Category Archives: class

#EngVocab: Suffix -Let

Suffix -let is one of many suffixes in English. It originated from Old French -elet, from Latin -āle, a neuter of adjective suffix -ālis, or from Latin -ellus, a diminutive suffix.

Adding suffix -let to a noun will create a diminutive form to the original word. For example, if we attach -let to book, we will have booklet, which means a little or a thinner book.

With an exception to bracelet, which is also a diminutive form of brace, different meanings apply to some jewelries or articles of clothing attached to our body. In such cases, attaching -let will refer to the part of our body on which the jewelries are usually worn. For example, an anklet is an ornament worn on the ankle.

There are three basic rules of using suffix -let. First, when used with an object, it generally indicates diminution in size. E.g.: Booklet, pamphlet, droplet, bracelet, etc.

When used with animals, it generally means young animals. E.g.: Piglet, froglet, deerlet, etc.

When used to refer to a human adult, it is generally depreciative. It denotes pettiness and conveys contempt. For example, princelet is used to refer to a prince who is lesser in rank or displays pettiness (narrow-mindedness).

There are over 200 words with suffix -let. Check your dictionaries often to familiarise yourself with them.

 

Source:
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/-let
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/-let
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-let
Compiled and written by @alicesaraswati for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, 10 April 2017.

 

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#EngClass: Participial adjective – Comparative and superlative

Hello hey ho, fellas! Still following our previous discussion on ‘participial adjective’, we will talk about stating degrees of comparison.

Degrees of comparison are used when we compare one thing/person with another. There are three degrees of comparison:

  • positive,
  • comparative, and
  • superlative.

Comparative degree of comparison

Let’s start with the comparative degree. The comparative degree is used to compare
two persons or things having the same quality.

To form the comparative degree of adjectives, we usually add -er to adjective with two or less syllables. Example:

  • Taller
  • Lighter
  • Nicer

However, when forming the comparative degree of participial adjectives, we use the
word ‘more.’ Example:

Participial adjective

Comparative

Boring

More boring

Bored

More bored

Tiring

More tiring

Tired

More tired

Alarming

More alarming

Alarmed

More alarmed

 

More example:

Participial adjective

WRONG

Comparative

Relaxing

relaxinger

more relaxing

Relaxed

relaxeder

more relaxed

Interesting

interestinger

more interesting

Interested

interesteder

more interested

Confusing

confusinger

more confusing

Confused

confuseder

more confused

Superlative degree of comparison

Moving on to the superlative degree of adjective. Superlative degree denotes the existence of the highest degree of the quality. The superlative degree of adjective is used to single out one person or thing from all the rest.

To form the superlative degree of adjectives, we usually add ‘-est’ to adjective with
two or less syllables. Example:

  • Tallest
  • Lightest
  • Nicest

However, when forming the superlative degree of participial adjectives, we use the
word ‘most.
Example:

Participial adjective

Superlative

Boring

Most boring

Bored

Most bored

Tiring

Most tiring

Tired

Most tired

Alarming

Most alarming

Alarmed

Most alarmed

More example:

Participial adjective

WRONG

Comparative

Relaxing

relaxingest

Most relaxing

Relaxed

relaxedest

Most relaxed

Interesting

interestingest

Most interesting

Interested

interestedest

Most interested

Confusing

confusingest

Most confusing

Confused

confusedest

Most confused

 

That’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you have any question on the topic, feel free to leave a message in the comment box.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, April 8, 2017

 

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#EngClass: Participial adjective (3)

One of our followers asked the question above on Twitter. Do you have a similar question? Do you get confused as to when you should use present or past participle adjective? Kalau kamu masih tulis/bilang: “I’m interesting” saat mau menyatakan “Saya tertarik,” yuk baca lagi artikel ini sampai selesai.

Participle adjectives are verbs, often ends in -ing and -ed, which are used as adjectives.  There are two types of participles: present participles (v-ing) and past participles (v2). Example:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

Bored

Relaxing

Relaxed

Tiring

Tired

Confusing

Confused

Exciting

Excited

We use present particular adjectives (v-ing) to talk about person, thing, or situation which caused the feeling. Example:

  • “I am boring.”
    • “Aku membosankan, aku menimbulkan rasa bosan.”
  • “They are confusing.”
    • “Mereka membingungkan, mereka menimbulkan kebingungan.”
  • “The book is exciting.”
    • “Bukunya menarik. Bukunya membuat orang tertarik.”

We use past participle adjectives (v2) to talk about how someone feels. Example:

  • “I am bored.”
    • “Aku merasa bosan. Yang kurasakan adalah bosan.”
  • “They are confused.”
    • “Mereka kebingungan. Yang mereka rasakan adalah bingung.”
  • “She is very excited.”
    • “Dia sangat bersemangat. Yang dia rasakan adalah semangat.”

