All posts by sherly99blog

#EngClass: Expressing Illness (2)

Today we will talk about expressing illnesses.
Illness means a disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind.
You can review the first lesson here englishtips4u.com/2011/06/19/engclass-expressing-illness/
We use the word ‘illness’ to talk about times when we are in poor health, or are feeling generally unwell.
If a part of the body feel hurt or pain, we can use the word ‘ache’.
Ache means that your body suffer a continuous, prolonged dull pain.
To say that a part of your body is hurt, you can combine it with the word ‘ache’.

Some common words with ‘ache’:
1. Earache: pain in the ear.
E.g. “I’ve got a terrible earache and a sore throat.”
2. Backache, usually called ‘back pain’: pain in low or upper back.
E.g. “Poor posture for a period of time is worsening my backache.”
3. Bellyache: pain in the bowels.
E.g. “The bad water gave me bellyache.”

Other common illness:
1. Diarrhea: repeated bowel movement in which makes the body’s solid waste more liquid.
E.g. “My brother got severe diarrhea.”
2. Hemorrhage: an escape of blood from a ruptured blood vessel.
E.g. “He sank into coma after suffering a brain hemorrhage.”
3. Acne: the occurence of inflamed or infected sebaceous glands in the skin.
E.g. “She had terrible acne when she was younger.”
4. Asthma: a medical condition (spasms in the broncho of the lungs) that makes breathing difficult.
E.g. “I think he’s having an asthma attack.”
5. Nausea: a feeling of sickness with an inclination to vomit.
E.g. “He was overcome with nausea after eating some bad food.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 14, 2018.

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#EngClass: Superlative Adjectives

Today we will learn about superlative adjectives.
Superlative adjectives are used to compare three or more nouns.

The form of superlative adjectives:
1. For one syllable word: “The + Adj + -est”.
E.g.
a. Fast –> fastest.
b. Great –> greatest.
c. Soft –> softest.

  1. For two syllables word ending with -y: “The + Adj (-y changes to -i) + -est”.
    E.g.
    a. Pretty –> prettiest.
    b. Easy –> easiest.
    c. Busy –> busiest.

  2. For two syllables (not ending with -y): “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Complex –> the most complex.
    b. Famous –> the most famous.
    c. Clever –> the most clever.

  3. For three or more syllables: “The + most + Adj”.
    E.g.
    a. Dangerous –> the most dangerous.
    b. Difficult –> the most difficult.
    c. Popular –> the most popular.

Some adjectives have irregular forms when made into superlative adjectives.
E.g.
a. Bad –> worst.
b. Good –> best.
c. Far –> farthest.
d. Little –> least.
e. Much –> most.
f. Some –> most.
g. Many –> most.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, April 1, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs (2)

Today we will continue to learn more about animal phrasal verbs.
You can review the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2018/03/05/engvocab-animal-phrasal-verbs/

Here we go:

  1. Fish out: take or pull something out, especially after searching it for some time.
    E.g. “She fished out a tissue from her bag.”

  2. Ferret out: to discover something (such as information) by careful searching.
    E.g. “The team is trying to ferret out missing details.”

  3. Fish for: look for or try to get something.
    E.g. “I will fish for an idea.”

  4. Rabbit on: talk for a long time about something that is not important nor interesting.
    E.g. “My mother rabbiting on my brother’s attitude all day.”

  5. Hawk around: try and persuade people to buy or accept something.
    E.g. “They are hawking around the market to promote the food.”

  6. Crow about: to brag about something.
    E.g. “He’s always crowing about his latest triumph.”

  7. Cock up: something done badly or inefficiently.
    E.g. “His secretary cocked up his travelling schedule and he’s furious about it.”

  8. Hound out: to force someone out of something or some place, often because other people are constanly criticizing them.
    E.g. “He was hounded of his job because people disapproved his views.”

  9. Fawn on: try to win favor by flattering; praise someone too much and give them a lot of attention.
    E.g. “The relatives fawned on the rich old man.”

  10. Squirrel away: to hide or store something in order to use it in the future.
    E.g. “She had money squirreled away in various bank accounts.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 18, 2018.

#EngVocab: Animal Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about animal phrasal verbs.
Do you know which phrasal verbs contain animal names in them?

Let’s start:
1. Pig out: eating a large amount of food.
E.g. “I’m starving! Let’s pig out.”

  1. Horse around: fool around in a rough and noisy way.
    E.g. “I horse around quite a lot, just to keep me from getting bored.”

