All posts by Mettadiana

The crescent moon. The meaning of love

#EngKnowledge: Tut wuri handayani

Hello, Fellas. Happy National Education Day.

This special day is also intended to commemorate Ki Hadjar Dewantara. He is a proud national figure for education in Indonesia and also the mastermind of Indonesia education founding philosophy, “Tut wuri handayani.

Indonesian people certainly familiar with “Tut wuri handayani.” Do you still remember what it is?

Tut wuri handayani is one of philosophy in education initiated by Ki Hadjar Dewantara. It is generally followed by two other ideas, “Ing ngarsa sung tulada” and “Ing madya mangun karso.“ Generally, “Tut wuri handayani” means empowering form behind.

It was proposed by Ki Hadjar Dewantara as an ideal concept for education in Indonesia. Ki Hadjar Dewantara aspire that a good education system leads people fulfill both the spiritual and intellectual aspects. In addition, he stated that the aim of education is self-control because when a person can control his/herself, then she/he knows how to behave. In other words, besides technical skills, teachers should have a good personality, spirit and mentality.

He also emphasized that teachers should be an education facilitator and a figure. “Tut wuri handayani” had been demonstrated by Ki Hadjar Dewantara in his well-known institute, “Taman Siswa,” before eventually became our main education ideology. Thus, the ministry of education decided to use it as one of the elements of their logo.

There is an academic article described that “Tut wuri handayani” is implemented in among teaching system. It consists of three elements, e.g., ‘asih,’ ‘asah,’ and ‘asuh,’ which cover all Ki Hadjar Dewantara’s education concept. Naturally, this system lets the students exploring and learning their interest subject while the teachers act as a supporter/advisor. We can take the process of writing a thesis as a suitable example.

In order to write an academic paper we need to do a research, such as laboratory research, a survey or literature research. After that, we need to analyze the results. Furthermore, we certainly will discuss it with our academic supervisor, especially when we are dealing with some difficulties. The research and analyzing process illustrate the term of exploring and learning, while consulting illustrates the teacher’s supports.

 

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, May 2, 2017.

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#WOTD: Gratis

You see it right, Fellas. We will discuss the word ‘gratis’ today.

I knew ‘gratis’ as a Dutch word when I attended a short Dutch course several months ago. At that time, I thought that ‘gratis’ had originally been brought by Dutch in colonization era and then we adopted it into Indonesian vocabulary. However, It surprised me when I found the word ‘gratis’ in English written book I am currently reading.

After I did a brief research, ‘gratis’ is originally Latin. It means kindness or thankful. You might find there are other sources, such as Collins dictionary and Merriam-webster, stated ‘gratis’ is also borrowed from the word ‘gratia’ which means favour. It is known that people started to be familiar with this word in late Middle English period (15th century.)

As an English vocabulary, ‘gratis’ shares the same meaning to Dutch or Indonesian. ‘Gratis’ means free or without (money) charge. In addition, it can be an adverb or an adjective.

Example:

  • “You don’t need to pay for this hamburger. It’s gratis.”
  • “I got this bicycle gratis for winning a competition.”
  • “You can get a gratis ice cream if you show this coupon to McD staff.”

Latin is well-known as a universal language, especially in science. So, you may find it in other literature, too, e.g., German, Italian, and Portuguese.

Additional source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 25, 2017.

 

#EngTips: Ending conversations (revisit)

There are some reasons that make people end a conversation. They might have another work to do or they have reached a conclusion of a discussion. In a certain condition, they don’t know how to continue a conversation with someone.

Excuse yourself in a discussion would seem like a trivial matter, but apparently there are rules to demonstrate it appropriately.

No matter how you dislike the topic or even the person you talk to, you need to give them a positive impression. It is necessary, especially when you are in a business or other formal conversation. You can give her/him a smile and tell your gratitude for her/his companion. You may start it by saying:

  • “It was really nice meeting/talking to you..”
  • “I’m so glad meeting/talking to you..”
  • “I would love to continue this chat, but..”

If you really have something to do, you may give them a reason on why you need to leave. However, if you are not willing to state it for the sake of privacy, you may say:

  • “…. I need/have to do something,” or “… I have works to be done.”
  • “… I need to go somewhere.”

On the other hand, you can use the previous phrases to finish a conversation, that makes you uncomfortable politely.

