Category Archives: class

#EngClass: Subject complement

Complement is the word added to complete an incomplete sentence.

Subject complement is the word that follow a linking verb and identify or describe the subject.

Linking verb: is, am, are, was, were, appear, become, feel, look, remain, sound, taste, grow, etc.

There are two kinds of subject complements:

  1. If the subject complement is a noun or pronoun, it is a predicate nominative. Predicate nominatives (nouns and pronouns) explain the subject or give another name for the subject.
  2. If the subject complement is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective. Predicate adjective describe the subject.

 

Examples:

  1. Joe is a gourmet.
    • noun subject complement (a gourmet) after verb be (is).
  2. Joe became a gourmet.
    • noun subject complement (a gourmet) after linking verb (became).
  3. The meatballs are delicious.
    • adjective subject complement (delicious) after verb of being (are).
  4. The meatballs taste delicious.
    • adjective subject complement (delicious) after linking verb (taste).

 

Practice:

Task: Find the subject complement.

Hint: look for the linking verb to help you find the subject complement.

1. Ross seems worried.
Ross
‘Ross’ is the subject
seems
‘seems’ is the linking verb
worried
Correct!
2. Some caterpillars become butterflies.
Some caterpillars
‘Some caterpillar’ is the subject
become
‘become’ is the linking verb
butterflies
Correct!
3. You look happy.
You
‘You’ is the subject
look
‘look’ is the linking verb
happy
Correct!
4. The man became furious at the delay.
The man
‘The man’ is the subject
became
‘became’ is the linking verb
furious
Correct!
at the delay
‘at the delay’ is the adverb
4. The man became furious at the delay.
The man
‘The man’ is the subject
became
‘became’ is the linking verb
furious
Correct!
at the delay
‘at the delay’ is the adverb
5. The chlorine in the pool smelled harsh.
The chlorine
‘The chlorine’ is the subject
in the pool
‘in the pool’ is an adverb phrase. In combination with ‘the chlorine’, they form a noun phrase
smelled
‘smelled’ is the linking verb
harsh
Correct!
6. This bread tastes moldy to me.
This bread
‘This bread’ is the subject
tastes
‘tastes’ is the linking verb
moldy
Correct!
to me
‘to me’ is an adverb phrase.

 
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 6, 2016

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

Advertisements

#EngClass: Everybody – Singular or Plural?

Is ‘everybody’ singular or plural? Do you refer to ‘everyone’ with ‘him/her’ or ‘them’?
slide2

Alright alright… Let’s resolve this confusion together, shall we?

First of all; ‘everybody’ is an indefinite pronoun. Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific persons or things. And these are indefinite pronouns:

Somebody

Someone

Something

Everybody

Everyone

Everything

Anybody

Anyone

Anything

Nobody

None

Nothing

We use them to refer to a total number of people, things and places. We write them as one word.

Some indefinite pronouns, despite the illogic, are always singular. One of them is ‘everybody’. In this particular post, we’ll specifically talk about one of the: ‘everybody’.

 

‘Everybody’ in formal English

While ‘everybody’ seems like a plural noun, since it refers to a crowd of people, it is actually a singular subject. It refers to ONE group of people.

slide6

We use ‘everybody’ with singular verbs.

Example:

  • Everybody knows the truth.
    • ‘knows’ is a singular verb

When we want to refer back to ‘everybody’ and we don’t know if it’s a group of males or females, we use ‘him or her’ and ‘his or her’.

Example:

  • Everybody has his or her own desk.
    • ‘his or her’ is a singular pronoun.

Okay. We hereby determine that ‘everybody’ is singular.

slide9

 

‘Everybody’ in informal English

Now, how many of you have HEARD of people referring back to ‘everybody’ by using ‘them‘?

As mentioned above, despite being illogical, it is grammatically correct to treat ‘everybody’ as singular, especially in formal English.

However, when people talk, logic wins, so you will hear plural pronouns such as ‘them’. We use ‘them’ in informal conversations.

Example:

  • Everybody was putting a smile on their face.
    • ‘their’ is a plural pronoun.

slide10

Anyone confused yet? So is ‘everybody’ singular or plural? Let’s clarify things up, shall we?
slide11

I hope that last image helped solve the confusion, fellas. Feel free to mention us or leave a comment if you have any question. We’ll solve it together.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 19, 2016

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngClass: Time related adverb clause

Adverb clauses are subordinate clauses that show relationships between ideas related to time, cause and effect, contrast and condition.