If we were to compare the two side by side:

Present participle

Past participle

Penyebab perasaan

Perasaan yang dirasa

[Me- -kan]

[ter-], [ke- -an]

Entertaining

Entertained

Menghibur

Merasa terhibur

More examples:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

(Membosankan)

Bored

(Merasa bosan)

Relaxing

(Membuat santai)

Relaxed

(Merasa santai)

Tiring

(Melelahkan)

Tired

(Merasa lelah)

Confusing

(Membingungkan)

Confused

(Merasa bingung)

Exciting

(Menarik)

Excited

(Merasa tertarik)

So, what do you think? I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you still have any question, feel free to leave a comment down below, or you can also mention us on twitter.

How about having a short quiz to see how well you understand the explanation given above? Look at these sentences and choose the correct answer.

  1. I was really (boring/bored) during the lecture. It was really (boring/bored).
  2. I bought a really (interesting/interested) book last night. If you’re (interesting/interested), I can lend it to you.
  3. I heard an (alarming/alarmed) noise last night, and it kept me (alarming/alarmed) all night.

Answer:

  1. bored; boring.
  2. interesting; interested.
  3. alarming; alarmed.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, March 22, 2017

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#EngClass: Modal verb – Can

We’ve talked about “may” and “must” in previous posts. If you happen to miss them, check these out:

“Can” is commonly used to express:

  • Ability
  • Possibility
  • Permission

“Can” is only used in the present tense. In the past tense, we use “could”. We will talk about “could” in another instance.

 

When to use “can”?

We use the modal “can” to make statements about:

slide9

  1. In statements about ability.
    • Example:
      • I can sing.
  2. In statements about possibility.
    • Example:
      • It can get very crowded on holidays.
  3. In statements about offer.
    • Example:
      • Can I help you?
  4. In statements about permission.
    • Example:
      • Can I ask you a question?
  5. In statements about instruction and request.
    • Example:
      • Can you listen to me please?
  6. In statements about prohibition.
    • Example:
      • You can’t smoke in the building.
  7. In statements about impossibility.
    • Example:
      • It can’t be true. I just met her yesterday.

 

How to use “can”?

slide11

Next, we’ll talk about how to use “can” in a sentence.

  • Like every other modal verb, “can” is followed by a bare infinitive verb.
  • To form a negative sentence, “not” is slipped in between “can” and the bare infinitive verb. The negative sentence expresses prohibition and impossibility.

 

  1. “Can” in statements about ability.
    • Example:
      • (+) I can sing.
      • (-) I can’t sing.
      • (?) Can you sing?
  2. “Can” in statements about possibility.
    • Example:
      • (+) It can get very crowded on holidays.
      • (-) It can’t get crowded even on holidays.
      • (?) Can it get crowded on holidays?
  3. “Can” in statements about offer.
    • Example:
      • (+) I can help you.
      • (-) I can’t help you.
      • (?) Can I help you?
  4. “Can” in statements about permission.
    • Example:
      • (+) You can ask me anything.
      • (-) You can’t ask me.
      • (?) Can I ask you a question?
  5. “Can” in statements about instruction and request.
    • Example:
      • (+) Can you stay still!
      • (?) Can you listen to me please?
  6. “Can” in statements about prohibition.
    • Example:
      • (-) You can’t smoke in the building.
      • (-) We can’t park at the entrance.
  7. “Can” in statements about impossibility.
    • Example:
      • (-) It can’t be true. I just met her yesterday.

 

Prohibition

Prohibition is a negative permission. It is stated with a negative statement. To state a prohibition, we use “can’t” or “cannot”.

Subject + can + not + verb

Example:

  • You cannot meet her.
    • Meaning: You are not allowed to meet her.

Stating impossibility

To state the impossible, we use a negative statement.  When stating the impossible, we add “not” after “can”.

Subject + can + not + verb

Example:

  • You can’t be serious. I don’t believe you.
    • Meaning: What you’re saying is impossible.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, February 1, 2017


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#EngClass: Modal verb – May

In this particular session/post, we’ll talk about “may”. It is one of many modal verbs which modify main verbs. Modal verbs are often used to express an opinion or attitude about a possible fact or to control a possible action.

Modal verbs either show:

  • a decision on how certain something is (a speculation or prediction about a fact, talk about degrees of certainty, possibility, likelihood)
  • the desire to control an action (give or refuse permission, talk about obligation and necessity)

When to use “may”?

“May” is most commonly used to express possibility. Other than that, “may” is also used for the following purposes:

slide9

  1. To express future possibility.
    • Example:
      • She is very smart. I think she may get the scholarship.
  2. To give permission.
    • Example:
      • You may go out now that your homework is done.(Present)
      • You may go out after your homework is done. (Future)
  3. To ask for permission.
    • Example:
      • May I stay overnight?
  4. To talk about typical occurrences.
    • Example:
      • You may find it difficult if you drink coffee in the evening.
  5. To speculate about past actions. 
    • Example:
      • She is late. I think she may have overslept.
  6. To express wishes.
    • Example:
      • May all your wishes come true.