Finally, say goodbye to your company. If you want to continue your discussion in another time, you can also tell her/him your wish to meet again

 

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 18, 2017.

#EngVocab: Phrasal verb with ‘keep’

Hi, Fellas. Do you know what phrasal verb is?

It is actually a verb, that is combined with an adverb or a preposition, such as ‘out,’ ‘in,’ ‘down,’ ‘up,’ etc. You are certainly familiar with the words ‘go on,’ ‘take off,’ ‘put down’ and many others. Those are some examples of phrasal verb.

Today, I want to share some phrasal verbs with the word ‘keep.’

  1. Keep up.’ Meaning: to prevent someone to go to bed or continue to do something.
    • Example:
      • “The workers have to keep the food production up.”
  2. Keep out.’ Meaning: not to let someone enter (a building/a room).
    • Example:
      • “The police keep the people out of their burn apartment.”
  3. Keep off.’ Meaning: not to talk about something or prevent someone/something from being on something.
    • Example:
      • “She kept her brother off the bed.”
  4. ‘Keep from.’ Meaning: to prevent/stop someone from doing something or not to tell someone about something.
    • Example:
      • “You should keep this business problem from your father.”
  5. ‘Keep to.’ Meaning: to stay within limits or stay on the path.
    • Example:
      • “People with hypertension must keep their salt and sugar consumption to minimum (low).”
  6. ‘Keep down.’ Meaning: to prevent something from growing/increasing or to control something.
    • Example:
      • “The government is trying to keep the inflation down.”
  7. Keep back.’ Meaning: not to go near something or to stop someone from doing something.
    • Example:
      • “You need to keep your back from that abandoned house.”
  8. Keep around.’ Meaning: to keep something near someone. It has the opposite meaning from the previous phrase.
    • Example:
      • “I always keep my diary around me.”
  9. ‘Keep on.’ Meaning: to continue (doing) something.
    • Example:
      • “My mother keep on telling me to clean my room.”
  10. ‘Keep at.’ It has a similar meaning with ‘keep on’ but this phrase is used when we are doing/dealing with something difficult.
    • Example:
      • “He keeps at finishing his final project.”

Source:

  • Macmillandictionary.com
  • Werriam-webster.com

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 11, 2017.

#EngTrivia: ‘Be careful’ vs. ‘take care’

Hi, fellas, I’m sure you are familiar with these phrases: ‘be careful’ and ‘take care.’ Generally, both phrases mean to pay attention to something or a condition.

If we check in the dictionary, ‘be careful’ means telling someone to pay attention in order to avoid dangers. Normally, we use this phrase to give a warning to somebody.

Example:

  • “It is raining, be careful while driving.”
  • “Be careful, you might fall from the tree.”

There are some phrases which share the same meaning to ‘be careful,’ i.e. ‘be alert,’ ‘beware,’ and ‘be on guard.’

Meanwhile, ‘take care’ is generally used to tell someone to treat someone/something carefully.

Example:

  • “Please take care of this document.”
  • “Please take care of my child while I’m shopping.”

Sometimes, we can say either ‘be careful’ or ‘take care’ when parting with someone after a meeting. They are used to wish someone her/his safety during the trip.

Take care’ is more common in use when parting with somebody. Meanwhile ‘be careful’ is usually used when we realize that the trip might come with negative consequence to somebody.

Other than ‘take care,’ ‘so long’ may be opted to somebody who will be away for a long time.

Source:

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 6, 2017

 

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#EngTrivia: Noble Ranks

Hi, Fellas do you like watching historical film?

I am devoted to them, especially when they tell the story about a kingdom or an empire. I can learn the history of a dynasty or even political issues.

Well, it is true that we couldn’t totally believe the story because the producer might add some fictional plot in it, but at least, we get the general shot of the history. Besides, I also enjoy seeing their fashion.

While you are watching the films, you may hear some words such as ‘emperor,’ ‘king,’ ‘duke,’ etc. Do you ever wonder what they mean?

Firstly, we will start with ‘emperor.’ I used to think that ‘emperor’ and ‘king’ are same. Just like a king, an emperor is the ruler of a territory, but he has a higher power than a king.

He rules the whole empire, which can have many kingdoms, while a king only rules his kingdom. For an illustration, we can imagine that our president, Joko Widodo, is an emperor, while the governors of each province are kings.