 

Some common used time related adverb clauses:

  1.  After means after that moment. ‘After’ takes the present for future events and the past or past perfect for past events.
    • Example:
      • After she graduates, she will get a job.
  2. Before means before that moment. ‘Before’ takes after the simple past or the present.
    • Example:
      • l left before he came.
  3. When means at the moment, at that time. ‘When’ takes either the simple past or the present. The dependent clause changes tense in relation to the when clause.
    • Example:
      • When I got there, he had already left.

 

There are others time related adverb clauses like while as, by the time, since, until, etc. Okay, why don’t you try some exercises.

Practice:

1. We will finish after he ……….
comes
correct!
came
2. He was talking on the phone when I ……….
arrive
arrived
correct!
3. I will leave before he ……….
comes
correct!
came
4. When I was in Chicago, I ……….. the museums.
visit
visited
correct!
5. When it began to rain, I ………. under the tree.
stand
stood
correct!
6. I washed the dishes when my daughter ………. asleep.
fall
fell
correct!
7. When I ………. him tomorrow, I will ask him.
see
correct!
saw

 

Composed and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 16, 2016

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngClass: Expressing purpose

Heyya, fellas! How did you day go? It’s only the third day of the week but I’ve heard more than enough sad news. So, wherever you are and whatever you do, fellas. Please… stay safe and healthy. And to you who’re having hard times, stay strong.

Enough of the sullen mood. Let’s start today’s session, shall we? Last week, we received a question from @Chifara_. She asked about the differences between ‘so that’, ‘in order to’, and ‘to’. Instead of keeping it to ourselves, why not share it with you too?

There are various ways of expressing purpose in English. We can use: ‘to’,so as to‘, ‘so that‘, or ‘in order (to/that)‘.

These conjunctions are used when we want to show the purpose of an action, to say WHY we did it.

slide2

‘So that’, ‘in order’, ‘so as’, and ‘to’ are used to answer the question of: WHY?

They are known as ‘subordinating conjunctions’. They connect a main (independent) clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause. ‘Subordinating conjunction’ acts as a bridge to connect one clause to another dependent clause.

In today’s session, we’ll talk a little bit more about how to use these subordinating conjunctions.

slide3

A. We use ‘to’ + ‘infinitive’ to show the purpose of an action. 

slide4

‘to’ + ‘infinitive’ is generally used only in affirmative statements.

Examples:

slide5 slide6

 

 

B. We use ‘so as to’ & ‘in order to’ to express purpose.

‘So as to’ and ‘in order to’ is often used interchangeably. In sentence, they are followed by the infinitive verbs.

slide7

Example of ‘so as to’:

slide8

Example of ‘in order to’:

slide9

 

To form a negative statement, NOT is added right before the word TO. Again, it is then followed by the infinitive verb.

slide10

The negative statement expresses that one action will help avoid having to do something else or prevent another thing happening.

Example of ‘so as not to’:

slide11

Example of ‘in order not to’:

slide12

 

 

C. We use ‘so that’ & ‘in order that’ to say that one action makes another action possible.

‘So that’ and ‘in order that’ is generally followed by a modal.

slide13

Example of ‘so that’:

slide14

Example of ‘in order that’:

slide15

 

To form a negative statement, NOT is added right after modal. Again, it is then followed by the infinitive verb.

slide16

Example of ‘so that’ + modal + ‘not:

slide17

Example of ‘in order that’ + MODAL + ‘not’ :

slide18

We’ve now come to the end of today’s session. I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you have any question regarding today’s session, feel free to mention us and ask away.

That’s a wrap, fellas! Thanks for tuning in to today’s session. See you again tomorrow. XOXO

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 12, 2016.


RELATED POST(S):

^MD

#EngClass: Wish or Hope? (Revisit)

Heyya, fellas! A couple of weeks ago, we received a question from @Amelia_Feehily. It’s something which I thought ought to be shared with all of you too.

So, @Amelia_Feehily asked about the difference between Wish and Hope. Let’s talk about it today, shall we?

“Wish” and “Hope” in English are similar, but not exactly the same. In fact, if you translate them to Bahasa Indonesia, both mean “berharap”.

Despite the similar meaning, “Wish” and “Hope” are used in different circumstances. So, when do we use “Wish” and “Hope”?

A. WHEN?

slide2

  • “Wish” often talks about regrets or wants.
  • “Wish” is used to express desire for something that the speaker believes is impossible or unlikely to happen.
  • “Wish” is most commonly used in hypothetical situation or imagination; something that is different from reality.
  • “Hope” often focuses on aspirations.
  • “Hope” is used to express desire for something that the speaker believes is possible in the future.
  • “Hope” specify a desired outcome of future event. Or for past hopes, the outcome has usually been already determined.
  • “Hope” is used when there’s a good chance that something might happen in the future.