  2. Beaver away: to work in a very active and energetic way.
    E.g. “He’s been beavering away at the accounts all morning.”

  3. Chicken out: decide not to do something because of fear.
    E.g. “Unfortunately, many people chickened out at the last moment.”

  4. Wolf down: consume something with great speed.
    E.g. “Don’t wolf down your food. Eat slower.”

  5. Leech off: take advantage of someone for personal gain.
    E.g. “He never seems to notice when people leech him off.”

  6. Duck out: leave suddenly without telling anyone.
    E.g. “I will duck out of the office early if I can.”

  7. Monkey around: doing something random and unplanned to waste time.
    E.g. “Don’t monkey around here. I need to clean up the place!”

  8. Clam up: become silent (when shy or nervous), do not want to talk about a particular subject.
    E.g. “He always clams up when we ask him about his family.”

  9. Rat on: betray on someone, break an agreement.
    E.g. “Rat on me, I will let you have nothing.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, March 4, 2018.

#EngVocab: Business Phrasal Verbs

Today we will learn about business phrasal verbs.

A phrasal verbs is a verb that is made up of a main verb together with an adverb or a preposition, or both (according to Oxford Dictionary).

The phrasal verb can have a different meaning than the verb itself.

Some commonly use business phrasal verbs are listed bellow:
1. Note down: to write a piece of information that one wants to remember.
E.g. “I note down everything the teacher said.”

  1. Branch out: to start doing something new or different from normal work or activities.
    E.g. “From car retail, the company has decided to branch out into car leasing.”

  2. Close down: ending the operations of something (esp. a place of business).
    E.g. “The company closed down because the combination of internal and external factors.”

  3. Fill out: complete a form with necessary information.
    E.g. “Please fill out your purchasing order and send it to vendor.”

  4. Step down: withdraw or resign from an important position or office.
    E.g. “She reluctantly agreed to step down as managing director.”

  5. Sort out: organizing or put things in order or in their correct place.
    E.g. “They gave the expert a free hand to sort out the problem.”

  6. Take over: assuming control of something, like buy out the ownership of a company.
    E.g. “His greatest wish was for his daughter to take over the business.”

  7. Hand in: to give something to an authority or responsible person.
    E.g. “I want you to hand in this homework by Friday.”

  8. Fall through: the plan or agreement fails to happen or didn’t work out for some reasons.
    E.g. “There is still a risk that the whole deal will fall through.”

  9. Carry out: perform a task, do a research or investigation to complete something.
    E.g. “We need to carry out a proper evaluation of the new system.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 18, 2018.

#EngClass: Noun Clause

Today we will learn about noun clause.
Noun clauses are subordinate clauses that can fill the position of noun phrases.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

A noun clause is a subordinate clause that can function as:
1. A subject
E.g. “What he says is probably true.”
2. An object
E.g. “I will try whatever I can do.”
3. A complement
E.g. “He strummed his guitar when he talked to me.”

Other words that we can use to form noun clauses:
1. Question words, examples:
a. Who
E.g. “Miracles are to those who believe in them.”
b. Why
E.g. “I have no idea why he is hostile to me.”
c. Where
E.g. “He indicated to me where I should sit with a a nod of his head.”
Etc.

  1. Pronouns, examples:
    a. Which
    E.g. “I read the information on the label before deciding which jam to buy.”
    b. That
    E.g. “He knew that she did not wish him to go.”
    c. Whenever
    E.g. “Whenever I have a cold I get a nosebleed.”
    d. Wherever
    E.g. “Wherever they went they were closely followed by security men.”
    Etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, February 4, 2018.

#EngClass: Clause

Do you know that a sentence consists of one or more clauses?

Clause means:
1. A group of words containing a subject and a predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence (according to Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
Note: You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/09/01/engclass-sentences/ and here https://englishtips4u.com/2017/05/22/engclass-complex-sentences/

  1. A particular and a separate article, stipulation, or proviso in a treaty, bill, or contract (according to Google Dictionary).

There are two kinds of clauses:
1. Main/independent clause: a clause that can stand alone as a complete, simple sentence; contains a subject and a predicate.
E.g. “He laughed.”

  1. Subordinate/dependent clause: a clause that can not form a sentence by itself.
    E.g. “Justice must be done even if the sky falls.”

