Category Archives: class

#EngClass: Either

Hello hello, fellas! Siapa ya yang kemarin kapan nanya soal Either? Yuk kita bahas di #EngClass hari ini.

Sebelumnya, penggunaan EITHER juga pernah kita bahas di dua sesi sebelumnya. Let’s do a quick recap, shall we?

RECAP 1.

“either .. or ..” menyatakan alternatif atau dua pilihan, yaitu “ini atau itu”. Digunakan pada kalimat yang bermakna positif.

Selengkapnya baca: #EngClass: “Either … Or …” VS “Nither … Nor …”

RECAP 2.
“Either” digunakan digunakan dalam kalimat negatif, untuk menyatakan kesamaan negatif.

Selengkapnya baca: #EngClass: Also, Too, Either 

Now, saatnya kita teliti lebih jauh soal penggunaan kata EITHER. Siap? :D

1. EITHER bisa dibaca “ider” atau “eider”, tergantung aksen yg digunakan. AmE umumnya menyebut “ider”, BrE umumnya menyebut “eider”.

2. EITHER berarti yg satu atau yg lainnya. EITHER diikuti dengan kata benda tunggal.
Contoh: I don’t plan to choose either ONE OF THEM. *gak berencana milih yg ini ataupun yg itu*

3. Gunakan EITHER OF sebelum kata ganti atau kata tunjuk, setelahnya gunakan kata benda/kata ganti jamak.
Contoh: She refused to marry either of THE MEN. *menolak menikahi pria yg ini ataupun yg itu*
Contoh: She refused to marry either of THEM. *menolak menikahi si dia ataupun si dia*

4. Kata ganti yg umumnya digunakan setelah EITHER OF adalah us (kami) atau them (mereka).
Contoh: There are two men at the front desk. Give this to either of THEM. *berikan pada sembarang satu dari mereka*
Contoh: Jill and I will be there. You can ask for either of US. *sembarang satu dari kami.*

5. Setelah 1 pernyataan negative, gunakan EITHER untuk menyatakan kesamaan negative lainnya.
Contoh: I know you DON’T like me. I DON’T like you either. *kamu gak suka aku. Aku gak suka kamu juga.*
Contoh: Mom ISN’T here. Dad ISN’T here either. *Mama gak di sini. Papa gak di sini juga*
Coba perhatikan dua kalimat contoh diatas, posisi EITHER, menurut poin ini, ada di belakang. *baca kembali poin ini*

6. Kalau “Neither” pasangannya “Nor”, maka “Either” pasangannya “Or”.
“Either … or …” = “… atau ...”, ada 2 pilihan. Pasangan ini digunakan pada kalimat positif.
Contoh: I’m buying one for you. You can have EITHER this OR that. *yang ini atau yang itu*

Also read #EngClass: Neither (Part 2)

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on April 17, 2014

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#EngClass: Neither (Part 2)

Hello hello, fellas! Did you follow the session we gave on Thursday?

If you didn’t, feel free to scroll up our timeline. Or have a look at the following chirpstory

Neither

We’ve talked about NEITHER on Thursday (March 20, 2014, see the above pic). And today, we’ll talk some more about it.

I don’t know about you, fellas, but I used to have further questions about the word NEITHER. Here’s a list of questions I can think of:

1. How is the correct way to pronounce NEITHER?

Should it sound like “Naider”? Or “Nider”? Or perhaps “Neider”?

One thing for sure, NEITHER wouldn’t sound like “Neider”.

Depending on which accent you speak, “Naider” or “Nider” is the correct pronunciation.
Americans pronounce the word as “Nider”, whereas British pronounce the word as “Naider”.

Next… As mentioned on Thursday (March 20, 2014), NEITHER is always negative, so the verb following it is always positive. Another question I used to ask was:

2. When pairing NEITHER with NOR, should I use plural verb or singular verb? Which one is it? Neither Fio nor Clara [is/are]?

The answer lies on the option right before the verb.

If the option right before the verb is SINGULAR, use singular verb.
E.g.:
Neither Fio nor Clara [is] a boy.
Neither Melvin nor Darren [likes] Barbie dolls.

If the option right before the verb is PLURAL, use plural verb.
E.g.:
Neither Nick nor the girls [are] coming to the party.
Neither Alwin nor his classmates [want] to go to Bandung.

After Thursday’s session, one fella asked something I haven’t even thought of:

3. How to use NEITHER in a chain of more than 2 options? We start with NEITHER, then NOR, how to introduce the following options? Should we use NOR or OR?

In a chain of more than 2 options, stick with NOR. In other way, “NOR” also means “…and not…”; “…or not…”
E.g.:
I eat [neither] eggplant [nor] bitter gourd [nor] petai [nor] jengkol.
Brian is [neither] smart [nor] handsome [nor] rich.

Fellas’ questions:

1. @rerenew: “how are you” “fine. You?”….. Which one is correct “me neither” or “me either”?
Answer:
Neither one of them.
If you are concurring to negative statement, you could say “Me neither”. Mind you, the oposite of it is NOT “Me either”.
Since you’re concurring to a positive statement, you say “Me too”.

2. @Electroboyzz: Can we use comma before nor? E.g. Neither Andy, Matt, Sam nor Billy likes diving.
Answer: Sure.

And that’s all for today, fellas! I hope the #EngClass helps clarify some of your questions. :D

Also read #EngClass: Either

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on March 23, 2014

#EngClass: stative or non-continuous verb

Tonight I’d like to share a topic related to grammar. It’s about stative or non-continuous verb. Who knows what this is? :)

Stative verbs are verbs that aren’t used in continuous tenses (Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous).

Stative verbs are usually used to describe states that last for some time. Example: need. In a sentence: I need some drink.

Here are other examples of stative verbs: like, love, hate, want, agree, know, realize, wish, belong, understand, have, promise.