Before we move on to the second part of today’s discussion. Here’s something to help you summarize what we’ve discussed so far.

slide3

B. HOW?

slide4

Alright! It is time to talk about how to use “Wish” and “Hope” in a sentence.

1. “Wish” can be paired with a past perfect verb in order to express regret.

slide6 slide5

Click on the following link for guide on how to use a past perfect verb. #EngClass: Past Perfect Tense

2. “Wish” can also be paired with a simple past verb or conditional modal in order to express an unreal present desire.

slide7 slide8 slide9 slide10Click on the following link for guide on how to use a simple past verb. #EngClass: Simple Past Tense

Click on the following link for guide on conditional modals. #EngClass: Conditional 2

3. “Hope” is often used to talk about future events, situations, or actions. For a future meaning, it is paired with simple present tense.

slide11 slide12 slide13

 

Click on the following link for guide on how to use the simple present tense. #EngClass: Simple Present Tense

4. “Hope” can also be used to talk about something that recently happened and will be decided in the future. Here, it is paired with the simple past tense.

slide14

Click on the following link for guide on how to use the simple past tense. #EngClass: Simple Past Tense

5. “Wish” & “hope” can be used in expressing goodwill.

slide16

 

6. “Wish” & “hope” are also used in certain types of requests and pleasantries.

slide17

Here’s something to summarize our discussion on how to use “wish” and “hope”.

slide18

Now, we’ve come to the end of today’s session. I hope the explanation was clear enough and not too boring.

If you still have any other question on how to use “wish” and “hope”, feel free to mention us ;)

That’s a wrap, fellas! Thanks for tuning in to today’s session. See you again tomorrow. XOXO

 

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 5, 2016.

 

Related post: #ENGCLASS: “WISH” VS “HOPE”

 

#EngClass: Conjunction

‘Conjunction’ is a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.

Types of conjunction

There are three types of conjuction:

  • Coordinating conjunctions: ‘for,’ ‘and,’ ‘nor,’ ‘but,’ ‘or,’ ‘yet,’ ‘so.’
  • Correlative conjunctions: ‘either… or…,’ ‘neither… nor…,’ ‘not only… but also…,’ ‘both… and…’
  • Common subordinating conjunctions: ‘after,’ ‘before,’ ‘although,’ ‘though,’ ‘even though,’ ‘as much as,’ ‘as long as,’ ‘as soon as,’ ‘because,’ ‘since,’ ‘so that,’ ‘in order that,’ ‘if,’ ‘even if,’ ‘that,’ ‘unless,’ ‘until,’ ‘whether,’ ‘while.’

Conjunctions and their meanings

  1. ‘Although’/’even though.’ Meaning: it doesn’t matter or make a difference.
    • Example:
      • “Although/Even though I have the money, I won’t buy the shoes.”
  2. ‘And.’ Meaning: non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s); in addition; extra; plus.
    • Example:
      • “I enjoy tea and cookies when I eat a snack.”
  3. ‘Because.’ Meaning: the reason is…
    • Example:
      • “I got wet because I forgot my umbrella.”
  4. ‘But.’ Meaning: a contrast or exception.
    • Example:
      • “They gamble but they don’t smoke.”
  5. ‘Or.’ Meaning: an alternative item or idea.
    • Example:
      • ‘I can’t decide if I want an apple or a banana with my yogurt.”
  6. ‘For.’ Meaning: is almost like because or since; it introduces, in a formal tone, a reason.
    • Example:
      • “He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking since high school.”
  7. ‘Nor.’ Meaning: an alternative negative idea or though.
    • Express:
      • “Brian did not like singing, nor did he like dancing.”
  8. ‘Yet.’ Meaning: a contrary but logical idea will follow
    • Example:
      • “Shelly is a quite yet very outgoing girl.”
  9. ‘So.’ Meaning: suggest that a consequence will follow
    • Example:
      • “He hate to drink milk, so he try to drink soy for breakfast.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 2, 2016

Related post(s):

^MQ

#EngClass: Word Stress

Hi, fellas! Was today a good day? Or perhaps you just went through a stressful day? I hope not, but if you happen to have had a stressful day, how about putting those stressful events behind and learn to put a stress in a word instead? Yes, today we’re going to learn about word stress.

In English, we don’t pronounce every syllable (suku kata) in a word with the same strength. When saying a word, we put a stress (emphasis) in one syllable, and pronounce the other syllable(s) more quietly. Stressing a syllable means we say it a little longer or louder or with a higher pitch than the other syllables.