How to use “may”?

slide10

  • In an interrogative sentence, “may” is placed up front and followed by subject and verb.
  • To form a negative sentence, “not” is placed after the word “may”.
  • In a sentence, “may” is placed after subject and before verb.
  1. To express future possibility.
    • Example:
      •  (+) She is very smart. I think she may get the scholarship.
      • (-) I think she may not get the scholarship.
  2. To give permission.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may go out now that your homework is done.(Present)
      • (-) You may not go out. Your homework is not done.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may go out after your homework is done. (Future)
      • (-) You may not go out even after your homework is done.
  3. To ask for permission.
    • Example:
      • (?) May I stay overnight?
  4. To talk about typical occurrences.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may find it difficult to sleep if you drink coffee in the evening.
      • (-) You may not find it difficult to sleep if you drink milk.
  5. To speculate about past actions.
    • Example:
      • (+) She is late. I think she may have overslept.
      • (-) She arrived looking tired. I think she may not have overslept.

Speculating past action

slide17

“May” can also be used to form a past tense sentence to express past possibility.

  • To express past possibility, “may” is followed by “have” and past participle (verb3).
    • Example:
      • She may have been waiting in the rain. She was feverish.
  • To form a negative sentence when talking about past possibility, “not” is placed right after “may”.
    • Example:
      • She may not have been waiting in the rain. Her clothes were dry.

Giving permission in the past

slide20

To express giving permission in the past, we do not use “may”. Instead, we use “be allowed to“. Both are synonymous, except “be allowed to” can be used to give permission in the present, past and future.

  • When we talk about giving permission in the past, “be allowed to” is positioned after subject and followed by an infinitive verb. And since we’re talking a past event, we use “was” or “were”.
    • Example:
      • He was allowed to go on a holiday.
  • To form a negative sentence when talking about giving permission in the past, “not” is slipped in right after “was/were”.
    • Example:
      • He was not allowed to go on a holiday.
  • To form an interrogative sentence when talking about giving permission in the past, “was/were” is placed up front followed by the subject, “allowed to” and the infinitive verb.
    • Example:
      • Was he allowed to go on a holiday?

Feel free to ask if you have any question in relation to “may”. Simply drop a comment down below or contact us on Twitter.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, January 18, 2017


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#EngClass: Direct and indirect object

In this post, we are going to learn about what direct object and indirect object are, and how to identify and use them in a sentence.

Direct object

A direct object is a noun, a phrase, or a pronoun that follows a transitive verbA simple sentence containing a transitive verb and a direct object usually follows this formula:

  subject + transitive verb + direct object
  • Example:
    Sally buys a watch.

Sally

buys

a watch

subject

transitive verb

direct object

A direct object answers the question “what?” or “who?” in a sentence. The direct object in the example sentence above answers the question, “What does Sally buy?”

Indirect object

Pay attention to this sentence:

Evan gives his mother a gift.

“Evan” is the subject, “gives” is the transitive verb, but which is the direct object “his mother” or “a gift”? Let’s identify the direct object by asking the question “What does Evan give?” The answer is, “Evan gives a gift,” not “Evan gives his mother.”

So what is the role of “his mother” in that sentence? Yup, you guessed it, fellas, “his mother” acts as the indirect object of that sentence.

The indirect object of a sentence is the recipient of the direct object. It always comes between a transitive verb and a direct object. If a sentence contains an indirect object, it usually follows this formula:

  subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object 

An indirect object answers the question “to what/whom” or “for what/whom” an action is done. Let’s ask, “To whom Evan gives the gift?” The answer would be, “to his mother”. You can also see in the example sentence that “his mother” comes between the verb and the direct object. So, that is how you identify that “his mother” is the indirect object of that sentence.

An indirect object is basically a prepositional phrase in which the preposition “to” or “for” is not stated. If a sentence contains an indirect object, you can reform it following this formula:

  subject + transitive verb + direct object + to/for indirect object

So, you can also modify the example sentence into this form:

Evan gives a gift to his mother.

This modification is useful when the direct object is a pronoun instead of a noun. For example, you might say, “My sister doesn’t use her blue purse anymore, so she handed me it,” because you want to follow the first formula.

she

handed me it
subject transitive verb indirect object

direct object

You follow a valid formula, but that sentence sounds a little weird, doesn’t it, fellas? That’s when the second formula can be useful to smooth out your sentence so that it sounds more natural.

You can modify that sentence like this, “My sister don’t use her blue purse anymore, so she handed it to me.” Now the sentence sounds more natural and can be easily understood.

she

handed it to me
subject transitive verb direct object

prepositional phrase

So now you know what direct object and indirect object are, how to identify them, and how to form a sentence using both types of object. Understanding these grammar terms also helps you deal with grammar more easily in the future.

 

Compiled and written by @Fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, January 12, 2016

 

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#EngClass: Non-count nouns

In this article, we will learn about non-count nouns. Most non-count nouns refer to a ‘whole’ that is made up of different parts.

Many nouns can be used as either non-count or count nouns, but the meaning is different. Examples:

  • Non-count: Anna has brown hair.
  • Count: Tim has a hair on his jacket.