The next is ‘duke.’ This is the highest nobility below ‘emperor’ and ‘king.’ It is used to refer to the leader of a small independent region. It is said that a duke acts as a leader of a province. Since it is ruled by a duke, so the territory is called a dukedom.

Next is ‘marquess.’ This is the title below ‘duke’ and above ‘earl/count.’ marquess has a duty in a border between two countries as a defender.

Earl is someone who is responsible in imperial court. It is also said that earl acts as a local commander and a judge. The people outside Britain used to opt for ‘count’ for this title, like the ‘count’ in Count Dracula,

We might rarely hear ‘viscount,’ I also knew it just now. The reference tells that it is used to denote an assistant to a count in judicial function.

The title below ‘viscount’ is ‘baron.’ The history said that barons were granted a land by their superior, such as a king or a duke. They might rule the land with their own justice. In return, the must keep their loyalty and serve their superior. Generally, their main responsibility is in military by providing the knights.

The next title is ‘knight.’ It is simply said that a knight is a high rank soldier. He is responsible in military by participating in wars or guarding the higher noble in expeditions.

The last title is ‘lord.’ This is a general title for someone who has authority and power over others, such as a prince, the son of dukes or counts, etc. It also can be used to address the king.

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, April 4, 2017.

 

 

#EngTips: Giving examples (revisit)

We actually have talked about this topic, but it was years ago. If you missed the session, you can read it through this link (https://englishtips4u.com/2011/06/29/engtips-giving-examples/).

It was a short session though. So, today I would like to discuss more about ‘giving example.’

Example is something that is used to support an idea, argument, or opinion. We can mention anything, as long as it is related to the topic, such as events, names, research findings, places, etc.

In other words, an examples act as an evidence to prove an idea. We can also explain something by giving examples. There are some well-known phrases everyone may use in order to give examples. They are ‘for example,’ ‘for instance,’ ‘such as’ and ‘e.g.’

For example.’

This phrase is generally demonstrated, whether in spoken or written expression. We can say as well as write ‘for example’ while giving a further supports of our opinion.

However, in the case of written communication, this phrase might give the audience ‘less formal’ sense. So, if you are working on formal documents, such as business letters or academic essays, you can put ‘for instance’ instead of ‘for example.’

For instance.’

In the same way, we can also apply it in both written and spoken communication. However, as I mentioned in the previous tweet, people tend to used it in a formal condition. For alternatives, you could use ‘to illustrate’ or ‘as (an) illustration.’

Such as.’

I, personally, think this is the most flexible phrase. We can say or write it in both formal and casual communication. Cambridge Dictionary said ‘such as’ is more formal than ‘like.’ So, if you want to simply give some examples in your speech or essay, you can choose ‘such as.’

e.g.’

It is abbreviation of Latin, exempli gratia, which has the same meaning of ‘for example.’

‘e.g.’ is used in written expression only. Though I read an article about Latin as an academic language, I suspect it is used in academic purpose only. Moreover, I often saw ‘e.g.’ in news articles, study-related writings or academic papers.


Source: http://www.learnersdictionary.com/qa/is-there-a-difference-between-for-example-and-for-instance

http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/so-and-such/such-as

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 28, 2017.


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#EngTips: IELTS Academic Writing task 1 (paraphrasing)

Hi, Fellas. Are you currently studying for your IELTS test? If you are, then you and I are on the same boat. I started to prepare it since the end of February and I used to think that the hardest part of IELTS test is speaking. However, apparently each session are complicated. Speaking session might be scary, but it is not as difficult as writing session.

We have actually discussed IELTS academic writing task before. If you missed it, you can read it on this link (https://englishtips4u.com/2013/02/03/engtips-academic-ielts-writing-tips/).

In the previous article you might find the general tips to accomplish IELTS academic writing test and in this occasion I would specially share some tips to perform the task 1 of the test.

In this part, there are some types of visual task you probably get, they are:

  • Pie chart
  • Bar chart
  • Flow chart
  • Diagram
  • Line chart, and
  • Map

According to my experience of attending online course hosted by University of Queensland, your writing must contain an introduction, the overview, and the information of the data to complete this task with satisfying score.

To make an introduction you can rephrase the given instruction in your own words. You can replace some of the keywords with their synonyms. This work is called paraphrasing. Here is an example to demonstrate it.