Every English word has one stressed syllable, and it’s important to stress the right syllable when we speak. Word stress helps the listeners tell one word apart from another. For instance, if you hear two stressed syllables, you hear two words. It helps us understand a speaker who speaks very fast.

Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word difficult to hear, and therefore the listener can’t understand us. Stressing different syllable can even change the meaning of some words. For example, if you stress the first syllable in the word present, it’s a noun that means gift. But if you stress the second syllable (present), it becomes a verb that means to offer.

So how do we know which syllable to stress? Here are some general rules that you can follow:

  1. Stress the first syllable of most two-syllable nouns and adjectives, e.g., table, happy
  2. Stress the last syllable of most two-syllable verbs, e.g., decide, begin
  3. Stress the second-to-last syllable of words that end in –ic, –sion, and –tion, e.g., geographic, expansion, attention
  4. Stress the third-from-last syllable of words that end in –cy, –ty, –phy, –gy, and –al, e.g., democracy, uncertainty, geography, biology, critical

But there are some exceptions and many types of words that are not covered by those rules, so you should check the dictionary to be sure. Different dictionaries have different ways to mark the stressed syllable. Now, take a look at the pronunciation guide below the defined word in your dictionary.

  • Oxford Dictionary and Collins Dictionary: an apostrophe (‘) shows that the following syllable is stressed. Example: prəˈnaʊns means we stress the nounce in pronounce.
  • Dictionary.com: the stressed syllable is marked bold. Example: pruh-nouns

If you think, “I can’t possibly memorize the stressed syllable for every word in the dictionary!” You’re right. Perhaps the best way is to learn by practice. If you practice listening until you’re familiar enough with spoken English, I’m sure you’ve also learned the word stress. You just don’t realize it. Fluent English speakers use word stress all the time without thinking about it. It’s kind of the same way we use intonation in our sentences in Bahasa Indonesia.

So, now that we know that word stress is the key to understanding spoken English, we know why it’s important to learn English by listening. Listening can help you learn to speak English properly so that people understand you better. We actually have some #EngTips for you on that very topic: How to improve your English listening skill.

I hope this post has been useful for you, fellas. Have a good day!

(Source: teachingenglish.org.uk, englishclub.com, dictionary.com, oxforddictionaries.com)

Compiled and written by @fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on September 8, 2016

#EngClass: Common abbreviations in emails

There are numerous abbreviations which you might find in letters, especially those formal ones. Today, we’ll start with some of the most common ones. Let’s start with this blank email.

 

wp-1469852695818.jpg

 

As you would usually do, you type recipient’s mail address at the ‘To’ colom. Let’s say the email is for Eeny.

  1. Cc – carbon copy. This is to say that a copy of the email is also sent to the person(s) mentioned.
  2. Bcc – blind carbon copy. It indicates people who will receive a copy of the message in secret. Other recipients wouldn’t know.

 

wp-1469853185072.jpg

 

  • Example 1 & 2 – Now, have a look at the pic above. It shows that:
    • Meeny also has a copy of the email. And…
    • every other people (Eeny & Meeny) wouldn’t realize that Miny & Mo are in the know too.

 

In emails, ‘cc’ & ‘bcc’ can normally be found at the top part of your emails.On the other hand, in written letters, cc might be positioned at the bottom.

Moving down to the body of the letter/email…

wp-1469853254309.png

  1. Ref – reference, with reference to. It shows which document or piece of information you are talking about.
  • Example 3 – That is a fake reference code… just to point Eeny to the WhatsApp chat they had the night before.

 

  1. ASAP – as soon as possible. If you see this, sender wants something done at the earliest possible time, if not immediately.
  • Example 4 – Here, Etifoyu is urging Eeny to reply promptly, at the earliest time.

 

  1. RSVP – Répondez s’I’ll vous plaît. It basically a request for a respond, in French.
  • Example 5 – Etifoyu expects Eeny to respond soon or latest by Monday, August 1st, 2016.

 

  1. PS – postscriptum, postscript. Its a note added to a letter/email after the writer has signed it.
  • Example 6 – A short note for the recipient.

 

  1. PPS – post postscript, additional postscript. This is for extra notes and positioned after PS. If there’s any, PS & PPS would be found after the writer’s signature.
  • Example 7 – More short note for the recipient.

 

  1. Encl. – enclosed. This shows that something else is being sent with the letter/email. It’s normally placed at the bottom of the letter.
  • Example 8 – This part list out items sent along with the letter/email.

 

wp-1469853521232.jpg

So, here’s what your email should look like now, fellas! And there goes 8 most  common abbreviations in emails.

