All posts by Miss_qiak

Affiliated with @EnglishTips4U.

#UKSlang: UK slang (10)

Whilst preparing for a session to be delivered on Twitter, I found some slangs that are quite hilarious. I hope you find them fun, like I do. This time, we’ll talk about some slangs that are mostly used in the UK. Like all slangs, they’re suitable only in casual conversation.

Enough with the speech. Let’s start, shall we?

  1. A bunch of fives. Meaning: a punch in the face.
    • Example:
      • “I’ll give you a bunch of fives.”
      • Meaning: “I’m going to punch you in the face.”
  2. Pants. Meaning: not very good, not great.
    • Example:
      • “That’s pants.”
      • Meaning: “That’s not very good.”
  3. Nineteen to the dozen. Meaning: very fast, at a speedy rate at high speed.
    • Example:
      • “She was talking nineteen to the dozen.”
      • Meaning: “She was talking very fast.”
  4. Pear-shaped. Meaning: wrong result, deviate from expectation.
    • Example:
      • “It’s all gone pear-shaped.”
      • Meaning: “It’s all gone wrong.”
  5. A slice short of a loaf. Meaning: not very clever.
    • Example:
      • “That pretty girl is a slice short of a loaf.”
      • Meaning: “That pretty girl is not very clever.”
  6. As bright as a button. Meaning: clever.
    • Example:
      • “She’s as bright as a button.”
      • Meaning: “She’s clever.”
  7. Spend a penny. Meaning: visit the bathroom.
    • Example:
      • “Excuse me. I need to spend a penny.”
      • Meaning: “Excuse me. I need to visit the bathroom.”
  8. Parky. Meaning: cold.
    • Example:
      • “It’s parky outside.”
      • Meaning: “It’s cold outside.”
  9. Curtain twitcher. Meaning: a nosy neighbor.
    • Example:
      • “You’re such a curtain twitcher.”
      • Meaning: “You’re such a nosy neighbor.”
  10. Fluff. Meaning: fart.
    • Example:
      • “Did you just fluff?”
      • Meaning: “Did you just fart?”

That’s all for now, fellas! So, which one do you like best?

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, April 29, 2017

 

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#EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘very’ (2)

How often do you use the word ‘very’? How many times have you used it today alone?

To intensify or emphasis on an adjective, we often use the word ‘very‘ in front of the adjective. For example:

  • very good,
  • very bad,
  • very funny,
  • very slow,
  • etc.

However, do you know that there are some words to substitutes ‘very’? We’ll share a few this evening. Check them out!

  1. Very afraid – terrified.
    • Example:
      • I have no idea why anyone would be terrified of snakes. They’re so cuddly.
      • I have no idea why anyone would be very afraid of snakes. They’re so cuddly.
  2. Very boring – dull.
    • Example:
      • My life’s dull without you.
      • My life’s very boring without you.
  3. Very clear – obvious.
    • Example:
      • She made it obvious that she won’t be staying.
      • She made it very clear that she won’t be staying.
  4. Very dear – cherished.
    • Example:
      • A cherished friend of mine is getting married this Sunday.
      • A very dear friend of mine is getting married this Sunday.
  5. Very eager – keen.
    • Example:
      • The kids were keen to go swimming.
      • The kids were very eager to go swimming.
  6. Very frightening – terrifying.
    • Example:
      • There was a terrifying accident at the airport toll just last week.
      • There was a very frightening accident at the airport toll just last week.
  7. Very hungry – starving.
    • Example:
      • I never have time for dinner and always come home starving.
      • I never have time for dinner and always come home (feeling) very hungry.
  8. Very mean – cruel.
    • Example:
      • Even a lioness would never be cruel to her cubs.
      • Even a lioness would never be very mean to her cubs.
  9. Very old – ancient.
    • Example:
      • The book looked ancient, so he handled it carefully.
      • The book looked very old, so he handled it carefully.
  10. Very short – brief.
    • Example:
      • It’s getting late. Let’s keep the meeting brief.
      • It’s getting late. Let’s keep the meeting very short.

There go all 10 substitutes of ‘very’ for now, fellas! I hope the examples are clear enough. Otherwise, mention us to ask.

There are many more to come and I promise to share more in future sessions and articles. Meanwhile, also check out the first installment: #EngVocab: Substitutes of ‘very’

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, April 22, 2017

 

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#EngTrivia: Telling time (2)

How was your day? Did you use your time wisely? In this particular article, we’ll talk about time… or rather, the different ways to tell the time.

Slide1

So, how do you usually tell the time? What time is this clock showing? There is more than one way to tell the time. Let’s look into it in more detail. Ready?

1. ‘a.m.’ & ‘p.m.’

‘a.m.’ and ‘p.m.’ are used in the 12 hours clock system. They are more often used in writing.

