All posts by sherly99blog

#EngVocab: Phrasal Verbs Related to Work (2)

Do you know phrasal verbs related to work?
Today we will learn more about phrasal verbs related to work.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/01/engvocab-phrasal-verbs-related-to-work/

Let’s start.

  • Call off.

Meaning: to decide that a planned event will not happen.
Example: “My boss decided to call off the meeting.”

  • Run by.

Meaning: tell someone about an idea or plan so that they can give you their opinion.
Example: “It would be better to run by the idea with your manager first.”

  • Fill in for.

Meaning: to do somebody’s job for a short time while they are not there.
Example: Can you fill in for me for a few minutes?”

  • Drum up.

Meaning: to get support or business through hard work and effort.
Example: “He was trying to drum up the project.”

  • Take on.

Meaning: to agree to be responsible for something.
Example: “Don’t take on more than you can handle.”

  • Burn out.

Meaning: to become very phisically and emotionally tired by working too hard over a period of time.
Example: “Stop doing this high pressure job. You could burn out young.”

  • Draw up.

Meaning: prepare something in writing, especially an official document.
Example: “Both companies agree to draw up the contract.”

  • Knock off (informal).

Meaning: to leave work at the end of the day or stop working for a short break.
Example: “Do you want to knock off early today?”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 7, 2018.

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#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Big’

Do you know other words to say ‘big’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘big’.

Let’s start.

  • Colossal: extraordinarily great in size, extent, or degree.

E.g. “The owner was asking for a colossal amount of money for the house.”

  • Burly: large and strong; heavily built (of a person).

E.g. “A burly figure came towards him from across the road.”

  • Tremendous: very great in amount, scale, or intensity.

E.g. “We went to a tremendous party.”

  • Massive: large and heavy or solid.

E.g. “Eight massive stone pillars supported the roof.”

  • Strapping: healthy, big, and strong (especially of young person).

E.g. “My aunt remembered my brother as a strapping youth with a big appetite.”

  • Hefty: large in amount, size, force, etc.

E.g. “The film contains a hefty dose of comedy.”

  • Ample: more than enough; plentiful.

E.g. “You will have ample opportunity to ask questions after the presentation.”

  • Immense: marked by greatness especially in size or degree.

E.g. “The immense pressure causes the rock to fracture.”

  • Humongous: very huge (informal American slang).

E.g. “They have a humongous dog.”

  • Vast: very spacious or large; of great extent.

E.g. “Vast areas of land have become desert.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, September 9, 2018.

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Delicious’

Do you know other words to say ‘delicious’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘delicious’.
Let’s start.

  1. Toothsome: extremely pleasing to the sense of taste.
    E.g. “The restaurant which once served a toothsome steak has closed.”
  2. Savory: full of flavor, delicious and tasty; usually something that someone has cooked.
    E.g. “She placed a huge dish of savory steaming meat before him.”
  3. Zestful: a taste which is spicy and flavorsome.
    E.g. “The drink has a zestful black cherry flavor.”
  4. Scrumptious: extremely appetizing or delicious.
    E.g. “We had a scrumptious lunch.”
  5. Palatable: acceptable to the palate; pleasant to taste.
    E.g. “The meal was barely palatable.”
  6. Luscious: having a pleasingly rich, sweet taste.
    E.g. “The dessert has great appearance and luscious flavor.”
  7. Delectable: looking or tasting extremely good.
    E.g. “The vegetable makes the food delectable.”
  8. Enticing: attractive or tempting; alluring.
    E.g. “An enticing smell came from the kitchen.”
  9. Ambrosial: exceptionally pleasing to taste or smell; especially delicious or fragrant.
    E.g. “We can smell the ambrosial aroma of the roast.”
  10. Sapid: having a strong, pleasant taste.
    E.g. “You should try this, the food has a sapid, harmonic taste.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, August 26, 2018.

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Go’

Do you know other words to say ‘go’?
Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘go’.

Let’s start.