There are three types of dependent clause:

a. Adjective/relative clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adjective within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/08/engclass-relative-clause/ and https://englishtips4u.com/2011/11/09/engclass-relative-clause-2/

b. Noun clause: a dependent clause that functions as a noun within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/04/grammartrivia-noun-clause/

c. Adverb clause: a dependent clause that functions as an adverb within a sentence.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/13/engclass-adverbial-clause/

There are seven types of adverb clause:

i. Clause of time: adverb clause to indicate when something happens.
The conjunctions: “after”, “before”, “since”, etc.
You can learn more here https://englishtips4u.com/2016/10/16/engclass-time-related-adverb-clause/

ii. Clause of place: adverb clause to indicate the place where the action happens.
The conjunctions: “where”, “anywhere”, “nowhere”, etc.

iii. Clause of contrast/concession: adverb clause to indicate ideas or actions that are not expected.
The conjunctions: “although”, “in spite of”, “even if”, etc.

iv. Clause of manner: adverb clause to indicate how an action happens.
The conjunctions: “as”, “how”, “like”, etc.

v. Clause of purpose and result: adverb clause to indicate purpose.
The conjunctions: “so that”, “in case”, “in order that”, etc.

vi. Clause of cause and effect: adverb clause to indicate why something happens.
The conjuntions: “because”, “due to”, “therefore”, etc.

vii. Clause of condition: adverb clause to indicate the circumstances of the action.
The conjunctions: “if”, “unless”, “if only”, etc.

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 21, 2018.

#EngTrivia: “Happy” vs “Glad”

Do you know the difference between “happy” and “glad”?

“Happy” and “glad” are both adjectives.

We use them when we want to express pleasure.

The meaning of those words are almost the same but they are different in the term of usage.
“Happy” indicates a stronger feeling than “glad”.

“Happy” is more accented and positive, deeper felt.

“Happy” means:

  1. Feeling or showing pleasure or contentment.

a. having a sense of confidence in or satisfaction with (a person, arrangement, or situation).

E.g. “We are happy to announce the engagement of our daughter.”
b. satisfied with the quality or standard of.

E.g. “I had a very happy childhood.”
c. willing to do something.

E.g. “I’d be happy to help you.”
d. used in greetings.

E.g. “Happy new year, my best friend.”
2. Fortunate and convenient.

E.g. “I’m happy to have known you.”

(According to Google Translate Dictionary)
“Glad” is more formal than “happy”. We usually use “glad” in writing business letters or emails.

“Glad” is generally the opposite of sad and gloomy.

“Glad” means “pleased; delighted” (according to Google Translate Dictionary)

E.g. “I am glad to hear that you have passed the examination with a good record.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 7, 2018.

#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘Happy’

Do you know what other words to describe ‘happy’?

Today we will learn about the substitutes of ‘happy’.

  1. Cheery: bright, optimistic.

E.g. “She gave me a cheery smile.”
2. Jovial: in a good spirit.

E.g. “Grandma was plump and jovial.”
3. Gleeful: delighted, full of joy.

E.g. “The park was full of gleeful children playing on sleds.”
4. Content: happy, satisfied.

E.g. “He seems to be getting more content as he gets older.”
5. Blissful: extremely happy.

E.g. “We spent three blissful weeks away from work.”
6. Radiant: obviously very happy.

E.g. “She announced, with a radiant smile, that she was going to have a baby.”
7. Jubilant: expressing great joy.

E.g. “The government has cancelled agricultural taxes, all the farmers are jubilant.”
8. Exuberant: full of energy, excitement.

E.g. “When the two travellers entered the hut, the old couple beamed with genuine exuberant happiness.”
9. Gratify: please, satisfy.

E.g. “Always do right. This will gratify some and astonish the rest – Mark Twain.”
10. Exultant: triumphantly happy.

E.g. “The exultant crowds were dancing in the street.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, December 24, 2017.

#EngClass: Expressing Conditions

Today we will learn about express conditions.

We can explain a condition by expressing factual implications, hypothetical situations and their consequences.

There are many ways to express conditions. 

Here’s some examples of common words we can use to expressing conditions.
1. If: used to define a condition or supposition.

E.g. “Get out of the kitchen if you can’t stand the heat.”
2. In case: as a provision  against something.

E.g. “I’m worried about washing that shirt in case it shrinks.”
3. Unless: except the condition that.

E.g. “Don’t call me unless it is a real emergency.”
4. So that: indicates purpose.

E.g. “Please speak up so that the people at the back of the room can hear you.”
5. Whether: expressing a doubt or choice.

E.g. “I really don’t know whether to be happy or sad here today.”
6. Otherwise: in circumstances different from those present.

E.g. “Shut the window, otherwise it’ll get too cold in here.
7. Or else: used to define another option or possibility.