Let’s do an exercise on stative verbs. Please fill in the gap with the correct form of verb in the brackets. :)

  1. I ___ (not/think) I ___ (know) her. Do you?
  2. I ___ (think) I ___ (need) something to drink. I ___ (be) so thirsty!
  3. The thing that ___ (worry) me is that more and more people ___ (lack) the empathy for others.
  4. A: Anita ___ (look) so pale. B: I __ (know). Lately she ___ (feel) frustrated in her job.
  5. In a relationship what ___ (matter) the most is that you ___ (understand) each other.
  6. A lemon ___ (contain) a lot of vitamin C. And it also ___ (taste) sour!
  7. A: Do you ___ (recognize) that man? B: Um.. Sorry, I ___ (not/remember) him.
  8. A: Whose book is this? B: It ___ (belong) to Rudy. A: I __ (doubt) that. He __ (not/like) reading!
  9. A: What ___ you ___ (think) about abortion? B: It ___ (depend) on how you ___ (look) at it.
  10. A: I ___ (prefer) milk to tea anytime. B: You ___ (have) such a weird taste.

ANSWERS

  1. I don’t think I know her. Do you?
  2. I think I need something to drink. I am so thirsty!
  3. The thing that worries me is that more and more people lack the empathy for others.
  4. A: Anita looks so pale. B: I know). Lately she ___ (feel) frustrated in her job.
  5. In a relationship what matters the most is that you understand each other.
  6. A lemon contains a lot of vitamin C. And it also tastes sour!
  7. A: Do you recognize that man? B: Um.. Sorry, I don’t remember him.
  8. A: Whose book is this? B: It belongs to Rudy. A: I doubt that. He doesn’t like reading!
  9. A: What do you think about abortion? B: It depends on how you look at it.
  10. A: I prefer milk to tea anytime. B: You have such a weird taste.

Source: Stative Verbs

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on February 24, 2014

 

#WOTD: Procrastinate

Hello hello, fellas! Check out the next 4 conversations and lemme know whether you’ve ever experienced such situations. :D

Pernah ngalamin yang seperti ini?

Ibu: Kapan mow mulai belajar?
Anak: Ntar, bu!
*edisi menjelang ujian*

Kalau ini?

Mahasiswa A: Skripsi lo uda selesai blom?
Mahasiswa B: Buru-buru amat. Masih lama, masbro!
*edisi skripsi jamuran*

Atau ini?

Atasan: Kapan laporannya bakal selesai?
Staff: Ntar, boss!
*edisi tugas dianggurin*

Atau mungkin ini?

Cewe: Kapan mow ngajak aku ke rumah ortumu?
Cowo: Besok-besok aja yah, yang.
*edisi pacar galau*

What do you think, fellas? Apa kalian pernah ngalamin percakapan seperti 4 contoh di atas? I know I often do so. :P

4 contoh di atas nunjukkan sikap gemar menunda, and it’s called “Procrastinate” in English. This is what we’ll share in today’s #WOTD.

FYI, #WOTD stands for Word Of The Day, where we try to discuss and help you understand more about one particular word.

“Procrastinate” is a verb which means: to put off doing something, to postpone, or to delay needlessly. Bahasa kerennya… menunda-nunda.

To procrastinate is to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay. (Piers Steel)

Some synonyms of “procrastinate”: hesitate, dally, postpone, stall, delay, to drag one’s feet, to play a waiting game.
Some antonyms of “procrastinate”: complete, expedite, hasten, hurry, push, accelarate, go ahead.

Example: People often procrastinate because we prefer to avoid negative emotions, and to delay stressful tasks.

The act of procrastinating or delaying a task to a later time  because it’s not fun or you’re being lazy is called “Procrastination”.

Example: Procrastination is the thief of time. (Edward Young)

Whereas “Procrastinator” is the person who likes to procrastinate and delay something, even when he/she’s not busy.

Example: Don’t expect to get anything done soon if you hand a task to a procrastinator.

And that’s a wrap for today’s #WOTD, fellas! Remember… Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Cheerio!

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on October 28, 2013

#EngClass: Simile and Metaphor

Hello hello, fellas! I hope you are all having a great time this Raya holiday.

Today, we’ll refresh our memory on Simile and take it a step further and talk about Metaphor.

Hold on… Did anyone just asked “Si – APA??” Yeah… I heard that :D

The term is “Simile” and it’s pronounced See-Me-Lee (Baca: si-mi-li).

If you missed our previous discussion on Simile, feel free to visit this web page here –> #EngClass: simile

Before I start to sound boring, let me ask you one thing, fellas. Have you ever compared things and/or say how things are similar? That is when you use Simile and Metaphor.  Check out the following examples:

(a) Fio is an angel;
(b) Melvin’s skin is as white as snow;
(c) Darren sleeps like a log.

As you can see, all three examples in the previous tweet compared something (my niece & nephews) with something.

A simile means to say that something IS LIKE another something. In the case of simile, we often use “like” and “as+adj+as+noun”.

After reading the tweet right before this, can yo guess which of the three example is a simile? Tips: Look out for the key words.

That’s right! Two of the examples are similes! Did you spot the “like” and “as” in (b) and (c)?

(c) Darren sleeps LIKE a log. The sentence compared the resemblance of the way Darren sleeps to a log. Not that he looks like a log. But once he sleeps, it’s hard to wake him up.

(b) Melvin’s skin is AS white AS snow. The sentence compared the resemblance of Melvin’s skin color (note: as white as) to snow.

Those were similes, fellas! On to the next part. It’s Metaphor (Baca: me-ta-for). As with simile, metaphor too compares things.

What’s the difference? A metaphor compares two objects or things without using the words “like” or “as”. A metaphor means to say that something is some other thing. *Okay. I’m confusing y’all* … Look at example (a).

(a) Fio is an angel. The sentence compared Fio to an angel. Now, here’s another difference between Simile and Metaphor…. What was being compared? Was it Fio’s good look that resembles an angel? Or was it Fio’s kind heart? You couldn’t be sure.

Which one’s better? It’s up to you, fellas. Want to be more specific? Use simile. Want to compare in a global way? Use Metaphor.

Well, I hope you have a better understanding of Simile and Metaphor now. That’d be all for today. Have a nice holiday, everyone! XOXO

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on August 10, 2013

#EngClass: i.e. vs e.g.

Hi, fellas! :D How are you? Did you have fun today? I watched a few of my favorite movies, i.e., Easy A, Mean Girls, and Madagascar.

Do you like cartoons, fellas? Me too! I like MGM cartoons, e.g., Tom and Jerry and Droopy. They are so funny!