  • ‘a.m.’ stands for ante meridiem, before noon. It indicates the time period from midnight to midday.
    slide3
  • ‘p.m.’ stands for post meridiem, after noon. It indicates the time period from midday to midnight. Slide4

2. ‘to’ and ‘past’

The most common way to tell the time is to use ‘to’ and ‘past.’ This method is acceptable in verbal and written communication.

  • ‘to’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If it is going to be 8 o’clock in 15 minutes, we say “It’s fifteen to eight.” Slide6
  • ‘past’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If the time is 15 minutes after 8 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen past eight.” Slide7

3. Hour and minute

Another way to tell the time would be by simply saying the hour and minutes. Example:

  • If the clock shows 8:05 p.m. You can simply say, “It’s eight zero five” or “It’s eight oh five.”Slide9

With this method, you don’t need to worry whether it’s morning, afternoon, evening or night. However, do keep in mind to only use this in casual conversation. You are highly discouraged to use this method in writing, especially in formal writing.

4. ’till’ and ‘after’

Especially in American English, some people use ’till’ (until) instead of ‘to,’ and ‘after’ instead of ‘past.’

  • ’till’ is used to show the number of minutes towards a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If it is going to be 9 o’clock in 25 minutes, we say “It’s twenty-five till nine.”Slide11
  • ‘after’ is used to show the number of minutes after a particular hour.
    • Example:
      • If the time is 15 minutes after 9 o’clock, we say “It’s fifteen after nine.”Slide12

As mentioned above, ’till’ and ‘after’ are only used in American English. And even so, they’re only used in speech; not in writing.

And that’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you do have any question, feel free to leave a comment in the comment box.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Thursday, April 13, 2017

 

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#EngClass: Participial adjective – Comparative and superlative

Hello hey ho, fellas! Still following our previous discussion on ‘participial adjective’, we will talk about stating degrees of comparison.

Degrees of comparison are used when we compare one thing/person with another. There are three degrees of comparison:

  • positive,
  • comparative, and
  • superlative.

Comparative degree of comparison

Let’s start with the comparative degree. The comparative degree is used to compare
two persons or things having the same quality.

To form the comparative degree of adjectives, we usually add -er to adjective with two or less syllables. Example:

  • Taller
  • Lighter
  • Nicer

However, when forming the comparative degree of participial adjectives, we use the
word ‘more.’ Example:

Participial adjective

Comparative

Boring

More boring

Bored

More bored

Tiring

More tiring

Tired

More tired

Alarming

More alarming

Alarmed

More alarmed

 

More example:

Participial adjective

WRONG

Comparative

Relaxing

relaxinger

more relaxing

Relaxed

relaxeder

more relaxed

Interesting

interestinger

more interesting

Interested

interesteder

more interested

Confusing

confusinger

more confusing

Confused

confuseder

more confused

Superlative degree of comparison

Moving on to the superlative degree of adjective. Superlative degree denotes the existence of the highest degree of the quality. The superlative degree of adjective is used to single out one person or thing from all the rest.

To form the superlative degree of adjectives, we usually add ‘-est’ to adjective with
two or less syllables. Example:

  • Tallest
  • Lightest
  • Nicest

However, when forming the superlative degree of participial adjectives, we use the
word ‘most.
Example:

Participial adjective

Superlative

Boring

Most boring

Bored

Most bored

Tiring

Most tiring

Tired

Most tired

Alarming

Most alarming

Alarmed

Most alarmed

More example:

Participial adjective

WRONG

Comparative

Relaxing

relaxingest

Most relaxing

Relaxed

relaxedest

Most relaxed

Interesting

interestingest

Most interesting

Interested

interestedest

Most interested

Confusing

confusingest

Most confusing

Confused

confusedest

Most confused

 

That’s a wrap, fellas! I hope the explanation was clear enough. However, if you have any question on the topic, feel free to leave a message in the comment box.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, April 8, 2017

 

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#EngQuiz: Participial adjective

In short, participial adjectives are present and past participles which are used as adjectives. Present and past participles adjectives are used in slightly different ways. One talks about something that causes of the feeling , and the other talks about how someone feels.

Find a recap on that session here: #EngClass: Participial adjective (3)

Moving on, this time around, we’re having a quiz on present and past participle adjectives. Let’s start, shall we?