IELTS-Rainwater-Diagram-2(Source: ieltsliz.com)

There are some steps you can follow to write the introduction:

1. Find the keywords.

From the instruction, there are some keywords we can underline such as ‘The diagram shows’, ‘how rainwater is collected’, ‘drinking water’, and ‘Australia’. They are the clues to develop your explanation on the displayed diagram.

2. Find the synonyms or the related words.

After you determine the keywords, next step is try to find the synonyms of them. Special for ‘diagram’, ‘chart’, or ‘graph’ I suggest you to make no change in introduction paragraph.

The next keyword is ‘show’. Instead of writing ‘show’ you can replace it with

  • Illustrates, or
  • Gives information about.

Now we are facing the complicated keywords, ‘how rainwater is collected’ and ‘the use of drinking water’.

To paraphrase them we have to take a look at the diagram. What do you see? I might say a process. The process of what exactly? Rainwater treatment or rainwater conversion.

If you get a bar chart or another chart which contains numbers, you can use one of the following phrases to paraphrase:

  • The amount of
  • The percentage
  • The change of (you can use this if you get line chart)

3. Write your paragraph

After you finish analyzing the visual and finding the synonyms, you can start to write the paragraph. According to the illustration, we can write:

“The diagram illustrates the process of rainwater treatment into drinking water in Australia.”

Or

“The diagrams gives information about the rainwater conversion process into drinking water in Australia.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 21, 2017.


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#EngVocab: The way to describe someone’s voice

There are types of the way someone talk with others. As illustrations, a person who always talk in high volume or someone who speak in a low voice and full with emotion. We can find it in the people around us, but we usually do not notice it. We can also find the description in the novel we read. But the author did not write it as long as the example I gave you.

Did you ever notice how the author describe the way his or her characters speaking? Well, tonight I will share some vocabulary to define voices. Maybe, you found it in the novels you read before.

  1. Breathy. Meaning: to speak with a loud breathing noise.
  2. Brittle. Meaning: to speak as if you are about to cry
  3. Croaky. Meaning: to speak in a low rough voice that sounds as if you have a sore throat.
  4. Penetrating. Meaning: a voice which is so high or loud that makes you slightly uncomfortable
  5. Wobbly. Meaning: a voice which sounds up and down because you are frightened or not confident or you are going to cry
  6. Tight. Meaning: a voice shows that you are nervous or annoyed
  7. Shrill. Meaning: to speak in unpleasant way with a very loud and high voice.
  8. Monotonous. Meaning: a boring and unpleasant voice because there is no intonation
  9. Husky. Meaning: a deep voice and it sounds hoarse, but in attractive way.
  10. Guttural. Meaning: a deep voice which made at the back of your throat.
  11. Hoarse. Meaning: to speak in a low rough voice.
  12. Taut. Meaning: a voice that shows someone is nervous or angry.
  13. Wheezy. Meaning: to speak with a noise because someone has difficulty in breathing.
  14. Ringing. Meaning: a voice which is very loud and clear.
  15. Tremulous. Meaning: an unsteady voice because you are afraid or excited.

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 14, 2017.


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#EngVocab: Synonyms of ‘problem’

I used to think that ‘problem’ and ‘issue’ have the same meaning. But if you check in dictionary the meaning between them is quite different.

As stated in Cambridge dictionary ‘issue’ means the subject or problem people thinking or talking about, while ‘problem’ means a situation or something needs attention or need to be solved.

Overall, they have similar meaning. So, when I first found the word ‘issue’ in a sentence “I have an issue with him” or related ones, I guessed it is the synonym of ‘problem’, but it isn’t.

They are related but not synonymous. If you have an issue with something means you have a disagreement with it. So, to contrast it I will give you some synonyms of ‘problem’. I got this from Merriam-Webster dictionary.

  1. Case. Meaining: a set of circumstances or condition, which usually found in crimes, requiring investigation or action. In other words, case is object of investigation or consideration.
    • Example:
      • “I have a murder case to be take care of.”
  1. Challenge. Meaning: a difficult task or problems.
    • Example:
      • “Presenting my research results in International Seminar is a big challenge for me.”
  1. Knot. Meaning: something hard to solve.
    • Example:
      • “The project has been tied up in political and legal knots for years”
  1. Matter. Meaning: the situation or subject that is being discussed or dealt with; or a subject under consideration.
    • Example:
      • “Global warming is a serious matter. We are facing the impact through this climate change now.”
  1. Trouble. Meaning: a situation that is difficult or has a lot problem.
    • Example:
      • “Our country had been in a trouble because of monetary crisis.”
  1. Nut. Meaning: a hard problem.
    • Example:
      • “This game is a real nut.”