You can see I used i.e. and e.g. above. Do you know what’s the difference between those two? Do you have any difficulties in using i.e. or e.g. correctly? Do you have trouble choosing which one is suitable for your sentence? We’ll talk about it here.

i.e. and e.g. are both abbreviations for Latin terms. i.e. is an abbreviation of “id est”, which means that is and e.g. is an abbreviation of “exempli gratia” which means for the sake of example.

 

Using i.e. and e.g.

In order to make it easier to understand the use of both, we can say that i.e. stands for “in other words” and e.g. stands for “example given”. i.e. is used to describe something in a different way, or to give a further definition. e.g. is used to give examples.

In using e.g., think of the word before e.g. as a category, and the words after e.g. as something or a few things that would fall into that category. I will give you some examples:

  • The members of the band All Time Low (i.e., Alex, Jack, Rian and Zack) are all more than 20 years old.

The i.e. I used in the example sentence is used to describe/define “the members of all time low”.

  • I love watching Disney animated movies, e.g., Tangled, Chicken Little, and The Lion King.

The e.g. I used in the example sentence is used to give some example of Disney animated movies, not mentioning all of them.

 

Use of comma after i.e. and e.g.

You might be confused with the use of a comma after e.g. and i.e., but a comma is commonly used after them.

The use of comma after e.g. and i.e. has also been discussed by @GrammarGirl here: I.e. Versus E.g. And most style guides recommend that you should use a comma.

The comma should be used after i.e. and e.g. in American English, and not in British English.

 

Compiled and written by @waitatiri on @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, July 31, 2013

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngTalk: Asking For Help

There are times when we need help. Well, we can’t just say “Give me this” or “Get that”. Who would help anyone who acts so rude? Therefore, the least we can do when asking for help is to be polite. So, today admin will share some polite ways to ask for help.

“Can you (v1) … ?”

E.g.: Can you help me with the door?
Arti: Bisa tolong bukakan pintu? *Belanjaan segunung & gak bisa buka pintu*

As shown above, “Can you…” is followed by a bare verb or V1. That means no: -s, -ing, -ed.

Misal kamu diminta tolong seperti itu. Gimana respon kamu? You can say: Sure. Of course. *apalagi klo yang minta tolong cakep*

“Could you (v1) … ?”

E.g.: Could you lend me some money?
Arti: Bisa tolong pinjamkan uang? *akan dibayar pake bunga mawar & melati*

Again…, as shown above, “Could you…” is followed by a bare verb or V1. That means no: -s, -ing, -ed.

Q: Trus apa bedanya “Can you…” dengan “Could you…”?
A: Pada dasarnya sama” minta tolong, tapi “Could you…” jauh lebih sopan.

Lalu gimana respon kamu? Seperti saat merespon pertanyaan “Can you…”, you can help by saying: Sure. Of course.

“Do you mind (v-ing)…?”

E.g.: Do you mind moving a bit?
Arti: Bisa tolong geser sedikit? *di angkot pas jam pulang kantor*

“Do you mind…” is followed by a gerund or V-ing which acts as a noun.

Ketinggalan sesi soal “Gerund”? Click the following LINK

“Would you mind (v-ing) … ?”

E.g.: Would you mind closing the window?
Arti: Bisa tolong tutup jendelanya? *mager*

Seperti di bagian sebelumnya, “Would you mind…” diikuti dengan gerund atau V-ing.

“Do you mind…” dan “Would you mind…” sama-sama digunakan saat minta tolong. Namun “Would you mind…” terkesan lebih sopan.

Then, how would you respond when someone say “Do you mind…” or “Would you mind…”?

Secara harafiah, “Do you mind…” dan “Would you mind…” berarti: Apa kamu keberatan… ? Selain akal, “mind” juga berarti keberatan (k.kerja).

Bayangkan kalau kamu ditanyai “Apa kamu keberatan…?”. Kalau dijawab “Ya”, berarti kamu keberatan, bukan? Therefore, if someone ask you “Do you mind…” or “Would you mind…”, you can agree to help him/her by saying: “No, not at all” or “No, not a bit.”

And… That’s a wrap, fellas! I hope today’s #EngTalk could somehow help you. :D Remember, learning isn’t only about reading. Practice! XOXO

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on May 11, 2013

#EngClass: If vs Whether

It’s #EngClass time :D Come gather around, fellas. Do you ever get confused when to use “if” and “whether”? Well… to be honest, I do too… sometimes XD

All right then. Let’s start today’s #EngClass on “If” vs “Whether” and learn together.

We often use “If” or “Whether” in sentences when we talk about options or possibilities. Kita sering pakai kata “If” atau “Whether” di kalimat yang ngomongin soal opsi atau kemungkinan. Ingat! Hanya gunakan salah 1 ya!

Kadang, “if” & “whether” bisa saling menggantikan. Tapi gak selalu begitu. Nah… Itu yang mau kita bahas kali ini. Let’s start!

 

When to use “If” or “Whether”

“If” or “Whether” can be used interchangeably when reporting yes/no questions.

  • Contoh: I’m not sure WHETHER/IF I’ll get there on time. Result: (Yes) I will get there on time OR (No) I won’t get there on time.

 

In short, “if” is used to express a conditionIn this case, “if” and “whether” are not interchangeable. P.s.: condition di sini bukan kondisi atau situasi ya, tapi “persyaratan”.

  • Contoh: You would definitely improve IF you try harder and stop whining. Syarat: lebih berusaha & berhenti mengeluh.
  • Contoh SALAH: You would definitely improve WHETHER you try harder and stop whining. Syarat: lebih berusaha & berhenti mengeluh.

 

“Whether” is used to express alternatives, options, possibilities. In this case, “if” and “whether” are not interchangeable.

  • Contoh: Can you help me convince him? He has to cut his pony tail WHETHER he likes it or not.
  • Contoh SALAH: He has to cut his pony tail IF he likes it or not.

 

Positions of “Whether”

“Whether” is positioned after prepositions.

  • Contoh: I’m thinking about WHETHER I should get a new phone.
  • Contoh SALAH (after preposition): I’m thinking about IF I should get a new phone.

“Whether” is positioned before infinitive verbs starting with “to”.

  • Contoh: I can’t decide WHETHER to get a new phone.
  • Contoh SALAH (before infinitive verbs starting with “to”): I can’t decide IF to get a new phone.