I hope you find the explanations & graphics clear enough. If you have any question regarding today’s session, feel free to ask away!

 

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 31 July, 2016

 

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngTips: What to prepare for a job interview

interview-tips-advice-Kenya

Some of you, by now, might have done some preps to resign from your job and hope to start a new venture next year. Well, we have discussed some strategies to resign from a job – you may see them here #EngTips: How to resign. This time, we’d like to prepare you for a job interview. Here are some tips that we have compiled for you.

Before the interview

  1. Sleep well to have a fresh mind in the morning.
  2. Get a haircut, shave (for men), or have some hair treatment (for women). They will add up a bit of your confidence.
  3. Clean your shoes, and iron your clothes, make sure they are wrinkle-free.
  4. Plan your trip. Go on google map to find the location and allocate enough time to travel. Don’t be late!
  5. Read carefully the desired qualifications and peruse thoroughly your CV to know how well you fit the position.
  6. Manage your CV; the succinct the better.
  7. Organize your files. Have a folder to bundle them all. Don’t include the files which are irrelevant.
  8. Get to know the company by researching its profile and culture. The culture will also determine how you should dress in the interview.
  9. Plan the answers for the most common questions. Some of the questions are:
    • “Tell me about yourself.”
    • “Talk me through your CV.”
    • “What are your strengths and weaknesses?”
    • “Why are you looking for a new venture?”
    • “What are you doing at the current company and what have you achieved?”

During the interview

There are some important things that you need to do:

  1. Be confident. Draw your smile from the doorstep, greet the interviewer, and have a firm (not strong) handshake. Sit when you are welcome.
  2. Listen to the questions attentively and show enthusiasm.
  3. When asked, provide detail answers. Don’t forget to supply examples.
  4. Clearly state your interest and plan for the future.
  5. Think how you may contribute to the company advancement.
  6. Watch your diction. Use polite and formal language.

After the interview

You may send an email of gratitude to the company for having you for the interview.

Source:

Compiled and written by @wisznu at @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, December 17, 2015

Related post(s):

^MQ

#EngClass: Correlative Conjunction

Today’s #EngClass will be about an important detail that you need to pay attention to when creating a sentence: Correlative Conjunction (CC).

CC connects 2 equal grammatical items.

Meaning? If within a sentence you used a noun before ‘either’ then you should also use a noun after ‘or’.

Here are some examples of CC as compiled by The Yuniversity:

  
The equal nature of the parts is called “parallelism.”

Let’s take a look at examples:

1. My boyfriend is both handsome and loyal. <— ‘Handsome’ and ‘loyal’ are both adjectives

2. Today, we will either read a book or watch a movie. <— ‘Read’ and ‘watch’ are both verbs.

3. She likes neither to exercise nor to go out. <— ‘To exercise’ and ‘to go out’ are both Infinite Verb.

So we cannot say “My boyfriend is both loyal and he is also very handsome.”

Or “Today we will either read a book or watching a movie.”

Or even “She likes neither to exercise nor go out” because ‘go out’ is a Bare Infinitive Verb without the ‘to’. 

So whenever you are writing a sentence with CC, always make sure that they are parallel with each other.

Source: The Yuniversity

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 9 August 2015.

#EngClass: Reciprocal Pronoun

Let’s start today’s session by looking at this picture:

  
Do you think the kittens are attacking each other, or attacking one another?

@ririnceu: each other

@Hearmason: attacking one another

To answer this question correctly, first we need to understand the concept of Reciprocal Pronoun (RP).

RP is when two or more subjects are doing the same thing, at the same time. 

For example, A is doing something to B, whilst B is also doing something to A.

In the English language, there are two known RPs: Each Other and One Another.

In the Indonesian language, they can be translated as “saling …”

What’s the difference between Each Other and One Another? The answer is very simple.

We use Each Other when there are two subjects involved (terlibat).

  
We use One Another when there are more than two subjects involved.

  
So the answer to the question will be like this: The kittens are attacking each other.

However, many linguists have dissenting opinion (pendapat bertentangan) about the difference between the two.

Some believes that you can use Each Other and One Another for more than 2 subjects.

But generally they agreed that we use Each Other when there are only 2 subjects.

So, Each Other can be used for both, whilst One Another can only be used for more than 2 subjects.

Source: Quick and Dirty Tips, British Council English learning page

Image: Warren Photographic, dreamstime.com

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 2 August 2015.

#EngClass #EngQuiz: do vs. make

Today I would like to share a tiny bit of knowledge about grammar. But first of all, help me fill in the gap with “do” or “make”.

