#EngClass: Passive Voice

Hi fellas! Ready for today’s session? #EngClass will be started in a few minutes. <- Can anyone tell what form of sentence this is?

“#EngClass will be started in a few minutes.” <- this is a Passive Form. Put your hands up if you have questions regarding Passive Form.

When to use Passive Form? How to form Passive voice sentences? Have a look at the following points.

1. Passive sentence can only be formed when there is an object in the active sentence.

Maksudnya?
Kalimat pasif hanya bisa dibentuk jika suatu kejadian/kegiatan memiliki objek.

Contoh kalimat tanpa objek: Ben writes everyday.
Contoh kalimat berobjek: Ben writes a letter every day.
Bentuk passive dari contoh kalimat 1c: A letter is written (by Ben) every day.
Perhatikan bentuk “to be + V3″

2. Passive Form is used  to say what happens to people and things, to say what is done to them.

Maksudnya?
Kalimat pasif menyatakan bahwa Objek kalimat “di-sesuatu(kan)” oleh seseorang.

Contoh:
This book was written by J.K.Rowling.
Buku ini “ditulis” oleh J.K.Rowling.
Perhatikan bentuk “to be + V3″.

3. Passive Form is used when we do not know who caused or did the action, or when the actor is not important.

Maksudnya?
Kalimat pasif digunakan bila pelaku kegiatan tidak diketahui atau tidak penting.

Contoh:
Her table must have been cleared yesterday.
Mejanya pasti sudah “dibersihkan” kemarin.
Perhatikan “bentuk to be + V3″.

Unlike the previous example in point 2, the actor or subject of action was not mentioned in point 3. Pelakunya tidak disebut.

4. Passive Form is used when what was done is more important than who did it.

Maksudnya?
Kalimat pasif digunakan bila “kejadian” lebih penting atau ingin lebih ditonjolkan, dibanding “pelaku”.

Contoh:
The engine will be repaired (by the mechanic) next week.
Mesin itu akan “diperbaiki” (oleh montir itu) minggu depan.
Perhatikan bentuk “to be + V3″ pada contoh kalimat di poin 4c. The engine “will be + repaired” by the mechanic next week.

Kalimat contoh di atas bermaksud menyatakan: Mesinnya akan diperbaiki minggu depan. Siapa yang melakukannya tidak penting.

Are you okay so far, fellas? Are you still with me, fellas? That was just the first part of #EngClass. Are you ready for more?

For those of you who’ve just joined us, today’s topic is: Passive Form. The first part of #EngClass was about WHEN to use Passive Form.

Let’s move on to HOW to form Passive voice sentences. This is the “fun” part. I’ll try to explain in the simplest way possible.

Here’s the step-by-step guide on how to form a Passive voice sentence.

Take this active sentence as example: Ben writes a letter.

One thing to keep in mind is:

the BASIC form of Passive voice is “to be + V3″.

Remember this, and the rest would be easy as pie.

Step 1:
Pick the object of the active sentence. Pilih objek kalimat aktif.
Active: Ben writes a letter.
What is the object, fellas?
Object » A letter.

Step 2:
Object of the active sentence will be the Subject of the passive sentence. This is a simple switch.
So, now you know that your passive sentence will start with “A letter… “.

Step 3:
The verb “be” takes the same form as the main verb in the active voice. Ikuti tense dari kalimat aktif.

Untuk kalimat Simple Present gunakan V1 dari “be”, i.e.: is, am, are. Untuk Simple Past gunakan V2 dari “be”, i.e.: was, were.

Contoh (a) Simple present.
Active: Ben writes a letter. » Passive: A letter “IS + written” by Ben.
Remember the basic “to be + V3″?

Contoh: (b) Simple past.
Active: Ben wrote a letter. » Passive: A letter “WAS + written” by Ben.

Untuk kalimat-kalimat Simple Future, selipkan “BE” setelah “to be + going to” atau “will”.