  1. Pace: walk at a steady and consistent speed.
    E.g. “She quickened her pace when she thought someone was following her.”
  2. Stroll: walk in a slow, relaxed manner.
    E.g. “We sometimes stroll along the beach.”
  3. Travel: to make a journey, usually over a long distance.
    E.g. “My friend is travelling alone to United States.”
  4. Waddle: walk with short steps in a clumsy swaying motion.
    E.g. “My little brother is waddling around the living room.”
  5. Wander: walk or move in a leisurely, casual, or aimless way.
    E.g. “We are wandering all day around the city.”
  6. Lope: run or move with in an easy and relaxed way, taking a long bounding strike.
    E.g. “They would lope out to the park two miles away and walk back.”
  7. Move: the act of changing location from one place to another.
    E.g. “He stood up and began to move around the room.”
  8. Hurtle: move with a rushing sound.
    E.g. “His motorboat hurtled along the river.”
  9. Abscond: run away; usually includes taking something along.
    E.g. “He attempted to abscond from the punishment.”
  10. Evade: escape or avoid something either physically or mentally.
    E.g. “I could tell that he was trying to evade the issue.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on August 12, 2018.

#EngClass: Blending Words (4)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.

You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
You can review the second lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/17/engclass-blending-words-2/
You can review the third lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/07/01/engclass-blending-words-3/

Here are some examples of blending words:
1. Globish (global + English).
Meaning: a simplified version of English used by non-native speakers, consisting of the most common words and phrases only.

  1. Medicare (medical + care).
    Meaning: maintenance and restoration of health by the treatment and prevention of disease especially by trained and licensed professionals (as in medicine, dentistry, clinical psychology, and public health).

  2. Urinalysis: (urine + analysis).
    Meaning: analysis of urine by physical, chemical, and microscopical means to test for the presence of disease, drugs, etc.

  3. Hi-tech (high + technology).
    Meaning: resembling or making use of highly advanced technology or devices.

  4. Transistor (transfer + resistor).
    Meaning: a small electrical device containing a semiconductor, used in televisions, radios, etc.

  5. Vash (volcanic + ash).
    Meaning: very small solid particles ejected from a volcano during an eruption which have intermediate axes measuring 2 mm or less.

  6. Workfare: (work + welfare).
    Meaning: a welfare system that requires those receiving benefits to perform some work or to participate in job training.

  7. Mediclaim (medical + claim).
    Meaning: medical bill submitted to health insurance carriers and other insurance providers for services rendered to patients by providers of care. When you go to the doctor, hospital or other provider, your service generates a bill.

  8. Skylab (sky + laboratory).
    Meaning: a space station used for scientific, research and development, medical and/or dental testing, experimentation and/or research.

  9. Vegeburger (vegetable + burger).
    Meaning: a patty resembling a hamburger but made with vegetable protein, soybeans, etc., instead of meat.

  10. Lecdem (lecture + demonstration).
    Meaning: presentation of an example of what the lecturer is discoursing about.

  11. Infotech (information + technology).
    Meaning: The hardware, software, and associated technology and businesses that are composed or related to the practice and business of information technology.

References:
http://www.collinsdictionary.com
http://www.merriam-webster.com
Google dictionary
http://www.vocabulary.com
dictionary.cambridge.org
http://www.skybrary.aero
classroom.synonym.com
http://www.dictionary.com

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 29, 2018.

#EngVocab: Medical Conditions (3)

Today we will learn about some other words that are used to describe medical conditions.

You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/05/06/engvocab-medical-conditions/

And the second lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/05/14/engvocab-medical-conditions-2/

Let’s start:

  1. Cyst: lined cavity containing fluid or a solid material.
    E.g. “My brother had a painful cyst near his kidney.”

  2. Atopy: alergic skin disease caused by enviromental antigen.
    E.g. “Her atopy is getting worse.”

  3. Alopecia: partial or complete hair loss.
    E.g. “The new drug does not cure alopecia.”

  4. Abcess: subcutaneous collection of puss.
    E.g. “The doctor has to drain an abcess in his arm.”

  5. Dehydrated: in need of water.
    E.g. “Drink lots of water to avoid becoming dehydrated.”

  6. Focal: the infection is limited to one part of the body.
    E.g. “The symptom is leading to focal brain dysfunction.”

  7. Bariatric: relating to the causes and the treatment of obesity.
    E.g. “The doctor has to perform bariatrix surgery.”

  8. Infantile: affecting young children.
    E.g. “My cousin is suffering from infantile eczema.”

  9. Crippling: causing someone to be physically disabled, especially unable to walk.
    E.g. “The crippling disease kept him in bed for months.”

  10. Febrile: relating to a fever.
    E.g. “The epidemic febrile disease comes with severe headache.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 15, 2018.