E.g. “The book must be here, or else you’ve lost it.”
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 29, 2017.

#EngClass: Appositive Phrase

Today we will learn about appositive phrase.
An appositive is a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause that follows another noun to explain or identifiy it.

The noun identifies a person, place, thing, etc. in a sentence.
An appositive gives another name or more information about the noun beside it.

Appositives often begin with the words ‘a’, ‘an’, or ‘the.’
We already have a session about appositive, you can review it here https://englishtips4u.com/2012/04/23/engclass-and-engquiz-appositive/
An appositive phrase consists of an appositive and its modifiers.

The modifier can be a single word, phrase, or clause.
Appositive and appositive phrase are usually punctuated with commas.
The placement of commas when using appositives:

  1. Before the noun

E.g. “The father of that woman in red, George is standing beside her.”

  1. After the noun but not at the end of the sentence

E.g. “The staff, a girl with glasses and high heels, is coming to join the meeting.”

  1. After the noun and at the end of the sentence.

E.g. “At the last match he will againts a tough opponent, a former national champion.”
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @Englishtips4U on Sunday, December 10, 2017.

#EngClass: Adverbs of Reason

Today we will learn about adverbs of reason.

Adverbs of reason are also called adverbs of purpose.

It explains why a situasion or an action happens.
Here are some adverbs of reason that are commonly used:

  1. As: to indicate something happens when other thing is taking place; by comparison the way that something happens.

E.g. “As the wind blows, you must set your sail.”
2. Since: for the reason that.

E.g. “Since I’ll be away, I’d like to reschedule the meeting.”
3. Because: to introduce the reason or explanation of something.

E.g. “I fake a smile because I don’t want you to worry about what I’m feeling.”
4. Because of: on account of.

E.g. “The match was postponed to the next day because of bad weather.”
5. Due to: caused by; as the result of.

E.g. “The failure is due to inadequacy of preparations.”
6. Hence: as a consequence.

E.g. “It is very late, hence you must go to bed.”
7. The reason for: justification for an action or event.

E.g. “The reason for over crowding is the failure of police control.”
8. Therefore: consequently; on that ground.

E.g. “The store was out of chocolate chips, therefore they would need to use another cookies.”
9. In order to: as a means to.

E.g. “We need more feedback from the costumer in order to improve our goods.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 26, 2017.

#GrammarTrivia: Wish

Today we will learn about the way to use ‘wish’ in sentences.

‘Wish’ means a desire or hope for something to happen.

Here are some explanations on how to use ‘wish’ in sentences.
1. Situation: “My friend don’t come to the party.”

True sentence: “My friend isn’t here to keep me company.”

Wish: “I wish my friend was here to keep me company.”

‘Simple present –> simple past.’
2. Situation: “The school is on holiday.”

True sentence: “The school is starting next week.”

Wish: “I wish the school was starting this week.”

‘Present continuous –> past continuous.’
3. Situation: “My friend has become a mother.”

True sentence: “I haven’t seen my friend in the hospital.”

Wish: “I wish I had seen my friend in the hospital.”

‘Present perfect –> past perfect.’
4. Situation: “I had an argument with my brother.”

True sentence: “My brother didn’t agree with me.”

Wish: “I wish my brother had agreed with me.”

‘Simple past –> past perfect.’
5. Situation: “My friend’s sister is coming to town.”

Wish: “I wish I could see your little sister.”

‘Could.’
6. Situation: “My classmates are late because of traffic.”

Wish: “I wish they would come sooner.”

‘Would.’

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, November 12, 2017.

#EngClass: Degree Words (2)

Today we will learn about some degree words.

We use degree words to explain the intensity of an action, adjective or another adverb.

You can check the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2012/08/27/engclass-degree-words/
Here’re some examples of degree words from positive to negative:

  1. Absolutely perfect!

E.g. “This suit is absolutely perfect for me!”

  1. Really excellent.

E.g. “The school’s teaching staff is really excellent.”

  1. Very good indeed.

E.g. “The food in the restaurant is very good indeed!”

  1. Very good.

E.g. “His skills in cooking is very good.”

  1. Good.

E.g. “When my nephew was only six, he was good at drawing.”

  1. Quite good.

E.g. “My teacher is quite good at teaching us.”

  1. Fairly good.

E.g. “The new variety show is fairly good.”

  1. Not very good.

E.g. “The interview I had was not very good.”

  1. Rather poor.

E.g. “Most of the land there is rather poor to cultivate.”

  1. Bad.

E.g. “I received bad treatment from him.”