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, March 7, 2017.


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#IOTW: Idioms related to education and school

  1. Easy as ABC. Meaning: very easy.
    • Example:
      • “Learning mathematics is easy as ABC.”
  1. Bookworm. Meaning: someone who reads a lot
    • Example:
      • “No wonder she is genius. She is a bookworm.”
  1. Brainstorm. Meaning: try to develop idea or think of a new idea.
    • Example:
      • “In this group discussion, we need to brainstorm for our environment campaign.”
  1. Call the roll. Meaning: call students’ names on a roll and expect them to answer if they are there.
    • Example:
      • “Every morning when the class starts, the teacher calls the roll.”
  1. Cap and gown. Meaning: a special cap called a mortarboard and a special robe which is worn in academic ceremony.
    • Example:
      • “The students wore cap and gown on their graduation day.”
  1. Count noses. Meaning: to count the number of people.
    • Example:
      • “The teacher stopped to count the nose several times during the field trip.”
  1. Cover a lot of ground. Meaning: to complete a lot of material in a class or course.
    • Example:
      • “I covered a lot of ground in Physics class last semester.”
  1. Cow college. Meaning: a school where farming or agriculture is studied.
    • Example:
      • “He graduated from cow college in America.”
  1. Crack a book. Meaning: to open a book to study (usually used in the negative)
    • Example:
      • “It shocked me when I got my test result. It was good although I didn’t crack a book that much.”
  1. Crank out a paper. Meaning: to write a paper or essay in mechanical way.
    • Example:
      • “I have to crank out a paper to pass this subject.”

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, February 21, 2017

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#EngKnowledge: Valentine’s Day Celebration

Happy Valentine’s Day! May you always surrounded by people you love and who love you.

How do you usually celebrate Valentine’s Day? By sending greeting cards? Or giving a chocolate? Having a romantic dinner with your date? Those are common ways to celebrate Valentine’s Day in almost every country around the world, but there are some countries which still celebrate it with their tradition. Tonight I will share the way people traditionally celebrate the Valentine’s Day in their country.

The history said that once The Emperor of Roman, Claudius, was against the engagement and marriage in his kingdom. Then one day a priest named Valentine came and secretly helped the couple in the kingdom to marry. When the Emperor knew this, St. Valentine was tortured and prisoned until he died on 14th February 270. Valentine’s Day is originally the day of St. Valentine’s death celebration to honor him. It is also related to Pagan Festival in the era which to honor the goddess Februata Juno. According to the tradition there are tokens, which represent the name of young girls, will be placed in the love urn. The boys then draw the token and paired off the girl whose name written in the token he got.

The idea of the celebration then brought to United Kingdom. As time goes by, people change it by sending cards, flowers, and gifts to their loved ones. Traditionally the cards is sent anonymously to the one they secretly love.

We can find the similar tradition in Denmark and Norway. The boys will write a poem or love letter and send it to the girl he’s attracted to anonymously. The girl should guess whom the sender by the clue in the letter and if she guess it right, she will get an Easter Egg on Easter Day.

The Valentine’s Day tradition which similar to Pagan Festival can be found in South Africa. The women will pin the token, where their crush’s name written, on their sleeve. Another tradition is occur in Wales. Wales men will carve a symbolic ornament in a wood spoon, then give it to the woman he wants to marry.

In Japan and Korea, traditionally women give the chocolate to the man as the sign of affection or love. And then the next month, on the same date, the man will give the women chocolate in return. Special in Japan, there are two types of Chocolate. Giri-choco (obligation chocolate) which is given to friends, work collegues, etc as long as romance is not involved; and Honmei-choco which will be given to the lover, husband, or boyfriend.

Source:

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, February 14, 2017.

#EngQuote: Paolo Coelho

Do you like reading? Have you read any book of Paolo Coelho? I haven’t touch a single book of him yet, but my friend said his books are really good.

Maybe she was right, because I found some beautiful quotes from his.

1.2017-02-04-20-41-07

2.

