#EngClass: “Until” vs “by”

Hey, fellas! Ada yang pernah bingung kapan kita menggunakan “until” dan kapan kita menggunakan “by”? Ayo kita bahas hari ini.

Perhatikan contoh di bawah. Dua kalimat ini punya arti berbeda:

  1. “I’m going to be home BY 5 pm.”
  2. “I’m going to be home UNTIL 5pm.”

Until

Kata ini menandakan suatu kegiatan sedang dan terus berlangsung hingga waktu tertentu.

Contoh:

  • “I’ll be here until 5 pm.”
    • Arti: “Aku akan ada di sini sampai jam 5,” “Sekarang aku ada di sini, dan akan terus di sini sampai jam 5.”

Until juga menunjukkan waktu berakhir/berhentinya suatu kegiatan.

Contoh:

  • “She has until next week to pay her debt.”
    • Arti: “Dia punya waktu sampai minggu depan untuk membayar hutang,” “Dia punya waktu dari sekarang hingga minggu depan u/ bayar hutang.”

By

“By” menandakan batas akhir suatu kegiatan, batas paling lambat untuk menyelesaikan suatu kegiatan.

Contoh:

  • “I will be back by Thursday.”
    • Arti: “Aku akan kembali paling lambat hari Kamis,” “Aku bisa kembali lebih awal, tapi paling lambat hari Kamis.”
  • “It must be ready by Friday.”
    • Arti: “Harus siap paling lambat hari Jumat,” “Boleh saja jadi/selesai sebelum hari Jumat. Tapi paling lambat hari Jumat.”

Kembali ke 2 contoh di awal tadi:

  1. “I’m going to be home BY 5 pm.”
    • Arti: Aku sedang tidak ada di rumah, aku akan ada di rumah paling lambat jam 5.
  2. “I’m going to be home UNTIL 5pm.”
    • Arti: Aku sedang ada di rumah dan terus ada di rumah sampai jam 5. Aku mungkin akan pergi sesudah jam 5.

PRACTICES

Ready to do some exercise? Choose either “until” or “by” to complete the following sentences.

  1. We must take a decision (until/by) Tuesday.
  2.  Mary should have waited (until/by) Tuesday to buy her new car.
  3.  Make sure you are at home (until/by) 8, my folks will be there to meet you.
  4.  Paul didn’t stop working (until/by) lunchtime.
  5.  Will you be here when I come back? No, I’ll probably have gone (until/by) then.
  6.  She’ll be waiting for your phone call (until/by) the end of the weekend.
  7.  Let’s wait here (until/by) it stops raining.
  8.  I’m studying every day (until/by) the test.
  9.  You have to finish the project (until/by) Tuesday.
  10.  His boss will be away (until/by) Monday. He’ll be back on Tuesday.

ANSWER KEYs:

  1. by
  2. until
  3. by
  4. until
  5. by
  6. until
  7. until
  8. until
  9. by
  10. until

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on Sunday, January 22, 2012


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^MD

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