To express a particular quantity, some non-count nouns may be preceded by unit expressions. For example:

  • a spoonful of sugar,
  • a glass of water,
  • a cup of coffee,
  • a quart of milk,
  • a loaf of bread,
  • a grain of rice,
  • a bowl of soup,
  • a bag of flour,
  • a pound of meat,
  • a piece of furniture,
  • a piece of paper,
  • a piece of jewelry.

The following are typical of nouns which are commonly used as non-count nouns:

  1. Whole groups made up of similar items:
    • baggage, clothing, equipment, food, fruit, furniture, garbage, hardware, jewelry, junk, luggage, machinery, mail, makeup, money/cash/change, postage, scenery, traffic, etc.
  2. Fluids:
    • water, coffee, tea, milk, oil, soup, gasoline, blood, etc.
  3. Solids:
    • ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, gold, iron, silver, glass, paper, wood, cotton, wool, etc.
  4. Gases:
    • steam, air, oxygen, nitrogen, smog, smoke, pollution, etc.
  5. Particles:
    • rice, chalk, corn, dirt, dust, flour, grass, hair, pepper, salt, sand, sugar, wheat, etc.
  6. Abstractions:
    • beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment, fun, happiness, health, advice, information, news, time, space, energy, homework, work, grammar, vocabulary, etc.
  7. Languages:
    • Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish, etc.
  8. Fields of study:
    • chemistry, engineering, history, literature, mathematics, psychology, dentistry, etc.
  9. General activities:
    • driving, studying, swimming, traveling, walking, etc.
  10. Recreation:
    • baseball, soccer, tennis, chess, poker, etc.
  11. Natural phenomena:
    • weather, dew, fog, hail, heat, humidity, lightning, rain, sleet, snow, thunder, wind, darkness, light, sunshine, electricity, fire, gravity, etc.

 

Should you have any comment or question regarding this topic, feel free to leave a message in the comment box down below.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 4,  2016

 

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#EngClass: Transitive and intransitive verbs

In this post, we will talk about transitive and intransitive verb and how those two differ. Let’s cut to the chase!

Transitive Verb

A transitive verb requires an object.

Example:

“I carry a stick.”

In the sentence above, carry is the transitive verb and a stick is the noun that acts as the object in that sentence. The object following the transitive verb can be a noun, phrase, or pronoun that is affected by the action of the verb. It always answers the question “What?” – What do I carry? I carry a stick.  Using a transitive verb without an object will make an incomplete sentence – simply saying “I carry” without an object would not make sense.

Quickanddirtytips.com has a tip for remembering the name of the verb: think of a transitive verb as transferring their action to the object.

Intransitive Verb

An intransitive verb don’t have a direct object receiving the action. It can be followed by an adverb or a prepositional phrase, but it can never be followed by a noun.

Example:

“He sits.”

The sentence is complete without an object. Therefore, sit is an intransitive verb.

“He sits” can be followed by a prepositional phrase such as “on a wooden chair”. But using a noun immediately after the verb, e.g., “He sits a wooden chair” would make an incorrect sentence because the verb can’t take an object.

However, many verbs can be both transitive or intransitive, depending on what follows them in the sentence. In one sentence, a verb may require an object, while in others it does not require an object. A few examples of verb that can be transitive and intransitive: run, play, return.

“She runs across the street.”

In the sentence above, run acts as an intransitive verb because across the street is a prepositional phrase.

“Dad runs a stationery shop.”

Run is a transitive verb in this sentence because a stationery shop is a noun that acts as the object.

If we confuse transitive and intransitive verb, our sentence may be incomplete or incorrect. Therefore, it helps to know the difference between those two kinds of verb and how to use them in a sentence.

References:

Compiled and written by @Fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, November 10, 2016

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#EngClass: Subject complement

Complement is the word added to complete an incomplete sentence.

Subject complement is the word that follow a linking verb and identify or describe the subject.

Linking verb: is, am, are, was, were, appear, become, feel, look, remain, sound, taste, grow, etc.

There are two kinds of subject complements:

  1. If the subject complement is a noun or pronoun, it is a predicate nominative. Predicate nominatives (nouns and pronouns) explain the subject or give another name for the subject.
  2. If the subject complement is an adjective, it is a predicate adjective. Predicate adjective describe the subject.

 

Examples:

  1. Joe is a gourmet.
    • noun subject complement (a gourmet) after verb be (is).
  2. Joe became a gourmet.
    • noun subject complement (a gourmet) after linking verb (became).
  3. The meatballs are delicious.
    • adjective subject complement (delicious) after verb of being (are).
  4. The meatballs taste delicious.
    • adjective subject complement (delicious) after linking verb (taste).

 

Practice:

Task: Find the subject complement.

Hint: look for the linking verb to help you find the subject complement.