  1. Very bad.

E.g. “I am having a very bad day.”

  1. Extremely bad.

E.g. “I don’t envy your journey in this extremely bad weather.”

  1. Utterly dreadful!

E.g. “The traffic is utterly dreadful!”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 15, 2017.

#EngClass: Adverbs of Manner

Today we will learn about adverbs of manner.

Adverb of manner describes the way something happens.
Here’s a list of adverbs of manner:

  1. Well: in a good or satisfactory way.

E.g. “She responds well to the treatment.”
2. Awkwardly: in a worried or embarrased way.

E.g. “He awkwardly said he’s sorry.”
3. Carelessly: without care or concern; inattentively.

E.g. “She was fined for driving carelessly.”
4. Hard: with a great deal of effort.

E.g. “He’s been working hard all day.”
5. Deliberately: in a careful and unhurried way.

E.g. “She deliberately dressed down for the party.”

P.s.: Dress down = to dress informally. Dress up = to dress in smart or formal clothes. 
6. Late: not on time; after the expected time.

E.g. “She practically always late for school.”
7. Eagerly: emphasize a strong desire to do something.

E.g. “The sequel of that novel is eagerly anticipate by many readers.”
8. Fast: at high speed.

E.g. “That car was going fast.”
9. Fondly: with love.

E.g. “She looks fondly at the plants.”
10. Inquisitively: with curiousity.

E.g. “She wrinkled her brow inquisitively.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, October 1, 2017.

#EngClass: Adverbs of Frequency

Today we will learn about adverbs of frequency.

Adverbs of frequency describe how frequent something occurs or things happen.

Here’s the list of adverbs of frequency from the most frequent to the less frequent.
1. Always: at all times.

E.g. “She always eats breakfast every morning.”
2. Usually: refers to what normally happens.

E.g. “There’s usually a lot of traffic at this time of day.”
3. Often: many times.

E.g. “How often should I take this medicine?”
4. Sometimes: at times, now and then.

E.g. “Sometimes words hurt more than swords.”
5. Occasionally: at infrequent or irregular intervals.

E.g. “She watches the kids for us occasionally.”
6. Seldom: not often, rarely.

E.g. “He seldom writes to us.”
7. Ever: at any time.

E.g. “Nobody has ever solved this problem.”
8. Never: at no time in the past and future.

E.g. “Never trust another what you can do yourself.”
Source:

google dictionary
Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, September 17, 2017.

#EngClass: Using ‘So That’ (Expressing Purpose)

Today we will learn how to use ‘so that’ to express purpose.
You can learn about expressing purpose here:

https://englishtips4u.com/2016/10/12/engclass-expressing-purpose/
We use ‘so that’ to express purpose.

We often use it with modal verbs (can, would, will, etc.).

‘So that’ is often used instead of ‘in order to.’

We usually use so that with can/could and will/would.
So that + can

E.g. 

“I’m going to do my work now so that I can go home early.”
So that + could

E.g. 

“She moved back in with her father so that she could look after him.”
So that + will

E.g.

“We arrive at the theatre early so that we will have time to eat before the show.”
So that + would

E.g. 

“They wrote the notice in big letter so that it would stick out.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, September 3, 2017.

#EngClass: Indirect (Reporting) Speech (2)

Today we will learn more about reported speech.
You can review the first lesson here https://englishtips4u.com/2011/10/12/engclass-indirect-reporting-speech/ 

Reported speech is also called indirect speech, used to report something someone said.
E.g.

  1. Simple present –> simple past

E.g. 

Quoted speech: He said, “I work every day.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he worked every day.”
2. Present progressive –> past progressive

E.g. 

Quoted speech: He said, “I am working.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he was working.”
3. Present perfect –> past perfect

E.g.

Quoted speech: He said, “I have worked.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he had worked.”
4. Simple past –> past perfect

E.g.

Quoted speech: He said, ” I worked.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he had worked.”
5. Past progressive –> past perfect progressive

E.g.

Quoted speech: He said, ” I was working.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he had been working.”
6. Past perfect –> past perfect

E.g.

Quoted speech: He said, “I had worked.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he had worked.”
7. Simple future

E.g. 

Quoted speech: He said, ” I will work.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he would work.”
8. Be going to

E.g.

Quoted speech: He said, ” I am going to work.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he was going to work.”
9. Modal auxiliary

E.g. 

Quoted speech: He said, ” I can work.”

Reported speech: “He said (that) he could work.”

Compiled and written by @sherlydarmali for @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, August 20, 2017.