but I think you can do better than this.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 22 January 2021.

RELATED ARTICLE(S):
#EngVocab: Internet
#EngVocab: Internet Slang
#EngVocab: New Words on Internet
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of Mid-2018
#EngVocab: Popular Internet Terms as of January 2021 A-C

#ENGVOCAB: POPULAR INTERNET TERMS AS OF JANUARY 2021 A-C

Every now and again, we take a deep look into words that are commonly used by netizen (internet users) and compile them, because most of them are slang or have different meanings with their official meanings on the dictionary. You can have a look at our mid-2018 compilation HERE.

Here is our January 2021 compilation. Some of these terms may have been trendy before 2021 and some of them may have become less popular by now.

REMINDER: Most of these terms are slang and SHOULD ONLY be used in an informal interaction.

  1. 10 out of 10 would recommend (phrase)
    Meaning: something is so good and we would recommend it to other people.
    Example:
    “This sandwich is perfect. 10 out of 10 would recommend.”
  2. Adulting (verb, noun)
    Meaning: doing things that grown up people do.
    Example:
    “I want to go back to my youth and not worry about rent and stuff. Adulting sucks.”
  3. Aesthetic (adjective)
    Meaning: concerning beauty or the appreciation of beauty. Often typed as ‘a e s t h e t i c’ to give a dramatic effect.
    Example:
    A: “Why did you delete so many of your Instagram posts?”
    B: “I like to keep my feed aesthetic.”
  4. And I oop-/anna oop-/oof (phrase)
    Meaning: a phrase popularised by Jasmine Masters. Used in the same sense as ‘oops’, especially when reacting to other people’s mistakes or blunders. It’s also sometimes written ‘anna oop-‘ or ‘oof.’
    Example:
    A: “That celebrity went to a party right in the middle of a pandemic.”
    B: “And I oop-“
  5. …and stuff (phrase)
    Meaning: an informal way of saying ‘and everything (else)’ or ‘and so on.’
    Example:
    “With you getting upset and stuff, it’s so hard for me to tell the truth.”
  6. Angy (adjective)
    Meaning: a cute way to say ‘angry.’ Often goes as, “No talk me I’m angy.”
    Example:
    “He scares me when he angy.”

  1. Atm (adverb)
    Meaning: ‘at the moment.’ Not ‘authorised teller machine’ (ATM).
    Example:
    “I’m busy atm. Can I call you back later?”
  2. Badmouth (verb)
    Meaning: to speak ill about someone behind their back.
    Example:
    “I’m done with those who badmouthed me. Thank you, next!”
  3. Bebe (noun)
    Meaning: baby. From the French word ‘bébé’ with the same meaning.
    Example:
    “A bebe Samoyed (dog breed) looks like a stuffed bear.”
  4. Beef (noun, verb)
    Meaning: a problem, an argument, or a fight, or to argue or to fight, especially via the internet or social media platforms.
    Example:
    “Nicki Minaj and Cardi B were constantly beefing.”
  5. Be like (phrase)
    Meaning: an informal form of ‘to say’ or ‘to give a certain reaction.’
    Example:
    “I was like, ‘Why are you so obsessed with me?'” – Mariah Carey.
  6. Begpacker (noun)
    Meaning: a portmanteau of ‘beg’ and ‘backpacker,’ used to refer to a backpacker who travels without sufficient fund to what’s considered as a third world country, mostly in Southeast Asia, and then begs their way to fund the trip or the flight home.
    Example:
    “Read this The Guardian’s article on begpackers. It’s quite interesting.”
  7. Big … energy (phrase)
    Meaning: of someone or something radiating or exuding confidence or of someone or something having remarkable similarity to someone or something else.
    Example:
    “I feel like having big 90s boy band energy with my new haircut.”
  8. Bish (noun)
    Meaning: another version of the b-word.
    Example:
    “That’s right, bish, don’t mess with me.”
  9. Boop (verb, noun)
    Meaning: affectionately touching a dog’s nose.
    Example:
    “Who’s a good boi? Here’s a boop for you!”