#EngClass: Blending Words (3)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2012/06/27/engclass-blending-words/
You can review the second lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/06/17/engclass-blending-words-2/

Here are some examples of blending words:
1. Dramedy (drama + comedy).
Meaning: a movie or TV programme that combines elements of drama and comedy.

  1. Chillax (chill + relax).
    Meaning: to become calm and relax.

  2. Hangry (hungry + angry).
    Meaning: bad-tempered or irritable as a result of hunger.

  3. Brainiac (brain + maniac).
    Meaning: someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality.

  4. Snark (snide + remark).
    Meaning: an attitude or expression of mocking irreverence and sarcasm.

  5. Infomercial (information + commercial).
    Meaning: a TV programme that promotes a product in an informative and supposedly objective way.

  6. Chocoholic (chocolate + alcoholic).
    Meaning: a person who is addicted to chocolate.

  7. Moped (motor + pedal).
    Meaning: a low-power, lightweight motorized bicycle.

  8. Edutainment (education + entertainment).
    Meaning: things which are designed to be entertaining and educational at the same time.

  9. Jeggings (jeans + leggings).
    Meaning: tight-fitting stretch pants, made to look like denim.

  10. Vitamin (vital + amine).
    Meaning: substances that you need in order to remain healthy.

  11. Malware (malicious + softwarehic).
    Meaning: any program or file that is intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server, or computer network.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, July 1, 2018.

#EngClass: Blending Words (2)

Today we will learn more about ‘blending words’.
You can review the first lesson here.

A blending word is a word that is made up of parts of other words that are combined to form a new word with a new meaning.
Usually ‘blending words’ are made by joining the beginning of one word and the end of another.
Blending words can also be called portmanteau words.

Here are some examples of blending words:

  1. Blog (web + log).
    Meaning: a regularly updated website or web page, usually run by an individual or small group, containing a writer’s or group of writers’ own experiences, observations, opinions, etc.
  2. Brunch (breakfast + lunch).
    Meaning: a late morning meal eaten at a time between breakfast and lunch, replacing the two meals with one instead.
  3. Cyborg (cybernetic + organism).
    Meaning: a fictional or hypothetical human being with physical abilities that are beyond a normal human because mechanical elements have been built into the body.
  4. Frenemy (friend + enemy).
    Meaning: a person who is a friend even though there is an underlying dislike or rivalry in the relationship.
  5. Glamping (glamorous + camping).
    Meaning: luxury camping or glamprous camping, involving accommodation and facilities more luxurious than traditional camping.
  6. Humongous (huge + monstrous).
    Meaning: very big, both of these words mean large so putting the two words together indicates that something is extremely big.
  7. Internet (international + network).
    Meaning: the global communication network that allows computers around the world to connect and share information.
  8. Mocktail (mock + cocktail).
    Meaning: a cocktail that has no alcohol in it, consisting of a mixture of fruit juices or other soft drinks.
  9. Spanglish (Spanish + English).
    Meaning: a mix of words and idioms from both Spanish and English, often used by people who know both languages well.
  10. Spork (spoon + fork).
    Meaning: an eating utensil that is shaped like both a spoon and fork, often has a rounded spoon shape with short prongs at the end like a fork.
  11. Staycation (stay + vacation).
    Meaning: a budget-friendly alternative to a vacation in which people stay at home during their time off from work.
  12. Affluenza (affluence + influenza).
    Meaning: the guilt or lack of motivation experienced by people who have made or inherited large amounts of money.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, June 17, 2018.

#EngVocab: Medical Conditions (2)

Today we will learn about some other words that are used to describe medical conditions.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2018/05/06/engvocab-medical-conditions/

Let’s start:

  1. Virulent: a disease or poison that is extremely severe or harmful in its effect.
    E.g. “The epidemic was caused by a particularly virulent germ.”
  2. Strangulated: an organ or other part inside the body has become tightly pressed, blocking the flow of blood or air through it.
    E.g. “He was suffering from a strangulated hernia.”
  3. Suspected: the doctors are not sure yet about the real medical conditions.
    E.g. “He has a suspected broken leg.”
  4. Sytemic: the disease is affecting the entire body.
    E.g. “My uncle has a systemic vascular disease.”
  5. Terminal: an incurable disease that will cause someone to die.
    E.g. “My grandpa has terminal lung cancer.”
  6. Refractory: the disease doesn’t respond to the treatment.
    E.g. “The dog has refractory parasite dermatitis.”
  7. Self-induced: a medical condition that you cause yourself.
    E.g. “The anorexics do self-induced vomiting.”
  8. Sporadic: a disease that occurs occasionally, rarely, without regularity.
    E.g. “They found a sporadic human infection with swine influenza.”
  9. Perforated: a hole in part of your body caused by an accident or disease.
    E.g. “A broken ribs perforated into his lung.”
  10. Psychosomatic: the disease is related to the mind-body interrelationship.
    E.g. “Children are just as susceptible to psychosomatic conditions as adults.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 13, 2018.

#EngVocab: Medical Conditions

Today we will learn about some words that are used to describe medical conditions.
Medical conditions usually have some symptoms and signs.
Some words related to medical conditions:

  1. Acute: an illness that is short in duration, rapidly progressive, and in need of urgent care.
    E.g. “He’s suffering from an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract.”
  2. Advance: the disease is already ahead in development because it has already had some time to spread.
    E.g. “You may have an advanced cancer.”
  3. Asymptomatic: the disease show no physical signs of a medical problem.
    E.g. “It is commonly asymptomatic in anaemic patients.”
  4. Autoimmune: antibodies attack normal cells or substances that naturally present in the body.
    E.g. “The patient had been diagnosed with unclassified autoimmune disease.”
  5. Chronic: an illness that is characterized by long duration or frequent recurrence.
    E.g. “He was suffering from chronic bronchitis.”
  6. Congenital: a disease or physical abnormality present at birth.
    E.g. “He has a congenital heart defect.”
  7. Contagious: a disease that can spread from one person to another by direct or indirect contact.
    E.g. “The infection is highly contagious, so don’t let anyone else use your towel.”
  8. Degenerative: a disease that gradually gets worse, resulting in loss of function in the organs or tissues.
    E.g. “Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease due to the wear and tear of joint cartilage.”
  9. Epidemic: a widespread occurence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
    E.g. “Doctors are struggling to contain the epidemic.”
  10. Generalized: an infection that has entered the bloodstream, affecting most of the body.
    E.g. “She experienced an increase in generalized aches and pains.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 29, 2018.

#EngClass: Expressing Illness (2)

Today we will talk about expressing illnesses.
Illness means a disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2011/06/19/engclass-expressing-illness/
We use the word ‘illness’ to talk about times when we are in poor health, or are feeling generally unwell.
If a part of the body feel hurt or pain, we can use the word ‘ache’.
Ache means that your body suffer a continuous, prolonged dull pain.
To say that a part of your body is hurt, you can combine it with the word ‘ache’.

Some common words with ‘ache’:
1. Earache: pain in the ear.
E.g. “I’ve got a terrible earache and a sore throat.”
2. Backache, usually called ‘back pain’: pain in low or upper back.
E.g. “Poor posture for a period of time is worsening my backache.”
3. Bellyache: pain in the bowels.
E.g. “The bad water gave me bellyache.”

Other common illness:
1. Diarrhea: repeated bowel movement in which makes the body’s solid waste more liquid.
E.g. “My brother got severe diarrhea.”
2. Hemorrhage: an escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
E.g. “He sank into coma after suffering a brain hemorrhage.”
3. Acne: the occurence of inflamed or infected sebaceous glands in the skin.
E.g. “She had terrible acne when she was younger.”
4. Asthma: a medical condition (spasms in the broncho of the lungs) that makes breathing difficult.
E.g. “I think he’s having an asthma attack.”
5. Nausea: a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.
E.g. “He was overcome with nausea after eating some bad food.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 14, 2018.

#EngClass: Superlative Adjectives

Today we will learn about superlative adjectives.
Superlative adjectives are used to compare three or more nouns.

The form of superlative adjectives:
1. For one syllable word: “The + Adj + -est”.
E.g.
a. Fast –> fastest.
b. Great –> greatest.
c. Soft –> softest.

  1. For two syllables word ending with -y: “The + Adj (-y changes to -i) + -est”.
    E.g.
    a. Pretty –> prettiest.
    b. Easy –> easiest.
    c. Busy –> busiest.

  2. For two syllables (not ending with -y): “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Complex –> the most complex.
    b. Famous –> the most famous.
    c. Clever –> the most clever.