Fill in the gap with “do” or “make”:

  1. Can you ___ the housework, please?
  2. Hmm.. The story doesn’t ___ sense.

Correct! Very good! :) “: 1. Can you “do” the housework, please? 2. Hmm.. The story doesn’t “make” sense.

And.. How about this one:

Have you made/ done your homework? In bahasa Indonesia: Apa kamu sudah membuat PR?

Yes, you are right. :) “: Have you done your homework?

So, how do you know if the answer is do or make? What is the difference between the two of them?

Both “do” and “make” are general verbs that can be followed by a noun or noun phrase describing some object or action.

The difference: “Do” means “perform a action or activity”. Examples: do it, do good, do homework, do the washing, do a project.

While: “Make” means “bring into existence”, “produce some result”. Examples: make some tea, make mistakes, make bed, make peace.

Let’s do this exercise to check our understanding. :) The instruction: fill in the gap with “do” or “make”.

QUESTIONS

  1. Don’t forget to ___ the dishes after you finish your dinner.
  2. It’s difficult to ___ a living with this kind of economy.
  3. Psst. I have to ___ some talking with these people to calm them down.
  4. Are you hungry? No worries. I’ll ___ you a meal.
  5. You failed in the last interview. You have to ___ better in the next one.
  6. Can you please ___ a copy of this proposal? Thanks a lot.
  7. You can start without me. I have to ___ some work.
  8. Listen. I want to ___ a point here.
  9. I’m sorry, I can ___ nothing about it.
  10. I should ___ a phone call to cancel that order.

So, what do you think of the ? Easy, right? Let’s check your answers. :)

ANSWERS

  1. Do
  2. Make
  3. Do
  4. Make
  5. Do
  6. Make
  7. Do
  8. Make
  9. Do
  10. Make

Source: An A – Z of English Grammar & Usage by Geoffrey Leech et al.

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on October 26, 2014

#GrammarTrivia: Verb + Preposition (‘About’ and ‘Of’)

This time, I’d like to talk about grammar. In particular, we’ll talk about: Verb + Preposition (‘About’ and ‘Of’).

Some verbs can be followed by either ‘about’ or ‘of.’ Each pairing usually gives different meaning from the other.

  1. ‘Dream about’ vs. ‘dream of’
    • Dream about. Example:
      • “I dreamt about you last night.” (when I was asleep).
    • Dream of being something. Meaning: imagine. Example:
      • “I dream of being rich.”
  2. ‘Hear about’ vs. ‘Hear of’
    • Hear about. Meaning: be told about something. Example:
      • “Did you hear about the fight club last night?”
    • Hear of. Meaning: know that somebody/something exists. Example:
      • “I have never heard of Tom Madley. Who is he?”
  3. ‘Remind about’ vs. ‘Remind of’
    • Remind somebody about. Meaning: tell somebody not to forget. Example:
      • “I’m glad you remind me about the meeting.”
    • Remind somebody of. Meaning: cause somebody to remember. Example:
      • “This house reminds me of my childhood.”
  4. ‘Complain about’ vs. ‘Complain of’
    • Complain (to somebody) about. Meaning: say that you are not satisfied. Example:
      • “We complained to the manager about the service.
    • Complain of a pain, illness, etc. Meaning: say that you have a pain. Example:
      • “George was complaining of a pain in his stomach.”
  5. ‘Warn about’ vs. ‘Warn of’
    • Warn somebody of/about a danger. Example:
      • “Everybody has been warned of/about the dangers of smoking.”
    • Warn somebody about something dangerous, unusual, etc. Example:
      • “Vicky warned us about the traffic.”

Source:

  • English Grammar in Use (Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press).

 

Compiled by @aditriasmara at @EnglishTips4U on Monday, October 13, 2014

Related post(s):

^MQ

#GrammarTrivia: Verb + Preposition (For or From)

In this post, I’d like to talk about grammar. In particular, I’ll talk about ‘Verb + Preposition (For or From)’. Here we go!

Verb + For

Pairing examples:

  • Apply for,
  • Ask for,
  • Care for,
  • Prepare for.

Study the following examples:

  • “I applied for the job but unfortunately I didn’t get it.”
  • “How do you ask for a cup of hot coffee here?”
  • “Jane spent many years caring for her aged parents.”
  • “I can’t go out tonight because I have to prepare for my exam.”

Verb + From

Pairing examples:

  • Protect from,
  • Recover from,
  • Suffer from.

Study the following examples:

  • “This lotion should protect you from mosquitoes.”
  • “Have you recovered from your illness yet?”
  • “I suffer from fever.”