1. He was (terpesona) to hear his little son singing in the bath.
amuzed
amusing
amuse
amused
Correct! ‘Amused’ means ‘terpesona.’ Therefore, “He was amused.” means “Dia merasa terpesona.”
2. I find these instructions very (membingungkan)! Could you come and help me?
Confusing Correct! ‘Confusing’ means ‘membuat bingung.’ Therefore, “It is confusing.” means “Ini membingungkan.”[/explanation][/answer]
Confused
Confuse
Confuzed
3. I was feeling (tertekan), so I stayed at home with hot chocolate and a good book.
(Pic)
Depressed
Correct! ‘Depressed’ means ‘merasa tertekan.’ Therefore, “I am feeling depressed.” means “Saya merasa tertekan.”
Depressing
Impressed
Impression
4. That is the most (memalukan) photo! I look terrible!
embarrassing
Correct! ‘Embarassing’ means ‘membuat malu.’ Therefore, ’embarassing photo.’ means ‘foto yang membuat malu.’
embarrassed
embarassment
embarassingly
5. Julie was so (kelelahan) after her exams, she spent the next three days sleeping.
exhausted
Correct! ‘Exhausted’ means ‘merasa lelah.’
Therefore, “I was exhausted.” means “Saya kelelahan (merasa lelah).”
exhausting
exhaust
exhaustion
6. I tried all morning to send an email, but it wouldn’t work. I was so (frustrasi)!
frustrated
Correct! ‘Frustrated’ means ‘merasa frustrasi.’ Therefore, “I was frustrated.” means “Saya merasa frustrasi.”
frustrating
frustrate
frustration
7. A nice hot bath is so (melegakan) after a long day.
Relaxing
Correct! ‘Relaxing’ means ‘membuat lega.’ Therefore, “It is relaxing.” means “Itu melegakan (membuat lega).”
Relaxation
Relaxes
Relaxed
8. I’m very (puas) that I managed to order the meal in French.
Satisfied
Correct! ‘Satisfied’ means ‘merasa puas.’ Therefore, “I am satisfied.” means “Saya (merasa) puas.”
Satisfication
Satisfying
Satisfy
9. It’s (mengejutkan) how many people don’t want to travel to another country.
Surprising
Correct! ‘Surprising’ means ‘mengejutkan.’ Therefore, “It is surprising.” means “Itu mengejutkan (membuat terkejut).”
Surprises
Surprised
Surprise
10. My job is really (melelahkan). I don’t get home until 10pm sometimes.
Tiring
Correct! ‘Tiring’ means ‘melelahkan, membuat lelah.’ Therefore “It is tiring.” means “Itu melelahkan (membuat lelah).”
Tires
Tire
Tired

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Saturday, April 1, 2017

 

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#EngClass: Participial adjective (3)

One of our followers asked the question above on Twitter. Do you have a similar question? Do you get confused as to when you should use present or past participle adjective? Kalau kamu masih tulis/bilang: “I’m interesting” saat mau menyatakan “Saya tertarik,” yuk baca lagi artikel ini sampai selesai.

Participle adjectives are verbs, often ends in -ing and -ed, which are used as adjectives.  There are two types of participles: present participles (v-ing) and past participles (v2). Example:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

Bored

Relaxing

Relaxed

Tiring

Tired

Confusing

Confused

Exciting

Excited

We use present particular adjectives (v-ing) to talk about person, thing, or situation which caused the feeling. Example:

  • “I am boring.”
    • “Aku membosankan, aku menimbulkan rasa bosan.”
  • “They are confusing.”
    • “Mereka membingungkan, mereka menimbulkan kebingungan.”
  • “The book is exciting.”
    • “Bukunya menarik. Bukunya membuat orang tertarik.”

We use past participle adjectives (v2) to talk about how someone feels. Example:

  • “I am bored.”
    • “Aku merasa bosan. Yang kurasakan adalah bosan.”
  • “They are confused.”
    • “Mereka kebingungan. Yang mereka rasakan adalah bingung.”
  • “She is very excited.”
    • “Dia sangat bersemangat. Yang dia rasakan adalah semangat.”

If we were to compare the two side by side:

Present participle

Past participle

Penyebab perasaan

Perasaan yang dirasa

[Me- -kan]

[ter-], [ke- -an]

Entertaining

Entertained

Menghibur

Merasa terhibur

More examples:

Present participle

Past participle

Boring

(Membosankan)

Bored

(Merasa bosan)

Relaxing

(Membuat santai)

Relaxed

(Merasa santai)

Tiring

(Melelahkan)

Tired

(Merasa lelah)

Confusing

(Membingungkan)

Confused

(Merasa bingung)

Exciting

(Menarik)

Excited

(Merasa tertarik)

So, what do you think? I hope the explanation was clear enough. If you still have any question, feel free to leave a comment down below, or you can also mention us on twitter.

How about having a short quiz to see how well you understand the explanation given above? Look at these sentences and choose the correct answer.

  1. I was really (boring/bored) during the lecture. It was really (boring/bored).
  2. I bought a really (interesting/interested) book last night. If you’re (interesting/interested), I can lend it to you.
  3. I heard an (alarming/alarmed) noise last night, and it kept me (alarming/alarmed) all night.

Answer:

  1. bored; boring.
  2. interesting; interested.
  3. alarming; alarmed.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, March 22, 2017

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#EngQuiz: ‘Live’ vs. ‘alive’

In this occasion, we’ll test how well you understand when to use the words ‘live’ and ‘alive.’ We’ve actually talked about this in a previous article. If you missed the discussion, feel free to head over to #EngVocab: ‘Live’ vs. ‘alive’.