“Whether” is used when the sentence contains options with “or”.

  • Contoh (option): You must help decide WHETHER I should get a new phone or stick with the old one.
  • Contoh SALAH (option): You must help decide IF I should get a new phone or stick with the old one. Note: not a yes/no question

That’s about it, fellas. I hope today’s #EngClass clarifies your confusion between “If” and “Whether”.

 

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on April 20, 2013

#EngClass: Should Have vs Must Have

#EngClass time! Are you ready, fellas? Today, we’ll talk about something to do with Modals. Have any of you heard about Should and Must?

As a warm up, tell me what you know about Should and Must, fellas. What do they mean? How do you use them?

Here’s a quick recap.

Both Should and Must express obligations.

Should dipakai saat menyatakan keharusan yang disarankan.

  • Contoh: You should stay tuned to #EngClass (disarankan untuk mantengin #EngClass)

Must dipakai saat menyatakan keharusan yang tidak bisa ditawar, wajib, kudu, tidak boleh tidak.

  • Contoh:  You must stay tuned to #EngClass. Kalian harus mantengin. *awas kalau ada yang bolos/kabur*

Selain menyatakan keharusan, Should dan Must juga bisa dipakai untuk menyatakan kemungkinan atau keyakinan.

Bandingkan:

“It should be the delivery man”

dan

“It must be the delivery man” .

Keduanya sama-sama menyatakan perkiraan dan keyakinan akan siapa yang mengetuk pintu. Hanya saja, “must” menunjukkan bahwa admin LEBIH yakin dan hampir pasti bahwa kurir pizza sudah sampai; ketimbang saat mengatakan “should”.

Want to know more modals? Visit #EngClass: Modal Auxiliary

Enough with the appetizers. Now, here comes the main course! :D Today, we will talk about “should have” and “must have“.

Meski ‘should’ & ‘must’ punya beberapa kemiripan. ‘Should have’ & ‘must have’ punya arti yang jauh berbeda.

Should have‘ berarti ‘seharusnya’, menunjukkan sesuatu yang seharusnya terjadi, tapi tidak jadi, dan diikuti dengan penyesalan.

  • Contoh: I should have bought fried rice from Bang Mamat. (Seharusnya admin beli nasi goreng Bang Mamat)
  • Maksud: Admin seharusnya beli nasi goreng. Nyesel deh tadi admin tidak beli nasi goreng. Akhirnya kelaperan karena lama menunggu kiriman pizza.

Must have‘ dipakai saat kita berasumsi dan yakin sesuatu terjadi. Menurut asumsi kita, sesuatu pasti telah terjadi.

  • Contoh: The operator must have forgotten to process my order. (Operator telponnya pasti kelupaan sama pesanan admin)
  • Maksud: Admin rasa operatornya lupa. Admin yakin operatornya lupa. Buktinya pizzanya tidak kunjung sampai.

Well, I hope you know the difference between ‘Should have’ and ‘Must have’ now :)

Mmm… have I told you that both ‘should have’ and ‘must have’ must be followed by Past Participle Verb (v3)? :D

Here’s another example of ‘should have’ & ‘must have’:

  • I shouldn’t have whined so much. It must have been hard to find the address.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on March 23, 2013

#EngClass: Would

In this article, we’ll talk about 1 word. Yes! Just 1 word. It’s ‘Would.’

We received quite a lot of questions on the word ‘Would.’ How do you use it? When do you use it? What does it mean? Let’s start!

How to

‘Would’ is always followed by the bare infinitive verb. That means no: ‘-s,’ ‘-ing,’ ‘-ed.’

Example:

  • She would like…,
  • He would come…, etc.

‘Would’ is used when we talk about the future in the past. Huh? Maksudnya gimana tuh? Past & Future kok bisa digabung?  Are you starting to get confused?

Imagine the following scenario:

  • Your boyfriend said this last week: “Can you lend me 5 millions Rupiah? I will pay you back on Monday.”
  • And this week, he doesn’t show up. You can’t get a hold of him. And he hasn’t paid back your 5 millions Rupiah.
    • And now you say: “He said he would pay the 5 millions Rupiah back last Monday.”

P.s.: Can’t get a hold of someone means you can’t contact him, you can’t get in touch with someone.

Did you notice the word that followed ‘Would’? Remember that ‘Would’ is always followed by the bare infinitive verb.  

Past habit

‘Would’ is used when we talk about past habits.

Example:

  • “We would go to Puncak every weekend when I was little.”

Unreal condition

‘Would’ is used to express 2nd conditional & 3rd conditional. Both are for unreal conditions.

Example:

  • 2nd conditional » “You would get good grades, if you studied hard.”
  • 3rd conditional » “If you had studied hard, you would have passed your exam.”

Polite request

‘Would’ is used to request something & ask questions politely.

Example:

  • “Would you marry me?”
  • “Would you pass me the box?”
  • “Would you give me a ride?”

Polite offer

“Would” is used to express your desire or to offer something in a polite way.

Example:

  • “Would you like some coffee, tea, or me?”
  • “We would love to cooperate with your company.”
  • “I would love to have some bagels for dinner.”

Wish

“Would” is used to express your wish.

Example:

  • “I wish you would come on my birthday. I haven’t met you for ages.”
  • “Her mom wish she would be more mature. She’s 30 and still acts like a child.”

Presumptions

“Would” is used when we make some presumptions, when you think something would happen.

Example:

  • “I think she would come tonight.”
  • “That would be the police at the door. Hurry! Go hide under the bed.”

That’s all, fellas! I hope y’all have a better idea of how to use “Would”. :D

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, March 02, 2013

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngClass: understanding the basics of English grammar

Apakah grammar itu penting?”

Tell me what you think. :)

Well, admin mendapat jawaban yang beragam. Ada yang bilang grammar penting, ada yang bilang tidak terlalu. Wanna know what I think?

The importance of grammar

Jawabannya adalah “iya, grammar itu penting.” Grammar menurut kamus Oxford:

“rules for forming words and making sentences.”

Artinya, grammar: aturan untuk membentuk kata dan menyusun kalimat (yang benar).

Bisa disimpulkan: grammar = tata bahasa.

