Do you know what [-‘s] and [-s’] mean? See the difference? When do we use them?
Let’s talk about the first one: [-‘s].
[-‘s] can mean 3 things:
1) ‘s = the ending for the singular possessive form of nouns.
Examples: Anna’s book (buku milik Anna), Ted’s uncle (pamannya Ted).
Can you give other examples for us, fellas? :)
Great examples, guys! I guess most of you get it.
Let’s move to the second meaning of [-‘s].
2) ‘s = contraction of ‘is’.
Examples: Mary’s a bright student. (Mary murid yg pintar.); He’s coming! (Dia akan datang!).
Give us more examples! ;)
Another great set of examples, guys!
And the third and last meaning of [-‘s] would be…
3) ‘s = contraction of ‘has’.
Examples: He’s been studying for hours! (Dia telah belajar selama berjam-jam!); She’s gone. (Dia telah pergi.)
Nice work, guys!
And now [-s’]. The position of the apostrophe is after ‘s’, different from [-‘s] that is before ‘s’.
4) s’ = regular ending of the possessive form of plural nouns.
Examples: the boys’ shoes, the girls’ purses.
- If the plural nouns are in irregular form, we still use [-‘s], not [-s’]. Examples: children’s clothes, men’s shoes.
- For nouns that end in ‘s’, there are 2 ways of writing the possessive form. Examples: Jess’ dress, Jess’s dress.
- If the noun is not plural but ends in ‘s’ (princess, Jess – a person’s name), we use [-s’] too. Example: Jess’ dress.
Qs & As
A: In British English we still use the ‘s’. Example: Bridget Jones’s Diary. ;)
A: Both are correct. But if you wanna learn more about the difference, have a look at this: Use of the apostrophe.
A: There is no additional /iz/ sound at the end for ‘Jess’ dress’. This might help: Use of the apostrophe.