  1. Bop (noun)
    Meaning: a good song.
    Example:
    “God’s Menu by Stray Kids is such a bop!”
  2. Brb dying (phrase)
    Meaning: ‘Be right back, I’m dying.’ Used in a joking manner to react to something of top quality or adorable.
    Example:
    “This Joker scene compilation from The Dark Knight (2008) is everything. Brb dying.”
  3. Bruh (noun, expression)
    Meaning: a new version of ‘bro,’ but used in a tone of surprise, shock, or disapproval.
    Example:
    A: “Bro, I’m so sorry, I accidentally stepped on your cat’s tail.”
    B: “Bruh, WTF. Is the cat okay?”
  4. Bye, Felicia (expression)
    Meaning: an expression from the movie Friday (1995), that means ‘to bid farewell to someone whom we dislike.’
    Example:
    “Alright, I gotta go now. Bye, Felicia!”
  5. Byelingual (adjective)
    Meaning: of a person who is bilingual but struggling with both languages.
    Example:
    “That moment when you mix up English and French… Byelingual!”
  6. Cancel culture (noun)
    Meaning: a situation when we stop supporting a company or a famous person due to their objectionable or offensive act.
    Example:
    “Cancel culture doesn’t work for her as she has a lot of fans who condone everything she says or does.”
  7. Cash grab (noun)
    Meaning: a product released by big corporations, often in a collaboration with celebrities or influencers, that is often overpriced but of average quality, underwhelming, or unnecessary.
    Example:
    “This lipstick is a cash grab; you can buy similar products from any brand with much cheaper price.”
  8. Catfish (noun, verb)
    Meaning: social media pictures or personas that do not match one’s real life, usually with the intention of deceiving or luring someone else into a relationship.
    Example:
    “I got catfished by that girl I met online. Our first meeting irl was so awkward because she looked nothing like her Instagram pictures.”
  9. Chef’s kiss (phrase)
    Meaning: referring to a chef who kisses their fingers after tasting a special cuisine. Nowadays, it is used to describe something that is perfectly done.
    Example:
    “A Star Is Born (2018) was excellent. Lady Gaga’s voice is just chef’s kiss.”
  10. Chile (expression)
    Meaning: chill, relax.
    Example:
    A: “I can’t believe that influencer stole your artwork and credited it as hers.”
    B: “Chile, I’ll ask her about it.”
  11. Choose your fighter (phrase)
    Meaning: to pick between two or more equally strong contenders, which can be people, pictures, memes, or anything else.
    Example:
    “Pineapple on pizza or fried chicken with chocolate sauce. Choose your fighter.”
  12. Clickbait (noun, verb)
    Meaning: a misleading or exaggerated title of an internet post, usually created to gain traffic or engagement.
    Example:
    “Some of his YouTube video titles are pure clickbait. They don’t represent the contents of the videos at all.”
  13. Content warning/trigger warning (noun)
    Meaning: a warning at the beginning of an internet content to inform the audience that the content could put someone in a distress. Often abbreviated as CW/TW.
    Example:
    “Content warning/trigger warning: containing domestic violence.”
  14. Covidiot (noun)
    Meaning: a person who ignores health protocols like refusing to wear a mask during COVID-19 pandemic.
    Example:
    “Don’t be such a Covidiot and put other people at risk. Wear your mask.”
  15. (Content) creator (noun)
    Meaning: someone who creates an internet content.
    Example:
    “When I asked my niece what her dream was, she said she wanted to be a YouTube content creator. I was shook.”

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 16 January 2021.

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#ENGCLASS: SUFFIX -ING

Hi, hello, everyone, how was this year’s first Monday?

As I did not go anywhere and did not do anything, to me it felt like a regular working day.