Without further ado, let’s start, shall we?

Read the questions carefully. Click the word of your choice.

1. Where do you [live/alive]?
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is a verb which means to reside.
alive
2. I [live/alive] in Jakarta.
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is a verb which means to reside.
alive
3. This music makes me feel [live/alive].
live
alive
Correct! Here, ‘alive’ is an adjective which means active, not dead.
4. I’ve always wanted to [live/alive] in Bali.
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is a verb which means to reside.
alive
5. Some people feel most [live/alive] when they are busy with work.
live
alive
Correct! Here, ‘alive’ is an adjective which means active, not dead.
6. I wish Michael Jackson was still [live/alive].
live
alive
Correct! Here, ‘alive’ is an adjective which means active, not dead.
7. Some people [live/alive] every day like there is no tomorrow.
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is a verb which means to conduct a life.
alive
8. We went to watch the match [live/alive] at the stadium.
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is an adjective which means actual, present.
alive
9. These are [live/alive] animals.
live
Correct! Here, ‘live’ is an adjective which means living.
alive
10. A man was hit by a car this morning. Is he [live/alive]?
live
alive
Correct! Here, ‘alive’ is an adjective which means active, not dead.

There goes all 10 questions for today. How did you do? How many correct answers did you score?

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @Englishtips4U on Thursday, March 9, 2017

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#EngVocab: ‘Live’ vs. ‘alive’

Someone asked us on LINE about the difference between ‘live’ and ‘alive’ on LINE. So, instead of keeping the answer between the two of us, I’ll talk about it in this article and share with all of you. Let’s start, shall we?

Meaning of ‘live’ and ‘alive’

First off, let’s talk about the meaning of ‘live’ and ‘alive.’ In a glance, both have something to do with life.

  • ‘Life’ (noun), dibaca laif, is the period between birth and death, during which something is active and functioning.
  • ‘Life’ (noun), dibaca laif, also refers to the living person or being.

‘Live’ is both a verb and an adjective.

As a verb, ‘live,’ yang dibaca liv, means to exist, to be alive, to reside, to conduct a life. Example:

  • “I live in Jakarta.”
  • “They lived happily ever after.”

As an adjective, ‘live,’ yang dibaca laiv, means living, actual, present. Example:

  • ‘live show,’
  • ‘live animal,’
  • ‘live broadcast.’

‘Alive’, dibaca əlaiv, is an adjective.

‘Alive’ describes the condition of living, active, and not dead. Example:

  • “The happiest woman alive.”
  • “Grandpa is still alive.”

Now we’ve talked about the meaning of ‘live’ and ‘alive.’ Let’s look at more examples:

RIGHT

WRONG

Live show

Alive show

Live bait

Alive bait

I am alive.

I am live.

Keep your hope alive.

Keep your hope live.

Look at the examples again. Did you notice the difference? Clue: position. Did you notice how ‘live’ is placed directly before a noun and ‘alive’ is placed after a verb?

Live‘ is an attributive adjective. Attributive adjectives are positioned before the noun they describe.

Alive‘ is a predicative adjective. Predicative adjectives are positioned after verbs such as be, become, grow, look or seem.

And there you have it! That’s the end of today’s talk on how to differentiate when to use ‘live’ and ‘alive.’ If you have other questions regarding this topic, or any other topic at all, feel free to hit us up on Twitter or drop a comment in the comment box below.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @Englishtips4U on Wednesday, March 8, 2017

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#WOTD: Whilst

‘Whilst’ is a conjunction (kata sambung), a word used to connect clauses or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause.

As a conjunction, ‘whilst’ means the same as ‘while‘. Both mean ‘during the time that something else happens.’

Example:

  • She reads a novel whilst waiting for her boyfriend.
  • She reads a novel while waiting for her boyfriend.

‘Whilst’ and ‘while’ indicate that two events are happening at the same time.

On going events:

  • reading a novel
  • waiting for boyfriend

Not just that, both ‘whilst’ and ‘while’ can also mean ‘in contrast with something else.’

Example:

  • Her top is white, whilst her pants are black.
  • Her top is white, while her pants are black.

Here’s another example of using ‘whilst’ in showing contrast.

Example:

  • Whilst ‘of’ refers to possession, ‘from’ refers to origins.

 

So, you may now ask:

When should we use ‘whilst’? Or should we use ‘while’ instead?

Actually, the real question is not ‘when’ to use them; but ‘where‘ you should use ‘whilst.’

For Americans, the word ‘whilst’ tends to have an archaic ring. ‘Whilst’ is rarely used in American English. The use of ‘whilst’ gives the impression that the writer is British. ‘Whilst’ is fairly common in British publications.

So that sums up our discussion on the word ‘whilst.’ I hope the explanation was clear enough and not too boring. However, if you still have any question on how to use ‘whilst’ (or any other topic), feel free to hit us up.