Source:

  • English Grammar in Use (Raymond Murphy, Cambridge University Press)
  • British Council.

 

Compiled by @aditriasmara at @EnglishTips4U on Monday, October 6, 2014

 

Related post(s):

^MQ

#GrammarTrivia: ‘You and I’ or ‘You and Me’?

“What’s the difference between ‘you and I’ and ‘you and me’? Can I use them interchangeably?”

Raise your hands if you’ve been asking the same question. I know I did. hands up After some research, I finally understand that the two are being used differently. Here is how they differ:

‘U & I’ as subjects can be replaced by ‘we’ whilst ‘U & me’ as objects can be replaced by ‘us.’ They can’t be used interchangeably. – @cherryadnan

That’s right. We must first distinguish Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns.

Subject Pronouns and Object Pronouns

Subject Pronouns are the ones doing the action in sentences. List of subject pronouns:

  • I
  • You
  • He
  • She
  • It
  • We
  • They

While Object Pronouns are the ones receiving the action. List of object pronouns:

  • Me
  • You
  • Him
  • Her
  • It
  • Us
  • Them.

‘You and I’ or ‘You and me’

A. To decide whether it’s ‘you and I’ or ‘you and me,’ then see if it plays the role of a subject or object in the sentence.

Example:

  • You and I got to stay for a while and see if we are going to see tomorrow.” (from that Graham Coxon song)
    • “You and I” is the subject in the sentence.
  • “The teacher should give you and me an equal treatment.”
    • “You and me” is the object in the sentence.

Important note: Never use ‘you and I’ at the end of a sentence, never use ‘you and me’ at the beginning of a sentence.

B. Another way to determine whether it is ‘I’ or ‘me’ – Check the prepositions!

  • Prepositions: At-For-With-By-To-From-Between … and many more that are most likely end with Object Pronouns!

Extra – #EngVocab:

  • Interchangeably. Arti: bisa dipakai bergantian, jadi arti dan penggunaannya sama saja
  • Equal treatment. Arti: diperlakukan sama.

Source:

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, September 28, 2014

Related post(s):

^MQ

#EngVocab: Phrasal Verb “Pass”

Hiyya, fellas! It seems we haven’t discussed phrasal verbs in a long time. Let’s talk about phrasal verbs with the word “Pass”.

To refresh your memory, “phrasal verb” is a combination of verb & preposition which gives a new meaning. Read more here:  #EngTrivia: Sentence, clause, phrase, phrasal verb, idiom, proverb, quote & slang

Sebagai kata kerja (verb), “pass” bisa berarti:
(a) lulus,
contoh: I passed the test.
Aku lulus ujian.
(b) melewati,
contoh: She passes my house on her way to school every morning.
Dia lewat depan rumahku saat ke sekolah setiap pagi.
(c) mengoper, memindahkan,
contoh: Can you pass the salt, please?
Bisa tolong oper (botol) garam itu?

Ayo kita lihat perubahan artinya saat k.kerja “pass” diikuti dengan beberapa “kata keterangan (preposition)” berikut ini: …

1. Pass + away : to pass out of existence, to die, meninggal.
Contoh: Gran passed away a few years ago of old age.
*…meninggal beberapa tahun lalu…*

2. Pass + for : to be accepted as, to believed to be, dikira, dipercaya.
Contoh: You could easily pass for a teenager without makeup.
*…dikira seorang ABG…*

3. Pass + off :
(a) to offer/sell an imitation as genuin, menjual benda palsu sebagai benda asli.
Contoh: He was caught for passing off glass as a gemstone.
*…jual kaca seolah itu batu permata…*
(b) to present someone as other than what he/she is, berpura-pura.
Contoh: He tried to pass himself off as a banker.
* …pura-pura menjadi seorang bankir. *

4. Pass + out : to lose consciousness, pingsan.
Contoh: She passed out on the first day of fasting.
*…pingsan di hari pertama puasa.* 

5. Pass + over: to leave out; disregard, mengabaikan.
Contoh: Let’s pass over what he said and go home.
*…abaikan kata-katanya dan pulang saja.*

6. Pass + up: to let go by; reject, membiarkan lepas, menolak.
Contoh: My boss just offered an opportunity too good to pass up.
*…kesempatan yg terlalu bagus untuk dilepaskan.*

And that’s a wrap for today, fellas! For more phrasal verbs, head to: Collection of Phrasal Verb

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on July 17, 2014

#EngClass: subject-verb agreement using the expressions of quantity

Before we start I have 2 questions. Fill in the gap with is/ are:

1. Some of the kids ___ hungry.

2. One of the books ___ stolen.

Correct! Do you know why? “: 1. Some of the kids ARE hungry.  2. One of the books IS stolen. OK, great! :) “: karena some itu “beberapa”, yang berarti jamak. Dan one itu satu yang berarti tunggal?”