On this article, we are going to discuss one question that came in through our DM. Remember that you can ask us anything by mentioning us or sending us DM, and we will try our best to answer it. However, if the answer is easily found on Google (e.g., the meaning of certain words), we would suggest you to look it up first.

The question that we received is:
“Is there any other use of suffix -ing aside of progressive tenses?”

Photo by ready made on Pexels.com

The answer is yes. Suffix -ing has several uses apart from modifying a verb in a progressive tense.

  1. Gerund
    Suffix -ing is used to form a gerund, which is a verb that functions as a noun.
    Example:
    “I like drinking a glass of milk before bedtime.”
    ‘Drinking’ here is a gerund, whilst the verb is ‘like.’
  2. Noun
    Oftentimes, suffix -ing is used to modify a verb to form a verbal noun.
    Example:
    “She lives in a nice apartment building.”
    ‘Building’ is a verbal noun.

What is the difference between gerund and noun, then, when they are both made of verbs that have suffix -ing?

Here is a tip to differentiate them. A gerund retains its verb-like properties, i.e., there is still work being done by the gerund. It could have an object, too.

Let’s take a look again at the gerund section that I tweeted above.
“I like drinking a glass of milk…”

Even though ‘drinking’ has become a noun, there is still an action attached to it. Its object is ‘a glass of milk.’

Meanwhile, on the second example, there is the noun ‘a nice apartment building.’ There is no action involved with the word ‘building’ in the sentence, which makes it a verbal noun.

  1. Adjective
    Suffix -ing can also be used to form an adjective.
    Example:
    “The exam is exhausting.”
    The original verb is ‘to exhaust’. With suffix -ing, it became the adjective ‘exhausting.’

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 4 January 2021.

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#ENGVOCAB: WORDS RELATED TO ANNIVERSARY

We turned 10 years old, fellas! On 2 January 2011, we started sharing English knowledge via Twitter. Thank you all for joining us in this incredible journey!

As today is our 10th anniversary, we are going to share some words related to anniversary.

Photo by Giftpundits.com on Pexels.com

  1. Anniversary (of course)
    This word specifically refers to a celebration or a commemoration of a certain annual event. This means ‘anniversary’ is only correct if used in regards to an event that is celebrated every year.
    Example:
    “This year, my parents will celebrate their 20th wedding anniversary.”

Lately, we have seen the use of ‘anniversary’ to commemorate something that happens monthly or even weekly, such as, “Happy 10th month anniversary!”

I’m not saying that it is wrong. Some English speakers do use ‘anniversary’ in that sense, informally. However, if we look into the origin of the word ‘anniversary’, we will realise that there is only one correct way to use it. ‘Anniversary’ came from Latin words ‘annus’ (year) and ‘versus’ (turning).

So, what are the equivalents for monthly or even weekly celebration?

  1. Mensiversary
    This word came from Latin ‘mēnsis’ (month) and ‘versus’ (turning). ‘Mensiversary’ is currently the most popular option for monthly celebration. The alternatives are ‘monthsary’, ‘monthiversary’, ‘monthaversary’, ‘luniversary’, or ‘lunaversary.’ The last two words, ‘luniversary’ and ‘lunaversary’ came from Latin word ‘luna’, which means moon.
  2. Hebdomadariversary
    It is quite a mouthful, isn’t it? It is proposed as the word to use to commemorate a weekly event. It came from the late Latin word ‘hebdomadal’ (lasting seven days). If you find it hard to pronounce, ‘weekaversary’ is a good option.
  3. Jubilee
    A jubilee is a celebration every 25 years, but it is now also used on the 60th and 70th anniversary. The 25th anniversary is called silver jubilee, the 50th called gold, the 60th called diamond, the 70th called platinum.

@ndyahforentina: Time flies. Thank you for being my best friend during my college till now. I always learn something new from you. My favorite tweets are about English Trivia. Stay safe and healthy, Mimiin. Keep it up!