2017-02-07-18-40-10

3.

2017-02-04-20-41-53

4.

2017-02-04-20-42-32

5.

2017-02-04-20-43-20

6.

2017-02-04-20-44-46

7.

2017-02-04-20-45-21

8.

2017-02-04-20-46-47

9.

2017-02-04-20-47-19

10.

2017-02-04-20-47-49

Actually there are many beautiful words came from him, especially when it comes to love matter. But I intentionally gave these quotes for you, Fellas. It’s a new year, find something excites you. Chase your dream and stay positive.

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, February 7, 2017.

 

#EngTrivia: ‘Staring’ vs. ‘gazing’

Have you ever heard or read lines like these ones below?

 Why are you staring at me?

I’m not staring. I’m gazing.

I heard those lines when I watched The Vampire Diaries. What immediately came to my mind was, “Gazing? What is that?” because all I saw was Elena was staring, but she said ‘gazing.’ So, in this article, we will have a discussion about the two words. What is the difference between ‘staring’ and ‘gazing?’

If you checked the dictionary, ‘stare‘ is defined as to look fixedly or vacantly, while ‘gaze‘ is defined as to look steadily and intently, at something or someone for a long time. They are similar. The difference is we use ‘stare to indicate senses and feelings, such as curiosity, anger, boldness, admiration, bored, stupidity, etc; while ‘gaze to indicate sense of pleasure, like awe, admiration, fascination, and love.

Here are some examples to point them out:

  1. She gazes/stares admiringly at Warren.
  2. She stares at me blankly. (You can’t use ‘gaze’ in this sentence.)
  3. I stare at him with anger. (You also can’t use ‘gaze’ in this sentence)
  4. Yudith gazes/stares at the beautiful view of the sea.
  5. He stares/gazes at his sleeping child

From the example we can say that ‘gaze’ is used to show positive feelings, while ‘stare’ is used to show both positive and negative feelings (neutral).

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4u on Tuesday, January 31, 2017

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#EngTalk: Your learning method

Today I want to open a small talk session about learning English. I used to hate English. Why? Because it’s complicated. It has too many grammars, difficult pronounce, and it stressed me out. But then I saw my friends who were expert in English. They looked really cool because they can communicate with foreigners. I want to be like them who are able to be friends with people from another country.

Since that day, I realized that I should not be enslaved by my negative thoughts towards English. If I want to be excellent like them, I should change the way I think about English. I should start to love it in order to enjoy learning English. And in my case, I also modified the way I studied.

You might have read our article in Kumparan about improving English vocabulary and reading skill (https://kumparan.com/english-tips-for-you/tips-menambah-vocabulary-dan-kemampuan-membaca-dalam-bahasa-inggris). I have a similar method to improve my English skill. Do you have your own method? How do you learn English?

I love reading and I started to read English books more often. It was hard for me at first because there were a lot of words which I have never seen before. It was troublesome because whenever I caught unfamiliar words, I would open my dictionary.

“I started reading news articles…” – @patibenitez7

“I use game on my phone to improve my English skill.” – @Ursula_Meta

“Exactly, I learn english by reading fanfiction, watching movies, dramas, interviews, variety shows, ryan higa’s vids.” – @iyegati

People always say that the beginning is always the hardest. The more I read, the more vocabularies I picked up and I started to open the dictionary less frequently. I also started to write my daily journal in English. It successfully ‘forced’ me to memorize the meaning of vocabularies and how to use them in sentences.

Lastly, I also varied my reading genre. I started to read news articles to get to know more scientific vocabularies. You can also read any genre according to you interest. Language is a habit. You also can’t understand it while you are under pressure . To improve, you have to study and implement what you picked up in your daily life activities.

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, January 24, 2017

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#EngTrivia: Restrictive and Non-restrictive clause

In this article, we will talk about restrictive and non-restrictive clause; also known as defining and non-defining clause. What exactly are they?

They are types of relative clause which define a noun. They usually contain relative pronouns such as who, which, that, where, and when. For examples:

  1. “The cake which I bought from Breadtalk was delicious.”
  2. “This is the dress which I wore last week.”
  3. “I will go to the beach with Rina, who was my school mate, this weekend.”

From the examples, I would say sentences number 1 and 2 contain restrictive clauses while sentence number 3 contains a non-restrictive clause . Why?