 

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Friday, February 24, 2017

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#EngProverb: Rain

Hello hey ho, fellas! It has been raining a lot lately and there’s this one song my nephew sings every time it rains. 

Do you know this song? The song goes like this:

 

Speaking of rain, I’ll share proverbs about rain from various countries. Check them out.

  1. English proverb – “If it rains before seven, ’twill cease before eleven.”
  2. Thai proverb – “Rainbow after the rain.”
  3. Chinese proverb – “When it rains about the break of day, the traveller’s sorrows pass away.”
  4. Welsh proverb – “A flood in the river means fine weather.” 
  5. Spanish proverb – “A river flood, fishes good.”
  6. Greek proverb – “If there is much rain in winter, the spring is generally dry.”
  7. Latin proverb – “After clouds a clear sun.”
  8. German proverb – “Rain in September is good for the farmer, but poison to the vine growers.”
  9. English proverb – “A foul morn may turn to a fine day.”
  10. Cornish proverb – “More rain, more rest.”

There goes all 10 proverbs on rain. Feel free to mention us if you know other proverbs on rain from your country.

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, February 15, 2017

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#EngClass: Modal verb – Can

We’ve talked about “may” and “must” in previous posts. If you happen to miss them, check these out:

“Can” is commonly used to express:

  • Ability
  • Possibility
  • Permission

“Can” is only used in the present tense. In the past tense, we use “could”. We will talk about “could” in another instance.

 

When to use “can”?

We use the modal “can” to make statements about:

slide9

  1. In statements about ability.
    • Example:
      • I can sing.
  2. In statements about possibility.
    • Example:
      • It can get very crowded on holidays.
  3. In statements about offer.
    • Example:
      • Can I help you?
  4. In statements about permission.
    • Example:
      • Can I ask you a question?
  5. In statements about instruction and request.
    • Example:
      • Can you listen to me please?
  6. In statements about prohibition.
    • Example:
      • You can’t smoke in the building.
  7. In statements about impossibility.
    • Example:
      • It can’t be true. I just met her yesterday.

 

How to use “can”?

slide11

Next, we’ll talk about how to use “can” in a sentence.

  • Like every other modal verb, “can” is followed by a bare infinitive verb.
  • To form a negative sentence, “not” is slipped in between “can” and the bare infinitive verb. The negative sentence expresses prohibition and impossibility.

 

  1. “Can” in statements about ability.
    • Example:
      • (+) I can sing.
      • (-) I can’t sing.
      • (?) Can you sing?
  2. “Can” in statements about possibility.
    • Example:
      • (+) It can get very crowded on holidays.
      • (-) It can’t get crowded even on holidays.
      • (?) Can it get crowded on holidays?
  3. “Can” in statements about offer.
    • Example:
      • (+) I can help you.
      • (-) I can’t help you.
      • (?) Can I help you?
  4. “Can” in statements about permission.
    • Example:
      • (+) You can ask me anything.
      • (-) You can’t ask me.
      • (?) Can I ask you a question?
  5. “Can” in statements about instruction and request.
    • Example:
      • (+) Can you stay still!
      • (?) Can you listen to me please?
  6. “Can” in statements about prohibition.
    • Example:
      • (-) You can’t smoke in the building.
      • (-) We can’t park at the entrance.
  7. “Can” in statements about impossibility.
    • Example:
      • (-) It can’t be true. I just met her yesterday.

 

Prohibition

Prohibition is a negative permission. It is stated with a negative statement. To state a prohibition, we use “can’t” or “cannot”.

Subject + can + not + verb

Example:

  • You cannot meet her.
    • Meaning: You are not allowed to meet her.

Stating impossibility

To state the impossible, we use a negative statement.  When stating the impossible, we add “not” after “can”.

Subject + can + not + verb

Example:

  • You can’t be serious. I don’t believe you.
    • Meaning: What you’re saying is impossible.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, February 1, 2017


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#EngClass: Modal verb – Must

To continue our discussion on modal verb, this time, we’ll talk about “must”. “Must” is commonly used to express:

  • personal obligation,
  • necessity,
  • strong recommendation,
  • certainty.

Instead of “must”, native speakers from America usually prefer the more flexible form “have to”.

 

When to use “must”?

People generally use “must” to express personal obligation, something that the speaker thinks is necessary. Other than that, “must” is also used for the following purposes:

slide7

  1. To express obligation or duty.
    • Example:
      • You must wear a seat belt at all times.
  2. To emphasize the necessity of something.
    • Example:
      • You must give up smoking. It’s bad for you.
  3. To say that you’re sure that something is true.
    • Example:
      • It must be cold outside. It’s raining hard.
  4. To express positive logical assumptions.
    • Example:
      • She must have been at home. Her lights were on.
  5. To make a strong recommendation.
    • Example:
      • The ice cream here is delicious. You must try some.

 

How to use “must”?