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 2 January 2021.

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#ENGQUOTE: NEW YEAR, NEW BEGINNING

It’s #Page366of366. The year 2020 has been tough on each and everyone of us, but tomorrow, we will start anew. Hopefully we are all safe and healthy in the years to come.

How do you feel about the new year, fellas?

As today is the last day of 2020, I would like to share some quotes of new year and new beginning, from various sources.

  1. “You’ll never get bored when you try something new. There’s really no limit to what you can do.” – Dr. Seuss.
  2. “Do not wait until the conditions are perfect to begin. Beginning makes the conditions perfect.” – Alan Cohen.
  3. “We will open the book. Its pages are blank. We are going to put words on them ourselves. The book is called opportunity and its first chapter is New Year’s Day.” – Edith Lovejoy Pierce.
  4. “Ring out the old, ring in the new, Ring, happy bells, across the snow: The year is going, let him go;Ring out the false, ring in the true.” – Alfred Lord Tennyson.
  5. “Every moment is a fresh beginning.” – T. S. Eliot.
  6. “Although no one can go back and make a brand new start, anyone can start from now and make a brand new ending.” – Carl Bard.
  7. “Resolve to keep happy, and your joy and you shall form an invincible host against difficulties.” – Helen Keller.
  8. “New year—a new chapter, new verse, or just the same old story? Ultimately we write it. The choice is ours.” – Alex Morritt.
  9. “With the new day comes new strength and new thoughts.” – Eleanor Roosevelt.
  10. “What the new year brings to you will depend a great deal on what you bring to the new year.” – Vern McLellan.

Happy New Year, everyone! I hope 2021 brings you happiness, health, love, and joy with every step you take.

Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

Source: https://www.countryliving.com/life/g4974/new-year-quotes/

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 31 December 2020.

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#ENGTRIVIA: ‘TO WAIT’ AND ‘TO AWAIT’

“I have been …-ing for two hours.”
Which word is the correct one to fill the blank, fellas? ‘Wait’ or ‘await’?

“I’m …-ing your response.”
‘Wait’ or ‘await’?

On this article, we are going to discuss the difference between ‘to wait’ and ‘to await’.

Essentially, ‘to await’ goes in line with ‘to wait for’. It requires an object. However, the object is often an inanimate object (Indonesian: benda mati).
For example, we can say:
“I’m awaiting a letter from my family.”
But we cannot say:
“I’m awaiting you.”

Meanwhile, it’s correct to say:
“I’m waiting for a letter from my family.”
Or:
“I’m waiting for you.”

Photo by Ju00c9SHOOTS on Pexels.com

You might be thinking, “But, isn’t the first example use ‘waiting for’?”

Keep in mind that the phrasal verb ‘to wait for’ can also be used to indicate the duration. So, ‘waiting for two hours’ doesn’t necessarily signify we are expecting those two hours to come.

Another difference is that ‘to await’ is considered more formal than ‘to wait for.’ For example, at the end of our work-related email, we could write, “I’m awaiting your response.” It has the same formality as, “I’m looking forward to hearing from you.”

The last but not least, we often find ‘to wait’ paired with other verbs in the same sentence.
Example:
“I’m waiting in line to board the plane now.”
There is the verb ‘to board’ aside of ‘to wait.’

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 21 December 2020.

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#ENGTIPS: NEW YEAR’S RESOLUTIONS

Once again, we are going to complete our movement around the sun. Many of us might be looking back to major events in 2020 and looking forward to what we are going to do in 2021.

Entering a new year is not complete without a list of new year’s resolutions. Looking back now, there were so many things I planned to do in 2020 that didn’t happen, but I’m grateful that I’m healthy. I’m also happy that many people have started receiving Coronavirus vaccine.

I’m also delighted that one of my 2020 resolutions did come true: maintaining healthy lifestyle and losing weight. If we think about it, physical and mental health should still be our priority, whether there is a pandemic or not.