Tata bahasa = sangat penting dalam komunikasi. Kita dapat memahami bahasa yang kita gunakan sehingga terjadi saling memahami dalam komunikasi.

Tata bahasa juga berarti bahwa susunan yang dipergunakan sudah merupakan kesepakatan dalam sosial masyarakat.

Tidak mungkin kita menggunakan bahasa tanpa tata bahasa karena pasti tidak akan terjadi komunikasi karena gagalnya pemahaman dalam berkomunikasi.

Pernah membayangkan berbahasa Indonesia seperti ini:

“Kabar apa? Jumpa lama tak banget. Tinggal sekarang Surabaya di masih?”

Kira-kira lebih kurang hal yang sama terjadi dalam bahasa Inggris, ketika kita berkomunikasi tanpa menggunakan tata bahasa.

Clause (atau ‘klausa’)

Untuk berkomunikasi dengan bahasa setidaknya kita memerlukan serangkaian kata yang bermakna yang dirangkai menjadi suatu ‘clause’ (klausa).

Dalam English grammar, clause = kumpulan kata yang terdiri setidaknya dari Subject (Subjek) dan diikuti oleh Predicate (Predikat). Begitu juga dalam bahasa Indonesia.

Tentu fellas masih ingat pelajaran bahasa Indonesia kan? Ini rumusnya (dalam English maupun bahasa Indonesia):

table 6

Clause: the difference between English and bahasa Indonesia

Namun antara English dan bahasa Indonesia, ada perbedaan dalam hal jenis kata apa saja yang boleh menempati sebagai Predikat (diingat ya!).

Dalam bahasa Indonesia, Predikat bisa ditempati oleh kata kerja, kata benda (nomina), kata keterangan, dan nominal (angka).

Sedangkan dalam English, Predikat HANYA BOLEH DIISI oleh kata kerja (verb). MOHON CATAT DENGAN TINTA TEBAL DAN GARISBAWAHI, fellas.

Nah perbedaan inilah yang harus kita tekankan dalam membentuk kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris. Untuk lebih jelasnya, lihat tabel berikut…

table 1

‘Be’ as linking verb

Perhatikan clause ‘itu meja’. Ternyata tidak bisa langsung diterjemahkan menjadi ‘that a table’ dalam bahasa Inggris. Kira-kira kenapa ya? Ada yangg tahu?

Jawaban: kembali ke aturan awal tadi = “Predikat HANYA BOLEH DIISI oleh kata kerja (verb)“.

Maka berdasarkan aturan tadi, untuk menerjemahkan ‘itu meja’ diperlukan kata kerja ‘be’ sebagai linking verb (kata kerja penghubung).

Linking verb = menghubungkan Subject dengan Object/Complement-nya. ‘that a table’ + ‘be’ = that is a table.

table 2

Bisa dibilang ‘linking verb’ ini penyelamat. Ini dia aturan penggunaannya, jenis kata apa saja yang bisa oleh diikuti ‘be:.

table 3

‘Be’ as auxiliary verb

Perlu diperhatikan juga: ‘be’ tidak hanya berfungsi sebagai linking verb saja, namun juga auxiliary verb/helping verb (kata kerja bantu).

Sesuai dengan namanya, ‘be’ berfungsi membantu kata kerja lain (dalam hal ini hanya untuk Present Participle [V -ing] dan Past Participle [V3]).

  • ‘Be’ + ‘V -ing’ = membentuk bentuk ‘Continuous/Progressive’.
  • ‘Be’ + ‘V3’ = membentuk bentuk ‘Passive’.

table 4

Well, di sini akhir penjelasan admin. Tp jangan pergi dulu.. Baca sekali lagi penjelasan td krn sebentar lagi admin mau kasih #EngQuiz! :D

Alright, let’s start the #EngQuiz… Perhatian: jangan lupa penjelasan di twit-twit sebelumnya dibaca-baca lagi ya… :)

QUESTIONS

  1. Dalam English dan bahasa Indonesia berlaku aturan pembentukan clause yang  sama. Tapi ada 1 perbedaan. Apa itu?
  2. Clause ‘dia malas’ tidak bisa diterjemahkan menjadi ‘he lazy’ dalam bahasa Inggris. Mengapa?
  3. Seringkali kita membaca/mendengar clause (yang salah) seperti ini: “I am work at an office”. Kira-kira mengapa hal ini terjadi?

ANSWERS

Question 1.

  1. @m_yani: Predikat, di dalam grammar(tata bahasa) Inggris hanya digunakan untuk VERB!
  2. @tyastijas: b.inggris : predikat hny bs ditempati verb, b.indo : predikat bs utk verb, nomina, kata sifat, keterangan, nominal
  3. @rendy64: predikat dlm bhs inggris harus kata kerja (verb), sdngkn dlm bhs indonesia boleh kata benda, keterangan dll
  4. @na_nadz: dlm bahasa inggris predikat hanya boleh diisi dengan kata kerja :)

Question 2.

  1. @nialinbenye: krn dlm b.ing setiap kalimat hrs memiliki kt kerja / kt kerja bntu , dan lazy bkn kt krja, tp adjective :D
  2. @magnificentSJ: harus ditambahin ‘be’ ditengah2 subjek sama adj nya, jadi he is lazy~~ S sama adj gak bisa berdiri sendiri.
  3. @vaniayutami: 2. it has no verb. It should be added by ‘is’.
  4. @m_yani: jawaban yg sama karena predikat hanya bisa di isi VERB! sedangkan lazy bukan :)
  5. @dyaeliza: karena perlu adanya linking verb yg menghubungkan he (noun) dengan lazy (adjective). kalimat yang benar: he is lazy
  6. @livinaseptiana: krn klausa “he lazy” tdk memiliki verb. Lazy adalah adjective, jd klausa tsb hrs dilgkapi oleh to be “is” » he is lazy

Question 3.

  1. @raaadel: karena belom bisa bedain mana verb mana adjective, wokr itu verb ga perlu pake to be
  2. @cuomos: Inggris setiap kalimat selalu mengandung verb (kata kerja). Sdgkan indonesia, gak selalu ditemukan verb di stiap kalimat
  3. @maullagidong: Indonesia ga kenal “to be”. Langsung hajar aja bahasanya.