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  • Like every other modal verbs, “must” is followed by a main verb.
  • And to form a negative sentence, “not” is placed after the word “must”, before the main verb. It expresses prohibition.
  • “Must” is generally not used in interrogative sentences. For questions, it is more common to use “have to”.

 

  1. “Must” in expressing obligation or duty.
    • Example:
      • You must wear a seat belt at all times.
      • She must cook dinner every evening.
  2. “Must” in emphasizing the necessity of something.
    • Example:
      • You must give up smoking. It’s bad for you.
      • You must study the last two chapters before the test.
  3. “Must” in saying that you’re sure that something is true.
    • Example:
      • It must be cold outside. It’s raining hard.
      • She must be home. The lights are on.
  4. “Must” in expressing positive logical assumptions.
    • Example:
      • She must have been at home. Her lights were on.
      • There’s a missed call on my phone. He must have called last night.
  5. “Must” in making a strong recommendation.
    • Example:
      • The ice cream here is delicious. You must try some.
      • We really must get together for dinner sometime.

 

Present certainty and deduction

“Must” can also be used when you’re certain that something is true, based on evidence. In order to express present certainty, “must” is followed by “be” and a noun or an adjective.

S + must be + noun/adjective/v-ing/prepositional phrase.

Example:

  • She must be a teacher. She’s so wise. (noun: a teacher)
  • She must be cold. She’s shivering. (adjective: cold)
  • She must be singing. I can hear her voice. (present participle: singing)
  • She must be at her friend’s. Nobody is answering the door. (prepositional phrase: at her friend’s)

 

Logical assumptions and past certainty

“Must” is also used in expressing logical assumptions. To express logical assumptions, “must” is followed by “have” and “past participle”.

S + must have + V3

Example:

  • This must have been the book she was talking about. There is no other book with a red cover.
  • She must have won the lottery. She suddenly got a brand new car.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, January 25, 2017


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#EngClass: Modal verb – May

In this particular session/post, we’ll talk about “may”. It is one of many modal verbs which modify main verbs. Modal verbs are often used to express an opinion or attitude about a possible fact or to control a possible action.

Modal verbs either show:

  • a decision on how certain something is (a speculation or prediction about a fact, talk about degrees of certainty, possibility, likelihood)
  • the desire to control an action (give or refuse permission, talk about obligation and necessity)

When to use “may”?

“May” is most commonly used to express possibility. Other than that, “may” is also used for the following purposes:

slide9

  1. To express future possibility.
    • Example:
      • She is very smart. I think she may get the scholarship.
  2. To give permission.
    • Example:
      • You may go out now that your homework is done.(Present)
      • You may go out after your homework is done. (Future)
  3. To ask for permission.
    • Example:
      • May I stay overnight?
  4. To talk about typical occurrences.
    • Example:
      • You may find it difficult if you drink coffee in the evening.
  5. To speculate about past actions. 
    • Example:
      • She is late. I think she may have overslept.
  6. To express wishes.
    • Example:
      • May all your wishes come true.

How to use “may”?

slide10

  • In an interrogative sentence, “may” is placed up front and followed by subject and verb.
  • To form a negative sentence, “not” is placed after the word “may”.
  • In a sentence, “may” is placed after subject and before verb.
  1. To express future possibility.
    • Example:
      •  (+) She is very smart. I think she may get the scholarship.
      • (-) I think she may not get the scholarship.
  2. To give permission.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may go out now that your homework is done.(Present)
      • (-) You may not go out. Your homework is not done.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may go out after your homework is done. (Future)
      • (-) You may not go out even after your homework is done.
  3. To ask for permission.
    • Example:
      • (?) May I stay overnight?
  4. To talk about typical occurrences.
    • Example:
      • (+) You may find it difficult to sleep if you drink coffee in the evening.
      • (-) You may not find it difficult to sleep if you drink milk.
  5. To speculate about past actions.
    • Example:
      • (+) She is late. I think she may have overslept.
      • (-) She arrived looking tired. I think she may not have overslept.

Speculating past action

slide17

“May” can also be used to form a past tense sentence to express past possibility.

  • To express past possibility, “may” is followed by “have” and past participle (verb3).
    • Example:
      • She may have been waiting in the rain. She was feverish.
  • To form a negative sentence when talking about past possibility, “not” is placed right after “may”.
    • Example:
      • She may not have been waiting in the rain. Her clothes were dry.

Giving permission in the past

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To express giving permission in the past, we do not use “may”. Instead, we use “be allowed to“. Both are synonymous, except “be allowed to” can be used to give permission in the present, past and future.

  • When we talk about giving permission in the past, “be allowed to” is positioned after subject and followed by an infinitive verb. And since we’re talking a past event, we use “was” or “were”.
    • Example:
      • He was allowed to go on a holiday.
  • To form a negative sentence when talking about giving permission in the past, “not” is slipped in right after “was/were”.
    • Example:
      • He was not allowed to go on a holiday.
  • To form an interrogative sentence when talking about giving permission in the past, “was/were” is placed up front followed by the subject, “allowed to” and the infinitive verb.
    • Example:
      • Was he allowed to go on a holiday?