  3. For three or more syllables: “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Dangerous –> the most dangerous.
    b. Difficult –> the most difficult.
    c. Popular –> the most popular.

Some adjectives have irregular forms when made into superlative adjectives.
E.g.
a. Bad –> worst.
b. Good –> best.
c. Far –> farthest.
d. Little –> least.
e. Much –> most.
f. Some –> most.
g. Many –> most.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 1, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs (2)

Today we will continue to learn more about animal phrasal verbs.
You can review the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/03/05/engvocab-animal-phrasal-verbs/

Here we go:

  1. Fish out: take or pull something out, especially after searching it for some time.
    E.g. “She fished out a tissue from her bag.”

  2. Ferret out: to discover something (such as information) by careful searching.
    E.g. “The team is trying to ferret out missing details.”

  3. Fish for: look for or try to get something.
    E.g. “I will fish for an idea.”

  4. Rabbit on: talk for a long time about something that is not important nor interesting.
    E.g. “My mother rabbiting on my brother’s attitude all day.”

  5. Hawk around: try and persuade people to buy or accept something.
    E.g. “They are hawking around the market to promote the food.”

  6. Crow about: to brag about something.
    E.g. “He’s always crowing about his latest triumph.”

  7. Cock up: something done badly or inefficiently.
    E.g. “His secretary cocked up his travelling schedule and he’s furious about it.”

  8. Hound out: to force someone out of something or some place, often because other people are constanly criticizing them.
    E.g. “He was hounded of his job because people disapproved his views.”

  9. Fawn on: try to win favor by flattering; praise someone too much and give them a lot of attention.
    E.g. “The relatives fawned on the rich old man.”

  10. Squirrel away: to hide or store something in order to use it in the future.
    E.g. “She had money squirreled away in various bank accounts.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 18, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about animal phrasal verbs.
Do you know which phrasal verbs contain animal names in them?

Let’s start:
1. Pig out: eating a large amount of food.
E.g. “I’m starving! Let’s pig out.”

  1. Horse around: fool around in a rough and noisy way.
    E.g. “I horse around quite a lot, just to keep me from getting bored.”

  2. Beaver away: to work in a very active and energetic way.
    E.g. “He’s been beavering away at the accounts all morning.”

  3. Chicken out: decide not to do something because of fear.
    E.g. “Unfortunately, many people chickened out at the last moment.”

  4. Wolf down: consume something with great speed.
    E.g. “Don’t wolf down your food. Eat slower.”

  5. Leech off: take advantage of someone for personal gain.
    E.g. “He never seems to notice when people leech him off.”

  6. Duck out: leave suddenly without telling anyone.
    E.g. “I will duck out of the office early if I can.”

  7. Monkey around: doing something random and unplanned to waste time.
    E.g. “Don’t monkey around here. I need to clean up the place!”

  8. Clam up: become silent (when shy or nervous), do not want to talk about a particular subject.
    E.g. “He always clams up when we ask him about his family.”

  9. Rat on: betray on someone, break an agreement.
    E.g. “Rat on me, I will let you have nothing.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 4, 2018.

#EngVocab: Business Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about business phrasal verbs.

A phrasal verbs is a verb that is made up of a main verb together with an adverb or a preposition, or both (according to Oxford Dictionary).

The phrasal verb can have a different meaning than the verb itself.

Some commonly use business phrasal verbs are listed bellow:
1. Note down: to write a piece of information that one wants to remember.
E.g. “I note down everything the teacher said.”

  1. Branch out: to start doing something new or different from normal work or activities.
    E.g. “From car retail, the company has decided to branch out into car leasing.”

  2. Close down: ending the operations of something (esp. a place of business).
    E.g. “The company closed down because the combination of internal and external factors.”

  3. Fill out: complete a form with necessary information.
    E.g. “Please fill out your purchasing order and send it to vendor.”

  4. Step down: withdraw or resign from an important position or office.
    E.g. “She reluctantly agreed to step down as managing director.”

  5. Sort out: organizing or put things in order or in their correct place.
    E.g. “They gave the expert a free hand to sort out the problem.”

  6. Take over: assuming control of something, like buy out the ownership of a company.
    E.g. “His greatest wish was for his daughter to take over the business.”

  7. Hand in: to give something to an authority or responsible person.
    E.g. “I want you to hand in this homework by Friday.”