Hmm.. It seems the questions were too easy for you. 2 more then:

3. Some of the student ___ nice.

4. All the equipment ___ new.

Correct! Do you know why? :) “: 3. is 4. is” Well done! :) “: both of them have singular subjects so the verbs must be singular too.”

Today’s topic is actually about subject-verb agreement using the expressions of quantity.

1. In most expressions of quantity, the verb is determined by the noun or pronoun that follows of. For example:

  1. Some of the book is good. (the noun is “book” = singular)
  2. Some of the books are good. (the noun is “books” = plural)
  3. A lot of the equipment is new. (equipment = uncountable noun = singular)
  4. A lot of my friends are nice. (friends = plural)
  5. Two-thirds of the money is mine. (money = uncountable n. = singular)
  6. Two-thirds of the pennies are mine. (pennies = plural).

2. “One of”, “each of”, and “every one of” are exceptions. They all take singular verbs. Example: One of the books is stolen.

3. Subjects with “none of” are considered singular in very formal English, but plural verbs are used in informal speech/writing. For example:

  1. None of the kids is here. (formal)
  2. None of the kids are here. (informal)

4. “The number” is followed by plural noun and takes singular verb. Example: The number of students is twenty.

5. While “a number” is followed by plural noun and takes plural verb. Example: A number of students are in the class.

Source: Understanding and Using English Grammar Second Edition by Betty Schrampfer Azar

Compiled and written by @NenoNeno at @EnglishTips4U on March 31, 2014

#EngClass: Either

Hello hello, fellas! Siapa ya yang kemarin kapan nanya soal Either? Yuk kita bahas di #EngClass hari ini.

Sebelumnya, penggunaan EITHER juga pernah kita bahas di dua sesi sebelumnya. Let’s do a quick recap, shall we?

RECAP 1.

“either .. or ..” menyatakan alternatif atau dua pilihan, yaitu “ini atau itu”. Digunakan pada kalimat yang bermakna positif.

Selengkapnya baca: #EngClass: “Either … Or …” VS “Nither … Nor …”

RECAP 2.
“Either” digunakan digunakan dalam kalimat negatif, untuk menyatakan kesamaan negatif.

Selengkapnya baca: #EngClass: Also, Too, Either 

Now, saatnya kita teliti lebih jauh soal penggunaan kata EITHER. Siap? :D

1. EITHER bisa dibaca “ider” atau “eider”, tergantung aksen yg digunakan. AmE umumnya menyebut “ider”, BrE umumnya menyebut “eider”.

2. EITHER berarti yg satu atau yg lainnya. EITHER diikuti dengan kata benda tunggal.
Contoh: I don’t plan to choose either ONE OF THEM. *gak berencana milih yg ini ataupun yg itu*

3. Gunakan EITHER OF sebelum kata ganti atau kata tunjuk, setelahnya gunakan kata benda/kata ganti jamak.
Contoh: She refused to marry either of THE MEN. *menolak menikahi pria yg ini ataupun yg itu*
Contoh: She refused to marry either of THEM. *menolak menikahi si dia ataupun si dia*

4. Kata ganti yg umumnya digunakan setelah EITHER OF adalah us (kami) atau them (mereka).
Contoh: There are two men at the front desk. Give this to either of THEM. *berikan pada sembarang satu dari mereka*
Contoh: Jill and I will be there. You can ask for either of US. *sembarang satu dari kami.*

5. Setelah 1 pernyataan negative, gunakan EITHER untuk menyatakan kesamaan negative lainnya.
Contoh: I know you DON’T like me. I DON’T like you either. *kamu gak suka aku. Aku gak suka kamu juga.*
Contoh: Mom ISN’T here. Dad ISN’T here either. *Mama gak di sini. Papa gak di sini juga*
Coba perhatikan dua kalimat contoh diatas, posisi EITHER, menurut poin ini, ada di belakang. *baca kembali poin ini*

6. Kalau “Neither” pasangannya “Nor”, maka “Either” pasangannya “Or”.
“Either … or …” = “… atau ...”, ada 2 pilihan. Pasangan ini digunakan pada kalimat positif.
Contoh: I’m buying one for you. You can have EITHER this OR that. *yang ini atau yang itu*

Also read #EngClass: Neither (Part 2)

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on April 17, 2014