Feel free to ask if you have any question in relation to “may”. Simply drop a comment down below or contact us on Twitter.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, January 18, 2017


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#EngClass: Modal Verbs

In today’s discussion on modal verbs, we’ll talk about the following points:

  • What are modal verbs?
  • How are modal verbs different from normal verbs?
  • What modal verbs are there in English?
  • What do modal verbs express?
  • How to use modal verbs?

What are modal verbs?

Modal verbs are special verbs which behave very irregularly in English. They behave very differently from normal verbs. Modal verbs modify main verbs which are positioned next to them.

How are modal verbs different from normal verbs?

Verb is the part of speech that expresses existence, action or occurrence. And the following are the differences that modal verbs have from normal verbs:

  1. Modal verbs do not take “-s” in the third person.
    • Example:
      She can sing very well.
      He should take a seat.
  2. We use “not” to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.
    • Example:
      She might not call you tonight.
      We should not be here.
  3. Modal verbs are followed directly by another verb.
    • Example:
      He must finish his work soon.
      She will be home at 7 pm.
  4. They make questions by inversion.
    • Example:
      Affirmative: She can go…
      Interrogative: Can she go… ?
  5. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses or the future tenses.
    • Example:
      Wrong: He will can go with us.
      Wrong: She musted study very hard.

What do modal verbs express?

We use modal verbs to express various things, such as:

  1. We use “can” and “could” to talk about a skill or ability.
    • Example:
      He can build a house.
  2. We use “can”, “could” and “might” to talk about possibility and impossibility.
    • Example:
      We might get there at 9.30.
  3. We use “must”, “could”, “should” and “ought to” to say when something is necessary or unnecessary, whether it is an obligation.
    • Example:
      They must not be late to school.
  4. We use “could”, “should” and “ought to” to give advice.
    • Example:
      She should speak louder.
  5. We use “can”, “could” and “may” to ask for and give permission. We use them to say something is not allowed.
    • Example:
      He may not leave the house tonight.
  6. We use “will” and “would” to talk about habits or things we usually do or did in the past.
    • Example:
      You will always be in my heart.

What modal verbs are there in English?

Here’s a list of them:

Can                    Could                 Must

Should              May                    Might

Will                   Would                Shall

Ought to

Last but but not least,…

How do we use modal verbs?

  • Modal verb is followed directly by the infinitive of another verb.

slide16

  • To form a negative statement, “not” is added right after modal verb, right before the main verb.

slide17

  • We form an interrogative statement by inversion. Reverse the word structure by inverting the subject and the verb.

modal-verbs

Sya: However, some also say that “need” is also often considered as modal.

Nowadays, this is not a common practice. Some would call “need” a semi-modal. Some other would think it’s outdated and formal.

“Need”, as a semi-modal, is mostly used in the negative form. It is to say that there is no obligation or necessity to do something. Example:

  • She need not thank me.

Notice how “need” does not take -s, and the verb which follows is a bare infinitive.

That’s a wrap for today’s discussion on “modal verbs”. In-depth discussions on each and every modals will be shared in the coming weeks.

Also check out past discussions on “modal verbs”, titles are listed below.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, January 11, 2017


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#EngVocab: Words ending with -age

Hello hey ho! How are you doing today, fellas?

Have you ever heard or read words such as those listed in this image? What do you think they have in common?

pw72

Bingo! All of them end with -age. The affix -age shows that they are nouns. So, yes… the words in the previous image are all nouns. These too.

pw74

Let’s learn more about some of them.

  1. Voyage.photogrid_1483498249754
  2. Wreckage.photogrid_1483498325854
  3. Courage.photogrid_1483498306678
  4. Marriage.photogrid_1483498287686
  5. Storage.photogrid_1483498382324
  6. Damage.photogrid_1483498364890
  7. Village.photogrid_1483498350655
  8. Homage.photogrid_1483498406962
  9. Mortgage.photogrid_1483498394554
  10. Image.photogrid_1483498422720

Alright, fellas! There goes 10 selected words which ended with -age. I hope the explanations were clear enough.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, January 4, 2017.

#IOTW: Christmas idioms

1. Be no angel. Meaning: to behave badly occasionally.

Example:

  • She‘s no angel but it’s expected of her if you treat her that way.

2. Christmas comes but once a year. Meaning: Since Christmas only happens once a year, we should treat it as a special time by being good to others or by indulging our children or ourselves.

Example:

  • Christmas comes but once a year, let’s get something for every one.

3. Cold turkey. Meaning: to withdraw from (an addictive substance or a habit)abruptly and completely.

Example:

  • People usually try to quit smoking by going cold turkey.

4. Deck the halls. Meaning: to indulge in copious amount of alcoholic drinks as a way of dealing with stress.

Example:

  • I’m so tired, I just want to deck the halls for the rest of the day.