  8. Fall through: the plan or agreement fails to happen or didn’t work out for some reasons.
    E.g. “There is still a risk that the whole deal will fall through.”

  9. Carry out: perform a task, do a research or investigation to complete something.
    E.g. “We need to carry out a proper evaluation of the new system.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 18, 2018.

#EngClass: Noun Clause

Today we will learn about noun clause.
Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that can fill the position of noun phrases.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that can function as:
1. A subject
E.g. “What he says is probably true.”
2. An object
E.g. “I will try whatever I can do.”
3. A complement
E.g. “He strummed his guitar when he talked to me.”

Other words that we can use to form noun clauses:
1. Question words, examples:
a. Who
E.g. “Miracles are to those who believe in them.”
b. Why
E.g. “I have no idea why he is hostile to me.”
c. Where
E.g. “He indicated to me where I should sit with a a nod of his head.”
Etc.

  1. Pronouns, examples:
    a. Which
    E.g. “I read the information on the label before deciding which jam to buy.”
    b. That
    E.g. “He knew that she did not wish him to go.”
    c. Whenever
    E.g. “Whenever I have a cold I get a nosebleed.”
    d. Wherever
    E.g. “Wherever they went they were closely followed by security men.”
    Etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

#EngClass: Clause

Do you know that a sentence consists of one or more clauses?

Clause means:
1. A group of words containing a subject and a predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence (according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
Note: You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/09/01/engclass-sentences/ and here https://englishtips4u.com/2017/05/22/engclass-complex-sentences/

  1. A particular and a separate article, stipulation, or proviso in a treaty, bill, or contract (according to Google Dictionary).

There are two kinds of clauses:
1. Main/independent clause: a clause that can stand alone as a complete, simple sentence; contains a subject and a predicate.
E.g. “He laughed.”

  1. Subordinate/dependent clause: a clause that can not form a sentence by itself.
    E.g. “Justice must be done even if the sky falls.”

There are three types of dependent clause:

a. Adjective/relative clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adjective within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/

b. Noun clause: a dependent clause that functions as a noun within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

c. Adverb clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adverb within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/

There are seven types of adverb clause:

i. Clause of time: adverb clause to indicate when something happens.
The conjunctions: “after”, “before”, “since”, etc.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2016/10/16/engclass-time-related-adverb-clause/

ii. Clause of place: adverb clause to indicate the place where the action happens.
The conjunctions: “where”, “anywhere”, “nowhere”, etc.

iii. Clause of contrast/concession: adverb clause to indicate ideas or actions that are not expected.
The conjunctions: “although”, “in spite of”, “even if”, etc.

iv. Clause of manner: adverb clause to indicate how an action happens.
The conjunctions: “as”, “how”, “like”, etc.

v. Clause of purpose and result: adverb clause to indicate purpose.
The conjunctions: “so that”, “in case”, “in order that”, etc.

vi. Clause of cause and effect: adverb clause to indicate why something happens.
The conjuntions: “because”, “due to”, “therefore”, etc.

vii. Clause of condition: adverb clause to indicate the circumstances of the action.
The conjunctions: “if”, “unless”, “if only”, etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 21, 2018.

#EngTrivia: “Happy” vs “Glad”

Do you know the difference between “happy” and “glad”?

“Happy” and “glad” are both adjectives.

We use them when we want to express pleasure.

The meaning of those words are almost the same but they are different in the term of usage.
“Happy” indicates a stronger feeling than “glad”.

“Happy” is more accented and positive, deeper felt.

“Happy” means:

  1. Feeling or showing pleasure or contentment.

a. having a sense of confidence in or satisfaction with (a person, arrangement, or situation).

E.g. “We are happy to announce the engagement of our daughter.”
b. satisfied with the quality or standard of.

E.g. “I had a very happy childhood.”
c. willing to do something.

E.g. “I’d be happy to help you.”
d. used in greetings.

E.g. “Happy new year, my best friend.”
2. Fortunate and convenient.

E.g. “I’m happy to have known you.”

(According to Google Translate Dictionary)
“Glad” is more formal than “happy”. We usually use “glad” in writing business letters or emails.

“Glad” is generally the opposite of sad and gloomy.

“Glad” means “pleased; delighted” (according to Google Translate Dictionary)

E.g. “I am glad to hear that you have passed the examination with a good record.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 7, 2018.