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on Monday, March 11, 2013

Related post(s):

^MQ

#EngClass: ‘Let,’ ‘make,’ ‘let’s’

I bet you know what ‘let’ and ‘make’ mean. So I need your help. Are these sentences correct? If not, please revise them. :)

  1. “Don’t let them know about the news yet.”
  2. “She makes me did it!”
  3. “Let’s swimming!”
2) She made me do it. 3) Let’s swim! – evajuliana13

Great! Sentences 2) and 3) are incorrect. Now,  let’s discuss what ‘let,’ ‘make,’ and ‘let’s’ mean and how to use them.

Let vs. make

‘Let’ and ‘make’ are both verbs. They have similar meanings (though not the same) and related sentence patterns.

  • ‘Let’ means allow/not prevent (mengijinkan/tidak mencegah),
  • ‘Make’ means force/compel (memaksa/mendorong untuk melakukan).

Both ‘let’ and ‘make’ have almost the same sentence patterns:

“Let + Object + Verb 1”

“Make + Object + Verb 1”

Important note:

  • We do not use ‘to’ before the verb, and the verb is not in Present Participle (Verb -ing) form.
  • If you want to change the tense of your sentence, you have to change ‘let’ and ‘make’.
    • Example:
      • She made me do it.

 

Practice:

Now, let’s translate these sentences into English, shall we?

  1. “Biarkan aku menolongmu.”
  2. “Aku tidak akan membiarkanmu melakukannya.”
  3. “Apakah kau membiarkan dia masuk tadi malam?”
  4. “Dia sudah memaksaku mengerjakan semua tugas ini.”
  5. “Untunglah ibuku tidak memaksaku untuk mencuci piring.”
  6. “Apakah kau akan memaksaku memberikan semua hadiah ini padanya?”

Please note, all the answers for number 1) to 6) are using either ‘let’ or ‘make.’ And I need to remind you again though: please read the explanation stated above. You do not need to use ‘to.’

Answer:

  1. “Let me help you.”
  2. “I won’t let you do it.”
  3. “Did you let him/her get in last night?”
  4. “He made me do all these tasks.” or “He made me do all these tasks.”
  5. “Thank goodness my mom doesn’t make me wash all these plates.” or “Fortunately, my mother did not make me wash the dishes.”
  6. “Will you make me give all these gifts to him/her?” or “Are you gonna make me give all these presents to him?”

 

Let’s

‘Let’s’ stands for ‘let us.’

“Let’s + Verb 1”

The pattern above is used to make suggestions for the speaker(s) and hearer(s) to do something.

Just like ‘let’ and ‘make,’ you do not need to use ‘to’ after ‘let’s.’

Examples from fellas:

  1. “Let’s make a sandwich.” – @julianawijaya
  2. “Hey, you are sick. Let’s go to the doctor. “- @alfial_
  3. “Let’s move!” – @evajuliana13
  4. “Let’s sleep earlier tonight.” – @ade_mestri
  5. “Let’s study happily and easily with this twitter account,@EnglishTips4U! Yeay!” – @raafian
  6. “Let’s make a sentence about this topic.” – @Echi1930

 

Extra:

Q. “Causative verb?” @ade_mestri

A. Yes, “let” and “make” are also called “causative verbs”. :)

 

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on Monday, February 18, 2013

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngClass: English Common Mistake (5)

1. When SUGGEST is followed by another verb, that verb can’t be in infinitive with ‘to’. It should be “suggest doing something” NOT “suggest to do something”. E.g. Mia suggests going to her place since it’s near.

2. When LOOK FORWARD TO is followed by a verb, that verb should be in the -ing form. We should say “look forward to doing something” NOT “look forward to do something”. E.g. I look forward to meeting you at the final.

3. When NEED is used to say that someone must do something, NEED must be followed by the infinitive with ‘to’. It should be “need to do something” NOT “need do something”. E.g. Nina needs to improve his English

4. CONSIDER is never followed by a preposition. It’s “consider something” NOT “consider about something”. I hope you’ll consider my writing.

5. When WANT is followed by a verb, that verb can’t be in the infinitive without ‘to’. It should be “want to do something” NOT “want do something.”

6. CAN is followed by an infinitive verb without ‘to’. We should say “can do something” NOT “can to do something”. E.g. I’m glad you can come to my graduation.

7. When HELP is followed by another verb, that verb can’t be in the -ing form. So it should be “to help to do something” NOT “to help doing something”. E.g. His job is to help to operate the roller coaster.

8. The correct preposition to use after EXPERIENCE is of. Don’t say “experience in/on doing something” BUT “experience of doing something.” E.g. I have two years’ experience of working as a writer.

9. MIND is usually followed by a verb in the -ing form. We should say “mind doing something” NOT “mind to do something”. E.g. Would you mind taking a picture of us?

10. LET is followed by a verb in the infinitive without ‘to’. We have to say “let someone do something” NOT “let someone to do something”. E.g. My parents don’t let me stay over my friends’.

Compiled and written by @iisumarni at @EnglishTips4U on November 8, 2012

#EngClass: English Common Mistakes (4)

1. Suit vs Suite

– Suit: set of clothes. E.g. Radit wore a dark blue suit.

– Suite: set of room. E.g. He stayed in a hotel suite.

2. Desert vs Dessert

– Desert: an area covered with sand, where there’s very little rain. e.g. They were lost in the desert for
9 days.

– Dessert: sweet food eaten at the end of a meal. e.g. I’d like to have strawberry cheesecake for the dessert

3. Pray vs Prey

– Pray: to speak to God in order to express love or thanks or ask for something. e.g. She knelt and prayed.

– Prey: to be a victim or being in danger of. e.g The old man fell prey to the thieves.

4. Stationery vs Stationary

– Stationery: writing materials and office supplies. e.g. She just bought stationery yesterday

– Stationary: not moving or not changing. e.g. The traffic got slower and slower until it was stationary.

5. Effective and Efficient

– Effective: achieving the result that you want. e.g. It’s an extremely effective cure for a headache.

 -Efficient:working/operating quickly and effectively in an organized way. e.g.The city’s transport system is the most efficient in Europe.

6. Loose vs Lose

– Loose: not firmly fixed in place. e.g. There were some loose wires hanging out of the wall.

– Lose: to fail to succeed. e.g. We can’t afford to lose the match.