Contoh: (c) Simple future.
Active: Ben is going to write a letter. » Passive: A letter “IS GOING TO BE + written” by Ben.

Contoh: (d) Simple future.
Active: Ben will write a letter. » Passive: A letter “WILL BE + written” by Ben.

Untuk kalimat-kalimat progressive, selipkan “BEING” setelah “verb-be”, dan lanjutkan dengan V3 dari k.kerja.

Contoh (e) Present progressive.
Active: Ben is writing a letter. » Passive: A letter “IS BEING + written” by Ben.

Contoh: (f) Past progressive.
Active: Ben was writing a letter. » Passive: A letter “WAS BEING + written” by Ben.

Untuk kalimat-kalimat perfect, selipkan “BEEN” setelah “have/has/had” dan lanjutkan dengan V3 dari k.kerja.

Contoh: (g) Present perfect.
Active: Ben has written a letter. » Passive: A letter “HAS BEEN + written” by Ben.

Contoh: (h) Past perfect.
Active: Ben had written a letter. » Passive: A letter “HAD BEEN + written” by Ben.

Untuk kalimat-kalimat yg menggunakan k.kerja bantu (modal auxiliary), selipkan “BE” setelah modal auxiliary yang digunakan.

Contoh: (i) Modal.
Active: Ben must write a letter. » Passive: A letter “MUST BE + written” by Ben.

Contoh: (j) Modal.
Active: Ben can write a letter. » Passive: A letter “CAN BE + written” by Ben.

Step 4:
Actor of the active verb is not usually expressed in passive sentences if the actor is a pronoun, i.e.: he, she, it, etc.

But if the actor of the sentence is used, it is usually preceded with “by”. Contoh: … by Ben, … by Febby, etc.

Well, that was a very long explanation, wasn’t it? I hope I didn’t make you even more confused. If you do have further questions, do not hesitate to leave a comment here or mention us on twitter.

Now, are you ready for some exercises on what we’ve discussed above?

=========
PRACTICE:
=========

Change the following active form sentences to their passive form:

1. My mother helps Luna.
2. Harry is opening the window.
3. The security guard has closed the door.
4. That boy bit Iwan.
5. The dog was biting the child.
6. Richard had hit the cat.
7. The woman will play cards.
8. The cat has caught some rats.
9. The postman has given us a letter.
10. He must bring his books.

========
ANSWERS:
========

1. Luna is helped by my mother. Clue: Contoh (a)
2. The window is being opened by Harry. Clue: Contoh (e)
3. The door has been closed by the security. Clue: Contoh (g)
4. Iwan was bitten by that boy. Clue: Contoh (b)
5. The child was being bitten by the dog. Clue: Contoh (f)
6. The cat had been hit by Richard. Clue: Contoh (h)
7. Cards will be played by the woman. Clue: Contoh (d)
8. Some rats has been caught by the cat. Clue: Contoh (g)
9. A letter has been given to us by the postman. Clue: Contoh (g)
10. His books must be brought (by him). Clue: Step 4

p.s.: Congratulations @Sthree79 for completing the all questions!

Inspiring question from fellas:

@IamSindyF how abt perfect progressive? *if the sentence is perfect progressive tense*

@EnglishTips4U first thing first, can you give an example of one of the perfect progressive tenses? Re: passive form of perfect progressive

@IamSindyF I don’t really get it hehe I mean like “ben has been writing a letter”. Apa ini ada passive voice-nya?

@EnglishTips4U Right. Perfect progressive can get pretty confusing, right? Well, if you put two and two together, it’s quite simple. Just slip “been” and followed by “being”, after has/have/had. As unusual as it sound, theoretically all tenses can be formed into their respective passive form, including the perfect progressive tenses :) However, in practice, passive form of perfect progressive is hardly used. “has been being written” does sounds weird eh?

 

Compiled and written by @Miss_Qiak at @EnglishTips4U on November 1, 2012

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