1. Ross seems worried.
Ross
‘Ross’ is the subject
seems
‘seems’ is the linking verb
worried
Correct!
2. Some caterpillars become butterflies.
Some caterpillars
‘Some caterpillar’ is the subject
become
‘become’ is the linking verb
butterflies
Correct!
3. You look happy.
You
‘You’ is the subject
look
‘look’ is the linking verb
happy
Correct!
4. The man became furious at the delay.
The man
‘The man’ is the subject
became
‘became’ is the linking verb
furious
Correct!
at the delay
‘at the delay’ is the adverb
4. The man became furious at the delay.
The man
‘The man’ is the subject
became
‘became’ is the linking verb
furious
Correct!
at the delay
‘at the delay’ is the adverb
5. The chlorine in the pool smelled harsh.
The chlorine
‘The chlorine’ is the subject
in the pool
‘in the pool’ is an adverb phrase. In combination with ‘the chlorine’, they form a noun phrase
smelled
‘smelled’ is the linking verb
harsh
Correct!
6. This bread tastes moldy to me.
This bread
‘This bread’ is the subject
tastes
‘tastes’ is the linking verb
moldy
Correct!
to me
‘to me’ is an adverb phrase.

 
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 6, 2016

 

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#EngClass: Everybody – Singular or Plural?

Is ‘everybody’ singular or plural? Do you refer to ‘everyone’ with ‘him/her’ or ‘them’?
slide2

Alright alright… Let’s resolve this confusion together, shall we?

First of all; ‘everybody’ is an indefinite pronoun. Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific persons or things. And these are indefinite pronouns:

Somebody

Someone

Something

Everybody

Everyone

Everything

Anybody

Anyone

Anything

Nobody

None

Nothing

We use them to refer to a total number of people, things and places. We write them as one word.

Some indefinite pronouns, despite the illogic, are always singular. One of them is ‘everybody’. In this particular post, we’ll specifically talk about one of the: ‘everybody’.

 

‘Everybody’ in formal English

While ‘everybody’ seems like a plural noun, since it refers to a crowd of people, it is actually a singular subject. It refers to ONE group of people.

slide6

We use ‘everybody’ with singular verbs.

Example:

  • Everybody knows the truth.
    • ‘knows’ is a singular verb

When we want to refer back to ‘everybody’ and we don’t know if it’s a group of males or females, we use ‘him or her’ and ‘his or her’.

Example:

  • Everybody has his or her own desk.
    • ‘his or her’ is a singular pronoun.

Okay. We hereby determine that ‘everybody’ is singular.

slide9

 

‘Everybody’ in informal English

Now, how many of you have HEARD of people referring back to ‘everybody’ by using ‘them‘?

As mentioned above, despite being illogical, it is grammatically correct to treat ‘everybody’ as singular, especially in formal English.

However, when people talk, logic wins, so you will hear plural pronouns such as ‘them’. We use ‘them’ in informal conversations.

Example:

  • Everybody was putting a smile on their face.
    • ‘their’ is a plural pronoun.

slide10

Anyone confused yet? So is ‘everybody’ singular or plural? Let’s clarify things up, shall we?
slide11

I hope that last image helped solve the confusion, fellas. Feel free to mention us or leave a comment if you have any question. We’ll solve it together.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 19, 2016

 

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#EngClass: Time related adverb clause

Adverb clauses are subordinate clauses that show relationships between ideas related to time, cause and effect, contrast and condition.

 

Some common used time related adverb clauses:

  1.  After means after that moment. ‘After’ takes the present for future events and the past or past perfect for past events.
    • Example:
      • After she graduates, she will get a job.
  2. Before means before that moment. ‘Before’ takes after the simple past or the present.
    • Example:
      • l left before he came.
  3. When means at the moment, at that time. ‘When’ takes either the simple past or the present. The dependent clause changes tense in relation to the when clause.
    • Example:
      • When I got there, he had already left.

 

There are others time related adverb clauses like while as, by the time, since, until, etc. Okay, why don’t you try some exercises.

Practice:

1. We will finish after he ……….
comes
correct!
came
2. He was talking on the phone when I ……….
arrive
arrived
correct!
3. I will leave before he ……….
comes
correct!
came
4. When I was in Chicago, I ……….. the museums.
visit
visited
correct!
5. When it began to rain, I ………. under the tree.
stand
stood
correct!
6. I washed the dishes when my daughter ………. asleep.
fall
fell
correct!
7. When I ………. him tomorrow, I will ask him.
see
correct!
saw

 

Composed and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 16, 2016

Related post(s):

 

^MQ

#EngClass: Expressing purpose

Heyya, fellas! How did you day go? It’s only the third day of the week but I’ve heard more than enough sad news. So, wherever you are and whatever you do, fellas. Please… stay safe and healthy. And to you who’re having hard times, stay strong.

Enough of the sullen mood. Let’s start today’s session, shall we? Last week, we received a question from @Chifara_. She asked about the differences between ‘so that’, ‘in order to’, and ‘to’. Instead of keeping it to ourselves, why not share it with you too?

There are various ways of expressing purpose in English. We can use: ‘to’,so as to‘, ‘so that‘, or ‘in order (to/that)‘.

These conjunctions are used when we want to show the purpose of an action, to say WHY we did it.