5. Don’t get your tinsel in a tangle. Meaning: Get over it! Don’t get stressed out.

Example:

  • Don’t get your tinsel in a tangle. He’s only here for the party.

6. Trim the tree. Meaning: to decorate a (Christmas) tree.

Example:

  • Now that I’ve made my choice, let’s trim the tree and get ready for Christmas.

7. To cancel someone’s Christmas. Meaning: To kill someone; to destroy someone.

Example:

  • If he keeps bugging me, I’m gonna cancel his Christmas.

8. Christmas came early (this year). Meaning: When you receive some unexpected good news or good fortune.

Example:

  • Congratulations! I heard you’re promoted. Sounds like Christmas came early this year.

9. Like turkeys voting for Christmas. Meaning: to accept a situation which will have very bad results for them.

Example:

  • When she signed up to organize the reunion, she was like a turkey voting for Christmas.

10. Christmas tree. Meaning: A drunkard, a person who is frequently or habitually drunk.

Example:

  • A well-dressed Christmas tree sat in the corner – lit up, of course.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, December 28, 2016

 

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#EngQuote: Mark Twain

Heyya, fellas! How was your day? Did you have a great one?

Any one of you knows Samuel L. Clemens? What about Mark Twain?

To the whole wide world, Mark Twain is one of the biggest name in classic American literature. I mean, who haven’t heard of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer? Or the sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?

slide1

The name Mark Twain is a pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens. He was born on November 30‚ 1835 in Florida‚ Missouri. Samuel Clemens only started using the pen name Mark Twain around September 1862. It was a steamboat slang for 12 feet of water.

Twain’s father, John Clemens, was a lawyer, highly intelligent and a stern disciplinarian. His mother, Jane Clemens, was a fun-loving, tenderhearted homemaker. Although the family was not wealthy, Twain apparently had a happy and secure childhood.

Twain published his first short story “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” in 1865. He wrote several novels, including two major classics of American literature: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

slide2

During his lifetime‚ Twain witnessed USA evolve from a nation torn apart by internal conflicts to one of international power. In his writings, Twain provided images of the romantic‚ the real‚ the strengths and weaknesses of a rapidly changing world.

In today’s session, we’ll have a look at some #EngQuotes from Twain. Perhaps we can learn a thing or two from Twain.

1. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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2. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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3. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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4. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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5. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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6. Mark Twain #EngQuote
slide8

7. Mark Twain #EngQuote

8. Mark Twain #EngQuote
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9. Mark Twain #EngQuote
slide11

10. Mark Twain #EngQuote
slide12

And that’s a wrap for today, fellas! See you again tomorrow where we talk about idioms about hard work.

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 30, 2016.

#EngTrivia: Adverbial Phrase

Heyya, fellas! How are you doing? Ready for today’s #EngTrivia session? As promised last week, we’ll talk about the Adverbial Phrase in today’s #EngTrivia. Let’s start, shall we?

Adverbs are one of the four major word classes, along with nouns, verbs, and adjectives.slide1

 

Adverbs are words that modify verbs and adjectives. Adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under what conditions something happen or happened.

 

Example: Adverb which modifies verb. slide2

 

Example: Adverb which modifies adjective. slide3

 

Example: Adverb which modifies other adverb. slide4

 

When a group of words, not containing a subject and verb, acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. slide5

 

Adverbial phrase is the term for two or more words which play the role of an adverb. We use adverb phrases most commonly to modify verbs.

When used to modify a verb, an adverb (including adverbial phrase and adverbial clause) will usually describe when, where and how.

When? How often?

An adverbial phrase of time states WHEN or HOW OFTEN something happens.

Example 1: Adverbial Phrase stating WHEN something happens. slide6

 

Example 2: Adverbial Phrase stating WHEN something happens. slide7

 

Example 3: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW OFTEN something happens. slide8

 

Example 4: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW OFTEN something happens. slide9

 

Where?

An adverbial phrase of place states WHERE something happens.

Example 1: Adverbial Phrase stating WHERE something happens.slide10

 

Example 2: Adverbial Phrase stating WHERE something happens.slide11

 

Example 3: Adverbial Phrase stating WHERE something happens. slide12

 

Example 4: Adverbial Phrase stating WHERE something happens.slide13

 

How

An adverbial phrase of manner states HOW something is done.

Example 1: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW something is done. slide14

 

Example 2: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW something is done. slide15

 

Example 3: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW something is done. slide16

 

Example 4: Adverbial Phrase stating HOW something is done. slide17

 

That’s a wrap for today, fellas! I hope the explanation was not too complicated.  Thanks for tuning in to today’s #EngTrivia. Also don’t miss tomorrow’s #EngQuiz on transitive and intransitive verbs.

 

Compiled and written by @miss_qiak for @EnglishTips4U on Wednesday, November 16, 2016.