Let’s start from number 1. What if ‘which I bought from Breadtalk’ is removed from the sentence? It will be ‘The cake was delicious.’ Then try to remove ‘which I wore last week,’ the sentence will turn to ‘This is the dress.’ The meaning of the sentence changed, didn’t it?

which I bought from Breadtalk’ and ‘which I wore last week’ are restrictive clauses because they add an important information. They explain and define the cake and the clothes we talk about. That is why it is also called defining clause.

How about sentence number 3? Read the sentence and avoid ‘who was my school mate.’ It will be ‘I will go to the beach with Rina this weekend.’

The sentence still have the same meaning because the clause we removed is just an additional explanation of the object, Rina. And that is why ‘who was my school mate’ is called non-restrictive clause.

Practice

Now I will give you some samples and you should determine it whether the sentences below contain restrictive or non-restrictive clause.

  1. My eldest son, who is 27, is studying in Australia.
  2. Her aunt who lives in Sulawesi visited her last week.
  3. I found your book on the bench which is in the park you visited yesterday.
  4. He wrote the review of Up, the movie which I have just watched, and posted it in his blog.

Answer

  1. It contains non-restrictive clause: who is 27
  2. It contains restrictive clause: who lives in Sulawesi
  3. It contains restrictive clause: where in the park you visited yesterday
  4. It contains non-restrictive clause: the movie which I have just watched

In a simpler way, non-restrictive clauses are always separated by commas while restrictive clauses are not.

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, January 17, 2017

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#EngGame: Nationality

Here I have a little game to play. If some of you are tired and stressed out because you’ve just finished your work or lecture, I hope you’ll will refreshed.

How many nationality do you know in this world? You might have heard of the famous ones such as American, British, Chinese, Korean. But this time, I want to measure your knowledge by letting you guess the nationality for people who live in a country we rarely hear about.

I will give you 8 clues which are the suffix usually put after the name of the country. They are: -ian, -ean, -an, -ese, -er, ic, -ish, and –i. Okay, let’s begin and I will start from the easiest one. I bet you have heard or read about it somewhere.

  1. Belgium = _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Egypt = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Sweden = _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Iraq = _ _ _ _ _
  1. Bangladesh = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Finland = _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Poland = _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Switzerland = _ _ _ _ _
  1. Kuwait = _ _ _ _ _ _ _
  1. Morocco = _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

 

Answer:

  1. Belgian
  2. Egyptian
  3. Swedish
  4. Iraqi
  5. Bangladeshi
  6. Finnish
  7. Polish
  8. Swiss*
  9. Kuwaiti
  10. Morrocan
  • You might heard that Swiss is a name of a country. You might also think that Swiss is the other name of Switzerland or Sweden, but apparently Switzerland and Sweden are two different countries. And Swiss is not a country, but a nationality.

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_ for @EnglishTips4U on Tuesday, January 10, 2017

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#EngKnowledge: Ebola

This time, I want to share something which might be a hard topic to talk about. I bet you have heard of Ebola.

It’s the name of a very fatal virus. Do you know that Ebola was originally the name of a river in Republic of Congo? The first outbreak of Ebola virus was in South Sudan and Republic of Congo in 1976; and because the spreading area in Republic of Congo was near Ebola river, so the river’s name was adopted to name the virus itself.

It was said that bats were the original host of the virus, but apparently it was also infectious to human. Just like us, when we found a place with friendly environment and delicious food, we would start to feel comfortable; and if possible, we would want to get a job and start a new life there. But virus doesn’t recognize the concept of ‘possibility.’ If they’re comfortable with a new environment and there are resources to support their life, they would live, settle and reproduce.

The disease is known as Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever because it could cause internal & external bleeding of the human body. I would say that this is a terrible disease because you could get infected through direct contact with the body fluid, namely sweat, blood, and saliva. A huge number of people died because of Ebola.

Having said all those above, I have a good news to share. At the end of 2016, an effective vaccine to fight was finally found. Have you heard of the news? More than 5000 people in Guinea were vaccinated and, after 10 days, there was no development of Ebola in any cases. This is such a fresh air for the medical sector, mainly in Ebola groundwork. One of the best findings of all time. After years of ups and downs, they finally made a great finding.

 

Compiled and written by @mettaa_  for @EnglishTips4U on Monday, January 2, 2017

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