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‘So that’, ‘in order’, ‘so as’, and ‘to’ are used to answer the question of: WHY?

They are known as ‘subordinating conjunctions’. They connect a main (independent) clause and a subordinate (dependent) clause. ‘Subordinating conjunction’ acts as a bridge to connect one clause to another dependent clause.

In today’s session, we’ll talk a little bit more about how to use these subordinating conjunctions.

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A. We use ‘to’ + ‘infinitive’ to show the purpose of an action. 

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‘to’ + ‘infinitive’ is generally used only in affirmative statements.

Examples:

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B. We use ‘so as to’ & ‘in order to’ to express purpose.

‘So as to’ and ‘in order to’ is often used interchangeably. In sentence, they are followed by the infinitive verbs.

slide7

Example of ‘so as to’:

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Example of ‘in order to’:

slide9

 

To form a negative statement, NOT is added right before the word TO. Again, it is then followed by the infinitive verb.

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The negative statement expresses that one action will help avoid having to do something else or prevent another thing happening.

Example of ‘so as not to’:

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Example of ‘in order not to’:

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C. We use ‘so that’ & ‘in order that’ to say that one action makes another action possible.

‘So that’ and ‘in order that’ is generally followed by a modal.

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Example of ‘so that’:

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Example of ‘in order that’:

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To form a negative statement, NOT is added right after modal. Again, it is then followed by the infinitive verb.

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Example of ‘so that’ + modal + ‘not:

slide17

Example of ‘in order that’ + MODAL + ‘not’ :

slide18

We’ve now come to the end of today’s session. I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you have any question regarding today’s session, feel free to mention us and ask away.

That’s a wrap, fellas! Thanks for tuning in to today’s session. See you again tomorrow. XOXO

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 12, 2016.


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^MD

#EngClass: Wish or Hope? (Revisit)

Heyya, fellas! A couple of weeks ago, we received a question from @Amelia_Feehily. It’s something which I thought ought to be shared with all of you too.

So, @Amelia_Feehily asked about the difference between Wish and Hope. Let’s talk about it today, shall we?

“Wish” and “Hope” in English are similar, but not exactly the same. In fact, if you translate them to Bahasa Indonesia, both mean “berharap”.

Despite the similar meaning, “Wish” and “Hope” are used in different circumstances. So, when do we use “Wish” and “Hope”?

A. WHEN?

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  • “Wish” often talks about regrets or wants.
  • “Wish” is used to express desire for something that the speaker believes is impossible or unlikely to happen.
  • “Wish” is most commonly used in hypothetical situation or imagination; something that is different from reality.
  • “Hope” often focuses on aspirations.
  • “Hope” is used to express desire for something that the speaker believes is possible in the future.
  • “Hope” specify a desired outcome of future event. Or for past hopes, the outcome has usually been already determined.
  • “Hope” is used when there’s a good chance that something might happen in the future.

Before we move on to the second part of today’s discussion. Here’s something to help you summarize what we’ve discussed so far.

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B. HOW?

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Alright! It is time to talk about how to use “Wish” and “Hope” in a sentence.

1. “Wish” can be paired with a past perfect verb in order to express regret.

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Click on the following link for guide on how to use a past perfect verb. #EngClass: Past Perfect Tense

2. “Wish” can also be paired with a simple past verb or conditional modal in order to express an unreal present desire.

slide7 slide8 slide9 slide10Click on the following link for guide on how to use a simple past verb. #EngClass: Simple Past Tense

Click on the following link for guide on conditional modals. #EngClass: Conditional 2

3. “Hope” is often used to talk about future events, situations, or actions. For a future meaning, it is paired with simple present tense.

slide11 slide12 slide13

 

Click on the following link for guide on how to use the simple present tense. #EngClass: Simple Present Tense

4. “Hope” can also be used to talk about something that recently happened and will be decided in the future. Here, it is paired with the simple past tense.

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Click on the following link for guide on how to use the simple past tense. #EngClass: Simple Past Tense

5. “Wish” & “hope” can be used in expressing goodwill.

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6. “Wish” & “hope” are also used in certain types of requests and pleasantries.

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Here’s something to summarize our discussion on how to use “wish” and “hope”.

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Now, we’ve come to the end of today’s session. I hope the explanation was clear enough and not too boring.

If you still have any other question on how to use “wish” and “hope”, feel free to mention us ;)

That’s a wrap, fellas! Thanks for tuning in to today’s session. See you again tomorrow. XOXO

 

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, October 5, 2016.

 

Related post: #ENGCLASS: “WISH” VS “HOPE”

 

#EngClass: Conjunction

‘Conjunction’ is a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.

Types of conjunction

There are three types of conjuction:

  • Coordinating conjunctions: ‘for,’ ‘and,’ ‘nor,’ ‘but,’ ‘or,’ ‘yet,’ ‘so.’
  • Correlative conjunctions: ‘either… or…,’ ‘neither… nor…,’ ‘not only… but also…,’ ‘both… and…’
  • Common subordinating conjunctions: ‘after,’ ‘before,’ ‘although,’ ‘though,’ ‘even though,’ ‘as much as,’ ‘as long as,’ ‘as soon as,’ ‘because,’ ‘since,’ ‘so that,’ ‘in order that,’ ‘if,’ ‘even if,’ ‘that,’ ‘unless,’ ‘until,’ ‘whether,’ ‘while.’