Photo by Polina Kovaleva on Pexels.com

Today, I’m going to share tips on how to make our new year’s resolutions stick.

  1. Changes on habits are more likely to stick
    It’s easy to say we are going to lose 25 kilograms by the end of next year, but we also need to think about how we are going to get there. By changing our habits (e.g.: eating habits, moving and exercising frequently), we might not see an instant result, but our body will adjust itself to the new habits and the positive changes we expected will naturally come out. It will also benefit us in the long run.
  2. Make commitments
    We should realise that whatever positive changes come with the need to commit, and we owe it to ourselves to make those commitments. However, if committing to oneself is still hard, we can start by asking other people to keep us accountable.
  3. Big goals, small steps
    Make big goals but break it down to small steps to achieve them. Let’s say we want to improve our vocabulary. Start with learning a new word every day by writing it down, finding its meaning, and using it on our daily conversation.
  4. Focus on how far we’ve come
    We can easily lose sight of our goals on the long and winding journey. When it happens, take a moment to look back and remember how far we’ve come and how many ups and downs we’ve been through.
  5. Pat ourselves on the back
    Even if we come to the end of the year not meeting our goals, think of all the positive impacts we have gained through the process. Let’s say we only managed to lose 20 kilograms but we can run for 2-3 kilometres easily. Not bad, right?

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, 19 December 2020.

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#ENGTALK: ‘LIKE’ AND ‘LITERALLY’, TWO OF THE MOST OVERUSED WORDS

“I feel like my whole body is aching. Like, it’s literally painful from head to toe. I’m literally dying right now. Like, I don’t even know how to like describe it.”

How do you feel about the previous passage, fellas?

I personally found it tiring, because we used so many ‘likes’ and ‘literally.’ Both words are what we call fad or trendy words and they still reign supreme until today. In fact, we might have been overusing them for maybe more than a decade.

Usually, a word became trendy or overused when there is a major event that introduced it, such as the Coronavirus pandemic. With such a worldwide impact, it’s a given that the words related to the pandemic are used a lot. ‘Lockdown,’ ‘social distancing,’ and ‘quarantine’ are amongst them. In Indonesia, we have ‘new normal’ and ‘health protocols.’

When the event is finished and the trend dies down, the initially overused words will also be used less. So, what is it about ‘like’ and ‘literally’ that we love using them so much?

Let’s start with ‘like.’ I observed that most people use it as a filler because they haven’t found the next word. It’s similar to ‘umm,’ ‘err,’ or ‘you know.’

How do we avoid using it? First, we should recognise that we are using it a lot.

I noticed that I used ‘like’ a lot when I was on online meetings. As I was not able to face my colleagues or show any hand movement to them, I felt as if I need to speak constantly to show that I was still active in the meeting. Since then, I’ve learned how to pause and arrange my thoughts before saying what I have to say. This could be done by writing down what I am going to say before the meeting starts. Not only will I make the meeting more effective, I can also deliver a clear message.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Now, we move on to the second word, ‘literally.’ I think it’s becoming more and more unclear to us as to when we should use this word. For example, we might say, “I’m literally going to explode,” whilst we are nowhere near the possibility of an explosion. The reason we use ‘literally’ a lot is that because we are trying to find an intensifier or trying to exaggerate what we are saying but we are not sure of which word to use.

‘Literally’ is then often used alongside words with figurative meaning (Indonesian: makna kiasan), whereas it should be used to describe a literal state of something or someone.

Why do we need to be cautious with these words? Too many filler words or intensifiers will somehow weaken our points and bring about a difficulty to send our message across, especially in a professional environment.

Source:
https://mashable.com/2015/04/04/stop-saying-like/
https://www.forbes.com/sites/robasghar/2013/11/06/9-words-youre-literally-beating-to-death/?sh=5b00dff718ef

Compiled by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, 17 December 2020.

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