7. Waive vs Wave

– Waive: to deny or not agree to something. e.g. I waived my right to my grandpa’s property.

– Wave: to raise your hand and move it from side to side. e.g. I waved to him from the window but he didn’t see me.

Compiled and written by @iisumarni at @EnglishTips4U  on December 8, 2012

#EngClass: English Common Mistakes (3)

  1. When ‘wait’ is followed by an indirect project, we have to use the preposition ‘for.’ It should be “wait for somethingnot “wait something.”
    • Example:
      • “I waited for the postman but he never came.”
  2. ‘Inform’ must have a direct object. It should be “inform someone about/of something.”
    • Example:
      • “I’m writing to inform you that I’m leaving,” not “I’m writing to inform that I’m leaving.”
  3. ‘Attend’ means to go to an event/place etc and it’s never followed by ‘to.’
    • It should be:
      • attend an event/place,” notattend to an event/place.”
  4. ‘Could’ is followed by an infinitive verb without ‘to.’
    • You should say:
      • could do something,” notcould to do something.”
  5. ‘Discuss’ is never followed by ‘about.’
    • It should be:
      • “We need to discuss our project,” not “We need to discuss about our project.”
  6. When ‘participate’ is followed by a direct object, always use the preposition ‘in.’
    • Example:
      • “Nia participates in a lot of English competitions.”
  7. When ‘provide’ is followed by an indirect object, always use the preposition ‘with.’
    • Example:
      • “Could you provide us with a list of hotels?”
  8. When ‘search’ has an indirect preposition, use the preposition ‘for.’
    • Example:
      • “Henry is still searching for his lost keys.”
  9. ‘Seek’ is not followed by a preposition.
    • Example:
      • “I went to the beach seeking inspiration.”
  10. ‘Succeed’ is usually followed by the preposition “in.
    • Example:
      • “I hope you’ll succeed in your new job.”

 

Compiled and written by @iisumarni at @EnglisTips4U on Thusrday, November 15, 2012

Related post(s):

^MD

#EngClass: ‘Also,’ ‘too’ and ‘either’

In this article, I will share one of my latest pet peeves. Today’s topic would be: ‘also,’ ‘too’ and ‘either.’

intermezzo

pet peeve‘ adalah sesuatu yang mengganggu, membuat risih atau mengeluh.

Have you ever heard anyone said/written one of these?

  • “I bought that also!”
  • “I am too going” or
  • “Me, either!”

Or do you say or write one of those? Well, let’s learn the proper way to use ‘also,’ ‘too’ and ‘either.’

Some of you might argue that all three words (also, too & either) mean ‘juga.’ I sincerely agree. However their position & use are different.

Also

‘Also’ digunakan dalam kalimat positif, untuk menyatakan kesamaan.

  • I teach English. Alice also teaches English.
  • Saya mengajar bahasa Inggris. Alice juga mengajar bahasa Inggris.

 

  • I love rendang. I also love meatball.
  • Saya suka rendang. Saya juga suka bakso.

 

Also can come:

  1. after “to be”,
    • Contoh:
      • I am also a translator.
      • She was also in Bali.
      • We were also invited to the event.
  2. before single verb form,
    • Contoh:
      • I also sell clothes.
      • She also lives in Bali.
      • They also brought their own crew.
  3. after modal verbs.
    • Contoh:
      • I can also fix computers.
      • You must also go to the bank.
      • They should also bring their coupons.

Practice:

I bought a new bag at the sale. I ….. found a pair of matching shoes.

Answer:

I bought a new bag at the sale. I (also) found a pair of matching shoes.

Too

‘Too’ digunakan digunakan dalam kalimat positif, untuk menyatakan kesamaan. Mirip ‘also’ tapi dengan penempatan yang berbeda.

  • I teach English. Alice teaches English too.
  • Saya mengajar bahasa Inggris. Alice juga mengajar bahasa Inggris.

 

  • I love rendang. I love meatball too.
  • Saya suka rendang. Saya juga suka bakso.

 

Tidak seperti ‘also’ yang diposisikan di tengah kalimat, too’ ditempatkan di akhir kalimat/klausa.

Contoh:

  • I am a translator too.
  • She lives in Bali too.
  • You must go to the bank too.

Practice:

The car isn’t expensive and I like the color ….. . I think I’ll buy it.

Answer:

The car isn’t expensive and I like the color (too). I think I’ll buy it.

Meski ‘too’ umumnya ditempatkan di akhir kalimat/klausa, too’ bisa diselipkan setelah subjek kalimat & diapit dengan tanda koma.

Contoh:

  • She, too, was in Bali.
  • I, too, am trying to find a way to fix the machine.

 

Either

‘Either’ digunakan digunakan dalam kalimat negatif, untuk menyatakan kesamaan negatif.

  • I don’t teach English. Alice doesn’t teach English either.
  • Saya tidak mengajar b.Inggris. Alice juga tidak mengajar b.Inggris.

 

  • I don’t love rendang. I don’t love meatball either.
  • Saya tidak suka rendang. Saya juga tidak suka bakso.

 

Saat menyatakan ‘juga’ atau kesamaan negatif, ‘either’ umumnya diletakkan di akhir klausa.

Contoh:

  • They don’t have to sing either.
  • She doesn’t live in Bali either.

Practice:

I don’t speak English. I don’t speak French ….. . I need an interpreter.

Answer:

I don’t speak English. I don’t speak French (either) . I need an interpreter.

 

Practice:

So there goes our quick session on ‘also,’ ‘too’ and ‘either.’ Wanna test how well you understand the differences? Try out these questions by choosing the correct answers:

1. I’m taking an English course at the tuition center. Clare is in the class (also/too/either).
also
too
correct
either
2. He plays game everyday. He doesn’t study (also/too/either). No wonder he got an F!
also
too
either
correct
3. She’s been working for 5 months. She has (also/too/either) taking night classes the entire time.
also
correct
too
either
4.  I am really tired, and I don’t feel like cooking (also/too/either). Let’s order take outs.
also
too
either
correct
5. The movie was really exciting. I (also/too/either) thought the actors are good looking.
also
correct
too
either
6. Dave is an excellent singer and he loves dancing (also/too/either).
also
too
correct
either
7. I don’t feel like cooking, and I am (also/too/either) really tired . Do you want to cook or order take outs?
also
correct
too
either
8. We’ve been working 5 hours straight and I had to go home. Angie, (also/too/either), thought it was time to call it a day.
also
too
correct
either
9. I don’t like bitter gourd. My brother doesn’t like it (also/too/either).
also
too
either
correct
10. The twins went to the concert last Sunday. Me (also/too/either)! But I didn’t saw them there.
also
too
correct
either

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, December 22, 2012

 

Related post(s):

 

 

^MQ

 

#EngQuiz: Gerunds and Infinitives

Good evening fellas! Today is #EngQuiz day! Who loves quizzes? (^_^)

Today’s quiz will be about gerund and infinitives. Before we start the quiz, admin will give you a quick explanation about it :D

A gerund is a verb that functions as noun. For example:

– I enjoy singing live.” I enjoy sing live” is incorrect.