Conjunctions and their meanings

  1. ‘Although’/’even though.’ Meaning: it doesn’t matter or make a difference.
    • Example:
      • “Although/Even though I have the money, I won’t buy the shoes.”
  2. ‘And.’ Meaning: non-contrasting item(s) or idea(s); in addition; extra; plus.
    • Example:
      • “I enjoy tea and cookies when I eat a snack.”
  3. ‘Because.’ Meaning: the reason is…
    • Example:
      • “I got wet because I forgot my umbrella.”
  4. ‘But.’ Meaning: a contrast or exception.
    • Example:
      • “They gamble but they don’t smoke.”
  5. ‘Or.’ Meaning: an alternative item or idea.
    • Example:
      • ‘I can’t decide if I want an apple or a banana with my yogurt.”
  6. ‘For.’ Meaning: is almost like because or since; it introduces, in a formal tone, a reason.
    • Example:
      • “He is gambling with his health, for he has been smoking since high school.”
  7. ‘Nor.’ Meaning: an alternative negative idea or though.
    • Express:
      • “Brian did not like singing, nor did he like dancing.”
  8. ‘Yet.’ Meaning: a contrary but logical idea will follow
    • Example:
      • “Shelly is a quite yet very outgoing girl.”
  9. ‘So.’ Meaning: suggest that a consequence will follow
    • Example:
      • “He hate to drink milk, so he try to drink soy for breakfast.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 2, 2016

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^MQ

#EngClass: Word Stress

Hi, fellas! Was today a good day? Or perhaps you just went through a stressful day? I hope not, but if you happen to have had a stressful day, how about putting those stressful events behind and learn to put a stress in a word instead? Yes, today we’re going to learn about word stress.

In English, we don’t pronounce every syllable (suku kata) in a word with the same strength. When saying a word, we put a stress (emphasis) in one syllable, and pronounce the other syllable(s) more quietly. Stressing a syllable means we say it a little longer or louder or with a higher pitch than the other syllables.

Every English word has one stressed syllable, and it’s important to stress the right syllable when we speak. Word stress helps the listeners tell one word apart from another. For instance, if you hear two stressed syllables, you hear two words. It helps us understand a speaker who speaks very fast.

Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word difficult to hear, and therefore the listener can’t understand us. Stressing different syllable can even change the meaning of some words. For example, if you stress the first syllable in the word present, it’s a noun that means gift. But if you stress the second syllable (present), it becomes a verb that means to offer.

So how do we know which syllable to stress? Here are some general rules that you can follow:

  1. Stress the first syllable of most two-syllable nouns and adjectives, e.g., table, happy
  2. Stress the last syllable of most two-syllable verbs, e.g., decide, begin
  3. Stress the second-to-last syllable of words that end in –ic, –sion, and –tion, e.g., geographic, expansion, attention
  4. Stress the third-from-last syllable of words that end in –cy, –ty, –phy, –gy, and –al, e.g., democracy, uncertainty, geography, biology, critical

But there are some exceptions and many types of words that are not covered by those rules, so you should check the dictionary to be sure. Different dictionaries have different ways to mark the stressed syllable. Now, take a look at the pronunciation guide below the defined word in your dictionary.

  • Oxford Dictionary and Collins Dictionary: an apostrophe (‘) shows that the following syllable is stressed. Example: prəˈnaʊns means we stress the nounce in pronounce.
  • Dictionary.com: the stressed syllable is marked bold. Example: pruh-nouns

If you think, “I can’t possibly memorize the stressed syllable for every word in the dictionary!” You’re right. Perhaps the best way is to learn by practice. If you practice listening until you’re familiar enough with spoken English, I’m sure you’ve also learned the word stress. You just don’t realize it. Fluent English speakers use word stress all the time without thinking about it. It’s kind of the same way we use intonation in our sentences in Bahasa Indonesia.

So, now that we know that word stress is the key to understanding spoken English, we know why it’s important to learn English by listening. Listening can help you learn to speak English properly so that people understand you better. We actually have some #EngTips for you on that very topic: How to improve your English listening skill.

I hope this post has been useful for you, fellas. Have a good day!

(Source: teachingenglish.org.uk, englishclub.com, dictionary.com, oxforddictionaries.com)

Compiled and written by @fafafin for @EnglishTips4U on September 8, 2016

#EngClass: Common abbreviations in emails

There are numerous abbreviations which you might find in letters, especially those formal ones. Today, we’ll start with some of the most common ones. Let’s start with this blank email.

 

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As you would usually do, you type recipient’s mail address at the ‘To’ colom. Let’s say the email is for Eeny.