– We practice speaking English every day.

– Yesterday I went to the swimming pool.

In English the infinitive is made of to and the verb. For example:

– I want to go out from this room.

– You forgot to open the window.

For a complete and clearer explanation about gerunds and infinitives, you can open this link of our previous session about it https://englishtips4u.com/2012/03/02/engclass-to-gerundinfinitive/

Now it’s time for the #EngQuiz! Ready? ;)

In this #EngQuiz you will have to fill in the blank using the word in the right form (infinitive or gerund). Let’s start!

1. Alex promised _____ a letter to Lisa. (Write)

2. Jack doesn’t mind _____ by himself. (Work)

3. Josh decided _____ his fans some guitar picks after the concert. (Give)

4. When Rian lived in Germany by himself, he missed _____ his birthday with his family. (Celebrate)

5. Zack has ____ to the principal room because he fought with his friend at school yesterday. (Go)

6. Do all of us need ____ in that event? (Participate)

7. Cassadee and Rian seem ______ a happy life together. (Have)

8. I hate ____ an argument with those who can’t control themselves. (Have)

9. Instead of _____ a house, Tay decided to rent an apartment. (Buy)

10. Dales enjoys ______ science fiction. (Read)

ANSWERS:

1. to write

2. working

3. to give

4. celebrating

5. to go

6. to participate

7. to have

8. having

9. buying

10. reading

Compiled and written by @waitatiri at @EnglishTips4U on November 14, 2012

#EngClass: inversion (sentences begin with negative adverbs)

Wow, fellas! How was the weather where you live today? Never has the weather been so hot where admin lives! :|

Why did I start our session by talking about the weather? Actually it’s not the weather, but it’s this: “Never has the weather been so hot!

Are you familiar with this kind of sentence? “Never has the weather been so hot where admin lives!” Do you know what it’s called?

“Never has the weather been so hot where admin lives!” is an example of inversion, where we begin sentences with negative adverbs.

What are negative adverbs? Here are some examples: never, rarely, not once, hardly ever, seldom, scarcely, barely, only then, etc.

We use inversion for one main reason: to make the statement more emphatic (tegas). It also creates dramatic or even poetic effect.

In inversion, we invert (membalikkan) the order of subject and verb. That’s why it’s also called “subject-verb inversion”.

Have a look at how the example sentence that I have given you changes from ‘normal’ sentence to an inversion..

  • Normal sentence: “The weather has never been so hot.” –> Inversion: “Never has the weather been so hot.”

We can use inversion with all tenses. Just remember not to change the tense from the normal sentence to the inversion.

Here is the word order of an inversion:

“negative adverb + auxiliary + subject + verb”.

Can you help me fill in the gaps? “Never has the weather been”: Never = negative adverb; .. = auxiliary; .. = subject; .. = verb.

CORRECT! –> @fachryspears: Can you help me fill in the gaps? Never = negative adverb; has= auxiliary; weather= subject; been= verb

Positive sentences contain auxiliaries (aux), but some don’t. Examples with aux:

  1. “I would never do that.”
  2. “I had never seen it.”

It’s easier to change normal sentences that already contain aux:

  1. “I would never do that.” –> “Never would I do that.”
  2. “I had never seen it.” –> “Never had I seen it.”

Both ‘would’ and ‘had’ in these examples are auxiliaries.

In sentences that do not contain auxiliaries, you have to add appropriate auxiliaries if you want to change them into inversion. Examples:

  1. “I seldom hear such great news!” –> “Seldom do I hear such great news!.”
  2. “I barely touched it!” –> “Barely did I touch it!”

In these two inversions, which ones are the auxiliaries?

  1. “Seldom do I hear such great news!.”
  2. “Barely did I touch it!”?
CORRECT! –> ‏@Sthree79: “do” and “did” are the auxiliaries

Now, as usual, before we end our #EngClass, admin will have a little#EngQuiz on the topic. Rule: change these sentences into inversions. :)

And just a little reminder! DON’T forget to always use proper capitalization and punctuation (comma, full stop).

  1. She had never felt so lost and lonely.
  2. We rarely see them together.
  3. They finished a job properly (use: not once).
  4. He had scarcely gone out of the house when it started to rain.
  5. I would never have agreed if I had known the truth.
  6. I could barely see you behind that costume!
  7. I have hardly ever seen him since our last meeting.
  8. Be patient, and you will only then enjoy the fruits of your labor.

That was the last question for our #EngQuiz tonight. Tweets with correct answers will be retweeted shortly. So stay tuned! :)

CORRECT ANSWERS

  1. @alfatyipyip: Never had she felt so lost and lonely.
  2. @sierrapritta: Rarely do we see them together.
  3. @adenda90: Not once did they finish a job properly.
  4. @belebelfer: 4) Scarcely had he gone out of the house when it started to rain.
  5. @belebelfer: 5) Never would I have agreed if I had known the truth.
  6. @amaderuardian: Barely could I see you behind that costume!
  7. @OKTindriani: Hardly have I seen him since our last meeting.
  8. @Sthree79: 8) Be patient, only then will you enjoy the fruits of your labor.

Question:

@iamliaaa: Can we use it for make a poetry?

Answer:

Admin: yes, you can use inversion to make a poem. In fact, it is commonly used to make poems. :)

And that’s a wrap! I hope today’s session has been useful for you. Still making mistakes? No worries, it’s part of the learning process. :)

Compiled by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on October 29, 2012