  1. Cc – carbon copy. This is to say that a copy of the email is also sent to the person(s) mentioned.
  2. Bcc – blind carbon copy. It indicates people who will receive a copy of the message in secret. Other recipients wouldn’t know.

 

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  • Example 1 & 2 – Now, have a look at the pic above. It shows that:
    • Meeny also has a copy of the email. And…
    • every other people (Eeny & Meeny) wouldn’t realize that Miny & Mo are in the know too.

 

In emails, ‘cc’ & ‘bcc’ can normally be found at the top part of your emails.On the other hand, in written letters, cc might be positioned at the bottom.

Moving down to the body of the letter/email…

wp-1469853254309.png

  1. Ref – reference, with reference to. It shows which document or piece of information you are talking about.
  • Example 3 – That is a fake reference code… just to point Eeny to the WhatsApp chat they had the night before.

 

  1. ASAP – as soon as possible. If you see this, sender wants something done at the earliest possible time, if not immediately.
  • Example 4 – Here, Etifoyu is urging Eeny to reply promptly, at the earliest time.

 

  1. RSVP – Répondez s’I’ll vous plaît. It basically a request for a respond, in French.
  • Example 5 – Etifoyu expects Eeny to respond soon or latest by Monday, August 1st, 2016.

 

  1. PS – postscriptum, postscript. Its a note added to a letter/email after the writer has signed it.
  • Example 6 – A short note for the recipient.

 

  1. PPS – post postscript, additional postscript. This is for extra notes and positioned after PS. If there’s any, PS & PPS would be found after the writer’s signature.
  • Example 7 – More short note for the recipient.

 

  1. Encl. – enclosed. This shows that something else is being sent with the letter/email. It’s normally placed at the bottom of the letter.
  • Example 8 – This part list out items sent along with the letter/email.

 

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So, here’s what your email should look like now, fellas! And there goes 8 most  common abbreviations in emails.

I hope you find the explanations & graphics clear enough. If you have any question regarding today’s session, feel free to ask away!

 

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 31 July, 2016

 

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^MQ

#EngTips: What to prepare for a job interview

interview-tips-advice-Kenya

Some of you, by now, might have done some preps to resign from your job and hope to start a new venture next year. Well, we have discussed some strategies to resign from a job – you may see them here #EngTips: How to resign. This time, we’d like to prepare you for a job interview. Here are some tips that we have compiled for you.

Before the interview

  1. Sleep well to have a fresh mind in the morning.
  2. Get a haircut, shave (for men), or have some hair treatment (for women). They will add up a bit of your confidence.
  3. Clean your shoes, and iron your clothes, make sure they are wrinkle-free.
  4. Plan your trip. Go on google map to find the location and allocate enough time to travel. Don’t be late!
  5. Read carefully the desired qualifications and peruse thoroughly your CV to know how well you fit the position.
  6. Manage your CV; the succinct the better.
  7. Organize your files. Have a folder to bundle them all. Don’t include the files which are irrelevant.
  8. Get to know the company by researching its profile and culture. The culture will also determine how you should dress in the interview.
  9. Plan the answers for the most common questions. Some of the questions are:
    • “Tell me about yourself.”
    • “Talk me through your CV.”
    • “What are your strengths and weaknesses?”
    • “Why are you looking for a new venture?”
    • “What are you doing at the current company and what have you achieved?”

During the interview

There are some important things that you need to do:

  1. Be confident. Draw your smile from the doorstep, greet the interviewer, and have a firm (not strong) handshake. Sit when you are welcome.
  2. Listen to the questions attentively and show enthusiasm.
  3. When asked, provide detail answers. Don’t forget to supply examples.
  4. Clearly state your interest and plan for the future.
  5. Think how you may contribute to the company advancement.
  6. Watch your diction. Use polite and formal language.

After the interview

You may send an email of gratitude to the company for having you for the interview.

Source:

Compiled and written by @wisznu at @EnglishTips4u on Thursday, December 17, 2015

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#EngClass: Correlative Conjunction

Today’s #EngClass will be about an important detail that you need to pay attention to when creating a sentence: Correlative Conjunction (CC).

CC connects 2 equal grammatical items.

Meaning? If within a sentence you used a noun before ‘either’ then you should also use a noun after ‘or’.

Here are some examples of CC as compiled by The Yuniversity:

  
The equal nature of the parts is called “parallelism.”

Let’s take a look at examples:

1. My boyfriend is both handsome and loyal. <— ‘Handsome’ and ‘loyal’ are both adjectives

2. Today, we will either read a book or watch a movie. <— ‘Read’ and ‘watch’ are both verbs.

3. She likes neither to exercise nor to go out. <— ‘To exercise’ and ‘to go out’ are both Infinite Verb.

So we cannot say “My boyfriend is both loyal and he is also very handsome.”

Or “Today we will either read a book or watching a movie.”

Or even “She likes neither to exercise nor go out” because ‘go out’ is a Bare Infinitive Verb without the ‘to’. 

So whenever you are writing a sentence with CC, always make sure that they are parallel with each other.

Source: The Yuniversity

Compiled by @animenur for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, 9 August 2015.